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Old 25-04-2012, 06:44 PM   #101
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Arrow Roman Forum

Nice Posts FTIL


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Old 25-04-2012, 08:55 PM   #102
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Wink Lizard Union

The union was founded by Nicholas von Renys, John of Pulkow, Frederick of Kitnow, and Nicholas of Kitnow. It was named after its emblem, a lizard (eyne eydechse), and expanded its influence to other provinces. During the Battle of Grunwald in 1410, Nicholas von Renys carried the banner of the Culmerland troops for the Teutonic Order. He lowered the banner prematurely, which was considered a signal for retreat that contributed to the defeat of the Knights according to some chroniclers of the time and continues to be recounted by some historians, but there is no historical support for this. Heinrich von Treitschke's thesis Das deutsche ordensland Preussen popularized the belief in this event. Nevertheless, these historians tend to make the act one of duplicity, not giving room for the possibility that in the fighting the banner may have moved out of sight or had fallen when a bearer was killed. After the defeat at Grunwald, there is little doubt that the Teutonic Order sought to use the Lizard League as a scapegoat. The Lizard Union was also believed to have been behind messages sent from Kulm advising surrender to the Order's capital of Marienburg, which was unsuccessfully besieged by Poland...

The Greek name Sarmatai derives from the shortening of Sauromatai apparently by association with lizards (sauros). Suggestions for the reason the Sarmatians were associated with lizards include their reptile-like scale armour and their dragon standards.



Archaeological evidence suggests that Scythian-Sarmatian cultures may have given rise to the myth of Amazons. Graves of armed females have been found in southern Ukraine and Russia. David Anthony notes, "About 20% of Scythian-Sarmatian "warrior graves" on the lower Don and lower Volga contained females dressed for battle as if they were men, a phenomenon that probably inspired the Greek tales about the Amazons...


Like the Scythians, Sarmatians were of a Caucasoid appearance, and before the arrival of the Huns (4th century AD) it is thought that few had Asiatic or turco-Mongol features. Sarmatian noblemen often reached 1.70-1.80m (5ft 7ins-5ft 10ins) as measured from skeletons, and they had sturdy bones, long hair and beards.

The Alans who were a group of Sarmatian tribes according to the Roman historian Ammianus Marcellinus "Nearly all the Alani are men of great stature and beauty , their hair is somewhat yellow, their eyes are frighteningly fierce"

Ancient DNA of 13 Sarmatian remains from Pokrovka kurgan burials in the southern Ural steppes along the Kazakhstan and Russian border was extracted for comparative analysis. Most of the mitochondrial haplogroups determined were of western Eurasian origin, while only a few were of "central/east Asian Haplotype which is found among the Turkic speaking nomadic people. This Haplotype is almost (one base pair missing) identical with the Haplotype of the (Kazakh) women from western Mongolia."

Historical basis for King Arthur...


In 1924 Kemp Malone suggested that the character of King Arthur was ultimately based on one Lucius Artorius Castus,a career Roman soldier of the late 2nd century or early 3rd century. This suggestion was revived in 1994 by C. Scott Littleton and Linda A. Malcor and linked to a hypothesis (below) that the Arthurian legends were influenced by the nomadic Alans and Sarmatians settled in Western Europe in Late Antiquity. Littleton had earlier written about this hypothesis in 1978 together with Ann C. Thomas

In 1978, C. Scott Littleton and Ann C. Thomas expanded on the ideas of Vasily Abaev and Georges Dumezil and published their theory of a connection between the related Alan and Sarmatian peoples and the history and later legend of King Arthur. According to this theory, cavalry units left behind in the Roman departure from Britain during the early 5th century became the nucleus of an elite in Dark Age Britain which still preserved elements of Alano-Sarmatian mythology and culture. In 1994 Littleton and Linda A. Malcor further developed this theory, identifying the Roman officer Lucius Artorius Castus, who may have commanded Sarmatian auxiliaries in the 2nd century, as the original basis for Arthur.


All that is known about Artorius’ life comes from two Latin inscriptions discovered in the 19th century in Podstrana on the Dalmatian coast. After a long and distinguished career in the Roman army as a centurion and then primus pilus, Artorius was promoted to praefectus legionis of the VI Victrix, a unit that had been stationed in Britain since c. 122 AD and headquartered at Eboracum (York). The praefectus legionis (otherwise known as the praefectus castrorum) served as third-in-command of the legion and was responsible for the general upkeep of the legionary headquarters; the position was normally held by older career soldiers who were close to retirement and they did not normally command any soldiers during battle (they remained at the headquarters during times of conflict)

According to both Malone and Littleton/Malcor,Artorius' alleged military exploits in Britain and Armorica could have been remembered for centuries afterward, thus generating the figure of Arthur among the Welsh, Cornish and Bretons. This is linked to the original theory of Littleton, Thomas and Malcor which suggests that the folk narratives and history associated with the Alano-Sarmatians settled in Western Europe formed the core of the Arthurian tradition


http://forum.davidicke.com/showthread.php?t=208120



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Old 25-04-2012, 09:44 PM   #103
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Lightbulb Malchus (historian)

Malchus (Greek: Μάλχος, Málkhos) was a Byzantine historian. According to the Suda, Malchus was a Byzantine; but Photius states that he was a native of Philadelphia; and his Syriac name makes it probable that Philadelphia was the ancient Rabbah in the country of Ammonitis, east of the River Jordan.


Malchus probably followed his profession of rhetorician or sophist at Constantinople. According to Suda, he wrote a history extending from the reign of Constantine I to that of Anastasius I; but the work in seven books, of which Photius has given an account (Bibl. cod. 78), and to which he gives the title Βυζαντιακά, comprehended only the period from the final sickness of the Eastern emperor Leo I (473 or 474), to the death of Julius Nepos, emperor of the West (480). It has been supposed that this was an extract from the work mentioned by Suidas, or a mutilated copy: that it was incomplete is said by Photius himself, who says that the start of the first of the seven books showed that the author had already written some previous parts, and that the close of the seventh book showed his intention of carrying it further, if his life was spared.

Some scholars, among them Valesius, have thought that the history of Malchus began with Leo's sickness, and that he was the continuator of Priscus, whose history is supposed to have left off at that point. Barthold Georg Niebuhr supposed that this coincidence arose from Photius having met with a portion only of the work of Malchus, which had been inserted in some historical Catena after the work of Priscus; or that the history of the previous period had been given by Malchus in another work. Suidas speaks of the history in its whole extent; it may have been published in successive parts, as the author was able to finish it; and Photius possibly had met with only one part.


Photius praises the style of Malchus as a model of historical composition; pure, free from redundancy and consisting of well-selected words and phrases. He notices also his eminence as a rhetorician, and says that he was favourable to Christianity; a statement which has been thought inconsistent with the praises for Pamprepius. The works of Malchus are lost, except the portions contained in the Excerpta of Constantine VII, and some extracts in Suda.



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Old 07-05-2012, 07:00 PM   #104
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Arrow The Leopard


The Leopard (Italian: Il Gattopardo) is a novel by Giuseppe Tomasi di Lampedusa that chronicles the changes in Sicilian life and society during the Risorgimento.Italian unification (meaning The Resurgence) was the political and social movement that agglomerated different states of the Italian peninsula into the single state of Italy in the 19th century.


Tomasi was the last in a line of minor princes in Sicily, and he had long contemplated writing a historical novel based on his great-grandfather, Don Giulio Fabrizio Tomasi, another Prince of Lampedusa. After the Lampedusa palace was bombed and pillaged by Allied forces in World War II, Tomasi sank into a lengthy depression, and began to write Il Gattopardo as a way to combat it...Despite being universally known in English as The Leopard, the original title Il Gattopardo actually refers to a serval. Although uncommon north of the Sahara Desert, one of the serval's few North African ranges is quite near Lampedusa(DNA studies have shown that the serval is closely related to the African golden cat and the caracal). This animal is in the coat of arms of Tomasi's family.

The novel is the story of Don Fabrizio Corbera, Prince of Salina, a 19th century Sicilian nobleman caught in the midst of democracy, war, and revolution. As a result, the Prince's position in the island's class system is eroded by newly moneyed peasants and "shabby minor gentry." As the novel progresses, the Prince is forced to choose between compromising his loyalty to tradition and accepting the decline of his family's influence. Meanwhile, the novel develops themes relating to the moral decadence common among all classes and the futility of greed.



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Old 07-05-2012, 08:16 PM   #105
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Leopards are famous for hoisting their tails when they are full.
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Old 24-05-2012, 11:44 PM   #106
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Arrow Italian Stallion

Emilia–Romagna, is an administrative region of Northern Italy comprising the two historic regions of Emilia and Romagna. The capital is Bologna; it has an area of 22,446 km² (8,666 sq mi) and about 4.4 million inhabitants.


Emilia–Romagna today is considered as one of the richest and most developed regions in Europe and has the third highest GDP per capita in Italy. Bologna, the region's capital, has one of Italy's highest quality of life indices and has highly advanced and modern social services. Emilia–Romagna is also a major cultural and tourist centre, being the home of one of the first universities in the world, containing numerous Renaissance cities (such as Modena, Parma and Ferrara), being a major centre for food and automobile production (Emilia–Romagna is home of numerous iconic gastronomical and automotive industries, such as Ferrari, Lamborghini, Maserati, De Tomaso and Ducati) and having a lively and colourful coastline, with numerous tourist resorts, such as Rimini and Riccione.The name Emilia–Romagna has roots in the Ancient Rome legacy in these lands. Emilia refers to via Æmilia, an important Roman way connecting Rome to the northern part of Italy. The Via Aemilia was completed by, and named after, the Roman consul Marcus Aemilius Lepidus in 187 BC. Romagna represents a sound development from Romània; when Ravenna was the capital of the Italian portion of the Byzantine Empire, the Lombards extended the official name of the Empire to the lands around Ravenna.


Emilia–Romagna, except the province of Piacenza, was historically a stronghold of the Italian Communist Party, and now is a stronghold of center-left coalitions, forming with Tuscany, Umbria and Marche the famous Italian political "Red Quadrilateral". This is probably due to the strength of anti-fascist resistance around the time of World War II as well as because of a strong tradition of anti-clericalism dating from the 19th century, when part of Emilia–Romagna belonged of the Papal States (mostly Romagna and Bologna, in Emilia there were two independent states). At the April 2006 elections, Emilia–Romagna gave about 60% of its votes to Romano Prodi.The Red Quadrilateral (in Romanian: Patrulaterul roşu) was a term used by the media to describe the political alliance that supported the Romanian government between the 1992 and 1996 legislative elections.


Crumbling down: An old tower collapsed after the earthquake in Finale Emilia

Apart from Standard Italian, Emiliano–Romagnolo, (also known as Emilian–Romagnolo) is the local language of Emilia–Romagna. It is a Romance language mostly spoken in the region and San Marino.Emilia–Romagna is the main setting for Bernardo Bertolucci's epic 1900. It also gave birth to Federico Fellini and Michelangelo Antonioni.Piacenza and Ferrara are also known for some dishes prepared with horse and donkey meat.


The most popular sport in Emilia–Romagna is by far football. Several famous clubs from Emilia–Romagna compete at a high level on the national stage. Bologna, Parma and Cesena compete in the top-flight of Italian football – in Serie A. Bologna have won seven scudetti and two Coppa Italia trophies. Four sides compete at the next level down in Serie B: Modena and Sassuolo.


http://forum.davidicke.com/showthrea...209934&page=14
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Old 25-05-2012, 12:14 AM   #107
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Lightbulb Saint Francis




Saint Francis of Paola was an Italian mendicant friar...

http://forum.davidicke.com/showthrea...155137&page=19
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Old 01-06-2012, 08:33 PM   #108
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Lightbulb Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus



Publius Cornelius Scipio Africanus (236–183 BC), also known as Scipio Africanus, Scipio the Elder, and Scipio the Great was a general in the Second Punic War and statesman of the Roman Republic. He was best known for defeating Hannibal at the final battle of the Second Punic War at Zama, a feat that earned him the agnomen Africanus, the nickname "the Roman Hannibal", as well as recognition as one of the finest commanders in military history. An earlier great display of his tactical abilities had come already at the Battle of Ilipa...


Early military service...

Scipio's childhood might be considered to have come to an end with his entry into the army. At an early age, Scipio joined the Roman struggle against Carthage in the Second Punic War. At some point, he is said to have promised his father to continue the struggle against Carthage all his life, showing similar dedication to that of his enemy, Hannibal. The young Scipio survived the disastrous battles at Ticinus, Trebia, and Cannae. According to Polybius, he saved his father's life when he was 18, by "charging the encircling force alone with reckless daring" at the Battle of Ticinus. Scipio's would-be father-in-law Lucius Aemilius Paullus was killed in 216 BC at the third of these battles, the Battle of Cannae. Despite these defeats at the hands of the Carthaginians, Scipio remained focused on securing Roman victory. Scipio was never again to see a Roman force defeated, for once given command at the age of 25 he never lost a battle...


With his wife Aemilia Paulla (also called Aemilia Tertia), daughter of the consul Lucius Aemilius Paullus who fell at Cannae and sister of another consul Lucius Aemilius Paulus Macedonicus, he had a happy and fruitful marriage. Aemilia Paulla had unusual freedom and wealth for a patrician married woman, and she was an important role model for many younger Roman woman, just as her youngest daughter Cornelia, Mother of the Gracchi, would be an important role model for many Late Republican Roman noblewomen, including allegedly, the mother of Julius Caesar.

At his death, Scipio Africanus had two living sons. Both rose to become praetors in 174 BC, but took no further part in public life; both died unmarried, relatively young. Publius, the elder son and heir, adopted his first cousin — Aemilius Paullus (b. 185 BC) as Publius Cornelius Scipio Aemilianus (also known as Scipio Aemilianus Africanus) well before the Battle of Pydna in 168 BC.


Scipio and Aemilia Paulla also had two surviving daughters. The elder, Cornelia, married her second cousin Publius Cornelius Scipio Nasica Corculum (son of the consul of 191 BC who was himself son of Scipio's elder paternal uncle Gnaeus Cornelius Scipio Calvus). This son-in-law was a distinguished Roman in his own right. He became consul (abdicating or resigning in 162 BC for religious reasons, then being re-elected in 155 BC), censor in 159 BC, Princeps Senatus, and died as Pontifex Maximus in 141 BC. Scipio Nasica rose to many of the dignities enjoyed by his late father-in-law, and was noted for his staunch (if ultimately futile) opposition to Cato the Censor over the fate of Carthage from about 157 to 149 BC. They had at least one surviving son...

Scipio's only descendants living through the late Republican period were the descendants of his two daughters, his sons having died without legitimate surviving issue. His younger daughter's last surviving child Sempronia, wife and then widow of Scipio Aemilianus, was alive as late as 102 BC. Another descendant was his great-great-granddaughter, Fulvia Flacca Bambula, the only grandchild of Gaius Gracchus, best known as the wealthy third wife of Roman Triumvir Mark Antony who abandoned her for Cleopatra. Fulvia left several children, of whom at least one, Iullus Antonius, is known to have left issue surviving into the first century AD.

None of Scipio's descendants, apart from Scipio Aemilianus—his wife's nephew who became his adoptive grandson—came close to matching his political career or his military successes.

The Roman historian Valerius Maximus, writing in the first century AD, alleged that Scipio Africanus had a weakness for beautiful women, and knowing this, some of his soldiers presented him with a beautiful young woman captured in New Carthage. The woman turned out to be the fiancée of an important Iberian chieftain, and Scipio chose to act as a general and not an ordinary soldier in restoring her, virtue and ransom intact, to her fiancé.

According to Valerius Maximus, Scipio had a dalliance circa 191 BC with one of his own serving girls, which his wife magnanimously overlooked. The affair, if it lasted from circa 191 BC to Scipio's death 183 BC, might have resulted in issue (not mentioned); what is mentioned is that the girl was freed by Aemilia Paulla after Scipio's death and married to one of his freedmen. This account is only found in Valerius Maximus (Memorable Deeds and Sayings 6.7.1-3. L) writing in the 1st century AD, some decades after Livy. If this is correct, clearly Scipio did not hesitate to sleep with his female slaves, like so many other Roman masters.


The Praetorian Guard (Latin: Praetoriani) was a force of bodyguards used by Roman Emperors. The title was already used during the Roman Republic for the guards of Roman generals, at least since the rise to prominence of the Scipio family around 275 BC. The Guard was dissolved by Emperor Constantine I in the 4th century.

Shortly before Italy's invasion of Ethiopia, Benito Mussolini commissioned an epic film depicting the exploits of Scipio. Scipione l'africano, written by Carmine Gallone, won the Mussolini Cup for the greatest Italian film at the 1937 Venice Film Festival.

A division of the Italian army was used as extras in the film, shortly before being transferred to duty in the Spanish Civil War...




There are eight Chinese names among the ‘British’ dead. Who were they and why were they there? They appear to be mostly merchant seamen, possibly from Hong Kong, on ships hired/commandeered by the UK to transport the troops.

FALKLANDS CONFLICT - BLUFF COVE-ATTACK ON SIR GALAHAD & SIR TRISTRAM ...
SEE ONE TING...About 29 Mins into Vid....



They are listed as seamen, or laundrymen, a butcher and an electrical fitter. Did they have any choice about going to the Falklands? Their names were Yu Sik Chee, Yeung Swi Kami, Leung Chan, Sung Yuk Fai (or Pai), Ng Por, Chan Chi Sing, Lai Chi Keung, Kye Ben Kuro. They died on the Sir Tristam, the Sir Galahad, the Atlantic Conveyor, on HMS Sheffield and HMS Coventry. There were six other British merchant navy seamen who died.


The painting follows Tacitus's Histories in depicting an episode from the Batavian rebellion (69-70 AD), led by the one-eyed chieftain Claudius Civilis...Harold Rex Interfectus Est: "King Harold is killed". Scene from the Bayeux Tapestry depicting the Battle of Hastings. Harold grasps the arrow lodged in his eye...



Shortly after this he lost an eye in a tournament at Greenwich, and had to wear an eyepatch from then on...



http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showt...123670&page=19
http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...7&postcount=58
http://forum.davidicke.com/showpost....&postcount=155
http://www.ppu.org.uk/falklands/falklands3.html

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Old 06-06-2012, 12:12 AM   #109
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Question What is your profession




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Old 06-06-2012, 12:56 AM   #110
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Arrow Damien

Keith travels with Robert as they investigate Damien's birth. They visit the Rome hospital but find that a fire destroyed the hospital records and maternity and nursery wards. Robert and Keith visit Father Spiletto at a rural monastery and discover he has been burned on his right half and struck mute.Robert demands to know where Damien's mother is buried. Spiletto writes the word Cervete, the name of an old cemetery now in ruins and located north of Rome.They are sent to a ruined cemetery and find a jackal's skeleton in Damien's mother's grave...



The name "Damien" sounds vaguely like the English "demon", but is not at all etymologically related (meaning "he subdues").Damien is the French form of the English name Damian (Latin Damianus, meaning "master" or "conqueror"), popular as the name of a martyred Christian saint of the third century. Another prominent Damien was Father Damien of Hawaii, who died while establishing leper colonies there. Damien is also the first name of Father Karras in The Exorcist...Supposedly his birthday constitutes the number 666. The number also appears on his body as a birthmark, and it is discovered in the novelization of the first film that he has no fingerprints...



Father Brennan ,a priest from Italy who was present at Damien's birth, warns Robert about his son and quotes an old prophecy about the Antichrist that Damien allegedly fills, but Robert will have none of it...Damien is placed in the care of the U.S. President, a close personal friend of Robert's. They attend the funeral of Katherine and Robert, who receive an honourable burial and blessing by a Catholic priest...



Cerveteri is a town and comune of the northern Lazio, in the province of Rome. Originally known as Caere (also Caisra and Cisra), it is famous for a number of Etruscan necropolis that include some of the best Etruscan tombs anywhere...Hannibal lost one eye to some sort of infection as he crossed an Etruscan (Tuscan) swamp in 217 BCE. For four days and nights his army waded through the fetid sewage, men and beasts excreting into it as they progressed, unable to sleep for lack of a dry spot to lie on except when the mules died and they could pile the carcasses into a mound and climb on top for a brief nap...

From the Etruscan period are two types of tombs: the mounds and the so-called "dice", the latter being simple square tombs built in long rows along "roads". The visitable area contains two such "roads", the Via dei Monti Ceriti and the Via dei Monti della Tolfa (6th century BC).

The strengthening of the religious and ecclesiastical aristocracy led to continuous power struggles between lords and the Roman bishop until the middle of the 16th century. Innocent III tried to strengthen his own territorial power, wishing to assert his authority in the provincial administrations of Tuscia, Campagna and Marittima through the Church's representatives, in order to reduce the power of the Colonna family. Other popes tried to do the same...The Colonna family is an Italian noble family; it was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope and many other Church and political leaders. Their family is notable for their bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511; in 1571 the Chiefs of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V...


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Old 07-06-2012, 03:12 PM   #111
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Lightbulb Rescue Captain

Quote:
Originally Posted by aronia View Post



Alessandra sporting the "Order of the Holy Spirit" cross - L'ordre du Saint-Esprit

...pictures really do speak a thousand words don't they...


Prince William has qualified as an operational search and rescue captain, Clarence House has said.

The prince, known in the military as Flight Lieutenant Wales, has previously co-piloted RAF Sea King helicopters and will now be able to command operations.

He completed two days of ground and air-based tests to achieve the qualification, after two years of flying experience. He joined C Flight, 22 Squadron at RAF Valley in Anglesey in September 2010.

Wing Commander Mark Dunlop, the squadron's commanding officer, said: "Flt Lt Wales demonstrated the required standards needed for the award of operation captaincy.

"Due to the nature of search and rescue operations, the required standards are always set at a very high level. Operational captaincy carries the overarching responsibility for the safety of the aircraft, its crew and any casualties."

William, whose rank remains flight lieutenant despite his new qualification, finished his tests on 29 May. In mock rescue scenarios he took part in an airborne search for a yacht, a search for two missing kayakers, a search for people in water, and extinguishing a simulated fire on a large survey vessel.

Lara and Kal-El ...
With a running time of 144 Minutes...

Ππ Pi, uppercase Π, lowercase π) is the sixteenth letter of the Greek alphabet, representing [p]. In the system of Greek numerals it has a value of 80.


http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Pi_(letter)
http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=226
http://www.guardian.co.uk/uk/2012/ju...?newsfeed=true

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Old 09-06-2012, 05:29 PM   #112
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Lightbulb Orsi Family


The Orsini family is an Italian noble family; it was one of the most influential princely families in medieval Italy and renaissance Rome. Members of the Orsini include popes Celestine III (1191–1198), Nicholas III (1277–1280), and Benedict XIII (1724–1730), 34 Cardinals of the Roman Church and numerous condottieri and other significant political and religious figures.



The Orsini were related to the Boboni family existing in Rome in the 11th century. The first members always used the surname of Boboni-Orsini. The first known family member is one Bobone, in the early 11th century, father of Pietro, in turn father of Giacinto dei Boboni (1110–1198), who in 1191 became pope as Celestine III. One of the first great nepotist popes, he made two of his nephews cardinals and allowed his cousin Giovanni Gaetano (Giangaetano, died 1232) to buy the fiefs of Vicovaro, Licenza, Roccagiovine and Nettuno, which formed the nucleus of the future territorial power of the family.

Origins...The second southern line...Pitigliano line...Monterotondo line...Bracciano line...Gravina line...

The remaining Princely family is represented by Prince Domenico Napoleone Orsini d'Aragona, Duke of Gravina (b. 1948). With no male heirs, he is currently to be succeeded as Duke of Gravina by his unmarried brother Benedetto (b. 1956), then by his cousin Don Raimondo Orsini d'Aragona (b. 1931), whose heir is Don Lelio Orsini (b. 1981).



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Old 17-06-2012, 07:23 PM   #113
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Lightbulb Colon na family

The Colonna family is an Italian noble family; it was powerful in medieval and Renaissance Rome, supplying one Pope and many other Church and political leaders. Their family is notable for their bitter feud with the Orsini family over influence in Rome until it was stopped by Papal Bull in 1511; in 1571 the Chiefs of both families married nieces of Pope Sixtus V.



According to tradition, the Colonna are a branch of the Counts of Tusculum — by Peter (1099–1151) son of Gregory III, called Peter "de Columna" from his property, the Columna Castle, in Colonna, Alban Hills.



The first cardinal from the family was appointed in 1206 when Giovanni Colonna di Carbognano was made Cardinal Deacon of SS. Cosma e Damiano. For many years, cardinal Giovanni di San Paolo (elevated in 1193) was identified as member of the Colonna family and therefore its first representative in the College of Cardinals, but modern scholars have established that this was based on the false information from the beginning of 16th century.


At this time a rivalry began with the pro-papal Orsini family, leaders of the Guelph faction. This reinforced the pro-Emperor Ghibelline course that the Colonna family followed throughout the period of conflict between the Papacy and the Holy Roman Empire...



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Old 01-12-2012, 08:23 PM   #114
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Lightbulb Temple of Isis

Labour is accompanied by intense and prolonged pain. Pain levels reported by labouring women vary widely. Pain levels seem to be influenced by fear and anxiety levels, experience with prior childbirth, cultural ideas of childbirth and pain, mobility during labour and the support given during labour. One study found that middle-eastern women, especially those with a low educational background, had more painful experiences during childbirth. Pain is only one factor of many influencing women's experience with the process of childbirth.Because humans are bipedal with an erect stance and have, in relation to the size of the pelvis, the biggest head of any mammalian species, human fetuses and human female pelvises are adapted to make birth possible. Many cultures feature initiation rites for newborns, such as circumcision, naming ceremonies, baptism, and others. A Caesarean section, (also C-section, Caesarian section, Cesarean section, Caesar, etc.) is a surgical procedure in which one or more incisions are made through a mother's abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more babies...



We need to meditate on our precious human life to realize that we now have a special opportunity to practice Lamrim. If we appreciate the great potential of this life we shall not waste it by engaging in meaningless activities.We need to meditate on death and impermanence to overcome procrastination, and to ensure that our Lamrim practice is pure by overcoming our preoccupation with worldly concerns. If we practice Lamrim purely it is not very difficult to attain realizations. By meditating on the danger of lower rebirth, taking refuge sincerely, and avoiding non-virtue and practicing virtue, we protect ourself from taking lower rebirth and ensure that life after life we shall obtain a precious human rebirth endowed with all the conditions conducive to the practice of Dhamma...
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It is possible to collect two types of stem cells during childbirth: amniotic stem cells or umbilical cord blood stem cells. To collect amniotic stem cells, it is necessary to do amniocentesis before or during the birth. Amniotic stem cells are multipotent and very active, useful for both autologous or donor use. There are private banks in US; the first is Biocell Center in Boston...
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Old 04-12-2012, 04:55 PM   #115
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Lightbulb A Lantern Palace



The Double Crown was a combination of the Red Crown of Lower Egypt and the White Crown of Upper Egypt. It symbolised the joining of the two lands, and the pharaoh's control over the two lands...



The Lateran Palace (Italian: Palazzo Laterano), formally the Apostolic Palace of the Lateran (Italian: Palazzo Apostolico Lateranense), is an ancient palace of the Roman Empire and later the main papal residence....


The Lateran Palace with the Obelisk of Thutmosis III and (right) the annexed Basilica di San Giovanni in Laterano, from an 18th-century engraving by Giuseppe Vasi.

Pope Benedict IX (c. 1012 – c. 1056), born in Rome as Theophylactus of Tusculum, was Pope on three occasions between 1032 and 1048. One of the youngest popes, he was the only man to have been Pope on more than one occasion and the only man ever to have sold the papacy...Benedict was born the son of Alberic III, Count of Tusculum, and was a nephew of Pope Benedict VIII and Pope John XIX. His father obtained the Papal chair for him, granting it to his son in October 1032...

Saint Peter (Simon Peter), whose mother-in-law is mentioned in the Bible as having been miraculously healed (Matthew 8:14–15, Luke 4:38, Mark 1:29–31). According to Clement of Alexandria (Stromata, III, vi, ed. Dindorf, II, 276), Peter was married and had children and his wife suffered martyrdom. In some legends dating from at least the 6th century, Peter's daughter is called Petronilla. Clement of Alexandria wrote: "For Peter and Philip begat children...

St. Peter Damian is alleged to have described him as "feasting on immorality"; the anti-papal historian Ferdinand Gregorovius wrote that in Benedict, "a demon from hell in the disguise of a priest... occupied the chair of Peter and profaned the sacred mysteries of religion by his insolent courses." The Catholic Encyclopedia calls him "a disgrace to the Chair of Peter." The first pope said to have been primarily homosexual, he was said to have held orgies in the Lateran palace...


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http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...postcount=1542...February 13 – Catherine Howard, the fifth wife of Henry VIII of England, is executed for adultery...Antoine Escalin des Eymars, the French ambassador, returns from Constantinople with promises of Ottoman aid in a war against Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor...Pope Paul III establishes the Holy Office with jurisdiction over the Roman Inquisition...Year 1012 (MXII)...Fatimid Caliph al-Hakim orders the destruction of all Jewish and Christian places of worship...

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Old 07-12-2012, 07:44 PM   #116
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Arrow Cause of Tttensions in the Roman World

"Jesus is Lord" Unlike the polytheists who could worship one God or twenty without any worry, the Christian "ceased to be his own master" and "in everything became the bond-servant of Jesus Christ". On one occasion when a martyr was asked as to his condition, he replied: 'I am a free man, but the slave of Christ' and Febronia a wealthy and beautiful virgin shocked the judge by declaring herself a slave. When asked, 'Whose slave?', the reply was again: 'The slave of Christ'...


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Lords of Bouillon/Bullion Broth...was in the 10th and 11th century one of the core holdings of the Ardennes-Bouillon dynasty, and appears to have been their original patrimonial possession.During the 10th and 11th century, the lords of Bouillon also held, for shorter or longer periods, the Duchy of Lower Lorraine, county of Verdun, margraviate of Antwerp, along with many lesser titles...
There was a great theoretical difference between the Christian attitude to slaves and that of society in general. Although there were benevolent masters, legally slaves were 'a living tool, just as a tool is an inanimate slave' to be disposed of when no longer serviceable ('sell worn out oxen, blemished cattle,... old tools, an old slave, a sickly slave, and whatever else is useless'.. Workman points out that, although Christians still owned slaves, they were 'not slaves to us – we deem them brothers after the spirit, in religion fellow-servants' and were 'men like ourselves'(Clement of Alexandria). Slaves could be ordained. Callistus, rose to be Pope and defied the law by sanctioning the marriage of women of noble rank with freedmen. Though common in pagan burials, the label "slave" is never met with in the catacombs...


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http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...postcount=1547...Grand Duke Ivan IV of Muscovy becomes the first Tsar of Russia. This replaces the Grand Duchy of Moscow with the Tsardom of Russia...Huguenots increasingly immigrate to Kent, especially Canterbury..Battle of Pinkie: An English army under the Duke of Somerset, Lord Protector of England, defeats a Scottish army under James Hamilton, 2nd Earl of Arran, the Regent. The English seize Edinburgh...John Dee visits the Low Countries to study navigation with Gemma Frisius..

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Old 09-12-2012, 06:11 PM   #117
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Lightbulb RAI Snake in the Grass

Silvio Berlusconi ( born 29 September 1936) is an Italian politician and media tycoon who served three times as Prime Minister of Italy: from 1994 to 1995, 2001 to 2006 and 2008 to 2011. Berlusconi is also the controlling shareholder of Mediaset and owner of A.C. Milan. He is nicknamed Il Cavaliere (The Knight) for his Order of Merit for Labour. Berlusconi is the longest-serving post-war Prime Minister of Italy, and third longest-serving since the Unification of Italy,after Benito Mussolini and Giovanni Giolitti, holding three separate terms. Technically, he has been sworn in four times because after a cabinet reshuffle, as happened with Berlusconi in 2005, the new ministry is sworn in and subjected to a vote of confidence. He is the leader of the People of Freedom political movement, a centre-right party he founded in 2009. From November 2009 to November 2011, he was the most senior leader of the G8 countries. In 2012, Forbes magazine ranked him as the 169th richest man in the world with a net worth of US$5.9 billion...
Italy had some 3,200 troops deployed in Southern Iraq, the third largest contingent there after the American and British forces.Berlusconi has a warm relationship with Vladimir Putin.In November 2007, Italy's state-owned energy company Eni signed an agreement with Russian state-owned Gazprom to build the South Stream pipeline...Silvio Berlusconi has an extensive record of criminal allegations, including mafia collusion, false accounting, tax fraud, corruption and bribery of police officers and judges. Berlusconi has been tried in Italian courts in several cases. In three of these cases accusations were dropped by the judiciary because of laws passed by Berlusconi's parliamentary majority shortening the time limit for prosecution of various offences and making false accounting illegal only if there is a specific damaged party reporting the fact to the authorities..In 1981, a scandal arose after the police discovery of Licio Gelli's secret quasi-Masonic lodge Propaganda 2 (P2), which aimed to change the Italian political system to a more authoritarian regime. The list of people involved in P2 included members of the secret services and some prominent characters from political arena, business, military and media.David Mills, lawyer husband of the former British cabinet minister Tessa Jowell, acted for Berlusconi in the early 1990s, and was later accused by Italian prosecutors of money laundering and of accepting a gift from Berlusconi in return for witness evidence favourable to Berlusconi given in court...Silvio Berlusconi has never been tried on charges relating to Cosa Nostra, although several Mafia turncoats have stated that Berlusconi had connections with the Sicilian criminal association. On 13 December 2009 Berlusconi was hit in the face with an alabaster statuette of Milan Cathedral after a rally in Milan's Piazza del Duomo. Also in 2008 Berlusconi caused controversy at a joint press conference with Russian president Vladimir Putin. When a journalist from the Russian paper Nezavisimaya Gazeta asked a question about Mr Putin's personal relationships, Berlusconi made a gesture towards the journalist imitating a gunman shooting..."The Man who screwed an entire country"

Berlusconi was born in Milan in 1936, where he was raised in a middle-class family. His father, Luigi Berlusconi (1908–1989) was a bank employee and his mother, Rosa Bossi (1911–2008), a housewife. Silvio was the first of three children; he had a sister, Maria Francesca Antonietta Berlusconi (1943–2009) and has a brother, Paolo Berlusconi (born 1949), both entrepreneurs.After completing his secondary school education at a Salesian college, he studied law at the Università Statale in Milan, graduating (with honours) in 1961 with a thesis on the legal aspects of advertising. Berlusconi was not required to serve the standard one-year stint in the Italian army which was compulsory at the time. During his university studies he was an upright bass player in a group formed with the now Mediaset Chairman and amateur pianist Fedele Confalonieri and occasionally performed as a cruise ship crooner..."The only thing they can say about me is that I screw around [...] Now they're spying on me, controlling my phone calls. I don't give a fuck. In a few months [...] I'll be leaving this shit country that makes me sick."He had already made a comment about sending a postcard from the Bahamas in 2005...Subsequently, at a tent camp on the outskirts of L'Aquila housing some of the more than 30,000 people who lost their homes during the 2009 earthquake he said to an African priest: "you have a nice tan."..

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Mediaset S.p.A., known as Gruppo Mediaset in Italian, is an Italian-based mass media company which is the largest commercial broadcaster in the country. Founded in the 1970s by former Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi and still controlled today with a 38.6% stake by his family holding company Fininvest, the group competes primarily against the public broadcaster and market leader RAI, La7, and News Corporation's Sky Italia.Due to their proximity to (or encirclement by) Italy, Albania, Croatia, Switzerland, Malta, San Marino, the Vatican City and Slovenia also receive Mediaset broadcasts...In 30 July 2008, Mediaset filed a lawsuit against Google for €500 million (US$779 million dollars) with the charges of copyright infringement. The company stated that 325 hours worth of material was uploaded to YouTube and the result was the loss of 315,672 viewing days and ad revenue..
"Good luck to you and your people, whom I know love you"... The popularity of this decision was reflected in the fact that while he was resigning crowds sang the hallelujah portion of George Frederick Handel's "Messiah"...

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Old 09-12-2012, 09:22 PM   #118
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Lightbulb Maria Theresa


Her relationship with the Jesuits was complex. Members of this order educated her, served as her confessors, and supervised the religious education of her eldest son. The Jesuits were powerful and influential in the early years of Maria Theresa's reign. However, the queen's ministers convinced her that the order posed a danger to her monarchical authority. Not without much hesitation and regret, she issued a decree which removed them from all the institutions of the monarchy, and carried it out thoroughly. She forbade the publication of Pope Clement XIII's bull which was in favour of the Jesuits and promptly confiscated their property when Pope Clement XIV suppressed the order...

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Old 09-12-2012, 09:35 PM   #119
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Arrow Mr ********


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Old 09-12-2012, 09:55 PM   #120
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Arrow Sealed with a Wax

The most distinctive characteristic of a bull was the metal seal, which was usually made of lead, but on very solemn occasions was made of gold (as Byzantine imperial deeds often were). It depicted the founders of the Church of Rome, the apostles Peter and Paul, identified by the letters Sanctus PAulus and Sanctus PEtrus. The name of the issuing pope is on the reverse side. This was then attached to the document either by cords of hemp (in the case of letters of justice, and executory) or by red and yellow silk (in the case of letters of grace) that was looped through slits in the vellum of the document. Bulla is the name of this seal, because whether of wax, lead, or gold, the material making the seal had to be melted to soften it and take on an impression: Latin bullire, "to boil"...

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