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Old 08-11-2012, 10:57 PM   #1
al209
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Default The Fructose Appreciation Thread

Fructose has been given a bit of a hard time recently. Its been maligned as some evil poison, and i think thats unfair. So lets have a thread dedicated to all the good things fructose does for us. Im sure the fruity vegans will have plenty of fructose love to share.


Benefits of Fructose
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-Fructose is the main sugar involved in reproduction, developing fetus, seminal and intrauterine fluid. It has been suggested that the predominance of fructose rather than glucose in the embryo's environment helps to maintain ATP and oxidative state during development in a low oxygen environment.(1)

-Fructose protects the liver from hypoxic cell death.(2)

-Fructose can protect against the stress of increased hydrogen peroxide and it's metabolite fructose1,6-bisphosphate is an even more effective antioxidant.(3)

-Fructose decreases capillary leakage; after 4 weeks and 8 weeks on a 60% fructose diet it produced a 51% and a 56% decrease in capillary leakage, respectively.(4)

-During exercise addition of fructose to glucose increases carbohydrate metabolism.(5,6)

-Glucose causes smaller increases in metabolic rate in overweight people versus healthy people but fructose increases there metabolic rate to the same levels.(7, 8)

-Fructose increases CO2 more, blood temperature more, and causes a greater oxygen consumption compared to glucose.(9)

-Fructose reduces hypoglycemia associated with glucose even when insulin secretion is compromised.(10)

-Fructose decreases the glycemic response to an oral glucose test.(11)

-Glucose causes an increase in ROS formation and nf-kappab binding; these changes are absent when fed fructose or orange juice.(12)

-Fructose affects the body's ability to retain nutrients including magnesium, copper, calcium and other minerals. Comparing a diet with 20% calories as fructose or from cornstarch researchers conclude dietary fructose enhances mineral balance.(13)

-Glucose rather than fructose exerts a more deleterious effects on mineral balance and bone.(14)

-Rats on high sucrose diet deficient in vitamin D maintain calcium homoestasis unlike rats fed glucose, they have normal uptake by bone and development but they have lighter bones than vitamin D fed rats.(15)

-The extracellular phosphorylated fructose metabolite, diphosphoglycerate, has an essential regulatory effect in the blood.(16)

-Another fructose metabolite fructose diphosphate can reduce mast cell histamine release(17) and protect against hypoxic injury.(18)

- Fructose-1,6-bisphosphate (FBP) inhibits cytokine/chemokine-induced sensitivity to pain.(19)



1. http://jcem.endojournals.org/content/90/2/1171.short
2. http://ajpgi.physiology.org/content/253/3/G390.abstract
3. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...08621509002456
4. http://www.nature.com/ajh/journal/v1...jh199884a.html
5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15946410
6. http://jap.physiology.org/content/76/3/1014.short
7. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2099997
8. http://www.ajcn.org/content/58/5/766S.short
9. http://ajpendo.physiology.org/conten.../E504.abstract
10. http://diabetes.diabetesjournals.org...51/2/469.short
11. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/con...4/11/1882.full
12. http://care.diabetesjournals.org/con...0/6/1406.short
13. http://www.ajcn.org/content/49/6/1290.abstract
14. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...56328208000823
15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1221903
16. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/2383774
17. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6193798
18. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/6238213
19. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2757696


http://co2factor.blogspot.co.uk/2012...-fructose.html
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Old 08-11-2012, 11:00 PM   #2
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Fructose to the rescue


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Many claim fructose should be avoided especially for people with the so-called metabolic syndrome. Yudkins started most of the hysteria with his book "Pure, White and Deadly", during the time "the cholesterol hypothesis" was very popular and he argued that it was fructose and not fat that raised the so-called "bad lipids". Uffe Ravnskov member of the editorial board of cholesterol has reviewed the literature and he see's no connection between blood lipids and disease(0).


In 1864 Dr. William Budd in England used large amounts of sucrose to treat diabetes, P.A. Priorry did the same in France in 1867.

Free fatty acids block glucose metabolism.(1) One of the points where free fatty acids block glucose is at the point where it is converted to fructose. When fructose is available it can bypass this barrier to the use of glucose and continue to provide pyruvic acid for oxidative metabolism. If mitochondria are damaged and not producing energy pyruvate can leave the cell as lactate allowing continued glycolitic energy. This can provide enough energy to the brain to sustain life in an emergency.


Liver has the highest capacity for metabolizing fructose but other organs and skeletal muscles can metabolize it via the Glut5 expression.(2, 3)

The ability of mitochondria to oxidize pyruvic acid and glucose is lost to some degree in cancer.(4) This disturbed redox balance of the cell will usually lead to the cell's death but if the cell can survive, the disturbed redox balance favors growth and cell division, rather than the normal differentiated function. Fructose prevents oxidative damage by maintaining and restoring the cell's redox balance(5).

Fructose lowers serum phosphate and fruit is protective against prostate cancer by lowering serum phosphate(6). Age suppressing gene Klotho suppresses the re-absorption of phosphate by the kidneys and inhibits the formation of activated vitamin D opposing the effect of the parathyroid hormone. In the absence of the gene animals serum phosphate is high; these animals age and die prematurely(7). Serum phosphate is increased in osteoporosis(8), treatments that lower serum phosphates improve bone remineralization with retention of calcium phosphate(9). Close association between high serum phosphate in normal range in humans and increased risk of cardiovascular disease has been found(10). Increase in respiratory quotient and co2 production by fructose/glucose is probably a factor for lowering serum phosphates because high altitude and carbonic anhydrase inhibitor increase blood co2 and decrease serum phosphate(11,12,13).

Sucrose is less fattening than glucose because more calories can be consumed without gaining weight. In one study rats ate 50% more calories in the form of coca cola or sucrose compared to a normal diet without gaining additional weight(14)

Fructose protects against Vitamin D deficiency in rats(15).

Sucrose is used to decrease pain in many settings including infants and adults.(16)

0. http://www.ravnskov.nu/cholesterol.htm#a
1. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC507380/
2. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/9781312
3. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/arti...tool=pmcentrez
4. http://www.nutritionandmetabolism.com/content/7/1/7
5. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/8783811
6. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/11036473
7. http://www.nature.com/ki/journal/v79...ki201126a.html
8. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/7354241
9. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20428857
10. http://circ.ahajournals.org/content/112/17/2627.full
11. http://informahealthcare.com/doi/abs...65517209080248
12. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19188744
13. http://www.ijem.org.ir/browse.php?a_...=1&slc_lang=en
14. http://ajpregu.physiology.org/content/244/4/R500.a
15. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/1221903
16. http://www.sciencedirect.com/science...91305796002274

http://co2factor.blogspot.co.uk/2012...to-rescue.html
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Old 08-11-2012, 11:04 PM   #3
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Originally Posted by al209 View Post
Fructose has been given a bit of a hard time recently. Its been maligned as some evil poison, and i think thats unfair. So lets have a thread dedicated to all the good things fructose does for us. Im sure the fruity vegans will have plenty of fructose love to share.


Benefits of Fructose
Cant say I have paid much attention to fructose, maybe the foods it is used in are crappy for a million other reasons?..

Do many natural foods contain fructose? i.e. all fruit etc?

I personally think soya is one of the most controversial ingredients today. I was thinking of writing up a thread about it, but then concluded it better to just avoid soya..... hard when it is used in processing so many foods today..
Even some natural oatmeal contains traces of soya..
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Old 09-11-2012, 07:05 AM   #4
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Cant say I have paid much attention to fructose, maybe the foods it is used in are crappy for a million other reasons?..

Do many natural foods contain fructose? i.e. all fruit etc?

.
Yeah nearly all fruits contain roughly 50% fructose. It's one half if the sucrose (table sugar) molecule. Sugar as you know is added to all sorts of crap food. But it's not the fructose that makes them so crappy.
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Old 09-11-2012, 11:20 AM   #5
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Remember this article? It was posted on here several times by paleo folks.
http://www.naturalnews.com/036077_fr..._function.html

People are told that fructose from HCFS(refined sugar with all kinds of chemical and additives made in laboratory).(NOt to mention it is made from GMO corn)!!..... is the same as fructose in fruit.Gabriel cousens, the biggest joke in the world(this guy is WORSE than all the paleo teachers COMBINED!!!) says eat no more than 2 bananas a day,fructose from FRUIT gives you cancer hahaha... and they consider him as an authority in the raw food movement.Sad.Since he eats no fruit he must be a nutarian,it suits him cause this guy is 100% nuts.

p.s. Great article OP Fructose gets a bad rap cause they don't want people to eat fruit.
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Old 09-11-2012, 11:23 AM   #6
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The Bitter Truth about Fructose Alarmism

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Dr. Robert Lustig, professor of pediatrics at the University of California at San Francisco, is the star of the video above. While he presents some material that’s scientifically sound, he also makes enough errors to warrant a healthy dose of criticism. There’s a ton of material he goes over, so instead of writing a multi-chapter opus, I’ll discuss the aspects that I feel are the most relevant and interesting.

Bravo, Doc

Lustig’s delivery is clear, confident, charismatic, and engaging overall. I’m sure many would think that his style is annoyingly smug and preachy, but I find it entertaining. This is a good thing, since the video is about 90 minutes long. Amidst the folly that prompted this post, he offers a few good observations.

First off, he makes a valid point that the public health movement against dietary fat that started in the early 1980′s was a grandiose failure. The climb in obesity to epidemic proportions over the last 30 years is plenty of evidence for this. It was also accurate of him to cite the significant increase in overall caloric consumption over this same time period. Furthermore, he shows an interesting progression of Coca-Cola’s 6.5 oz bottle in 1915 to the 20 oz bottle of the modern day.

Lustig acknowledges the First Law of Thermodynamics as it applies to changes in bodyweight. He attacks the vague expression that “a calorie is a calorie” by pointing out that different nutrients impart different physiological effects and have different roles within the body. His concluding recommendations included kicking out liquid calories except milk, which is generally a good strategy for children. Okay, so far so good. But what does he say that’s so misleading? Let’s take a look.

Boooo, Doc

While Lustig correctly points out that the nation’s overall caloric consumption has increased, he proceeds to blame carbohydrates as being the primary constituent. The thing is, he uses data spanning from 1989-1995 on children aged 2-17. Survey data is far from the gold standard of evidence, but if you’re gonna cite it, you might as well go with something more recent that includes adults.

Here’s the latest from the USDA Economic Research Service (ERS), which tracked the percent of total daily calories of the range of food groups from 1970-2007. The actual spreadsheet of the following figures can be downloaded here, click on the “Percents” tab at the bottom (note that these figures are updated regularly by the ERS, so the version you download may be different from what’s reported here) [1]:

Meats, eggs, and nut kcals decreased 4%.
Dairy kcals decreased 3%.
Percentage of fruit kcals stayed the same.
Percentage of vegetable kcals stayed the same.
Flour and cereal product kcals increased 3%.
Added fat kcals are up 7%,
Added sugars kcals decreased 1%
Total energy intake in 1970 averaged 2172 kcal. By 2007 this hiked up to 2775 kcal, a 603 kcal increase.
Taking a hard look at the data above, it appears that the rise in obesity is due in large part to an increase in caloric intake in general, rather than an increase in added sugars in particular.

Lustig insufficiently addresses the ‘energy out’ side of the equation. According to the research, it’s possible that over the last couple of decades, we’ve become more sedentary. King and colleagues recently compared the physical activity data in the National Health & Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES) from 1988-1994 with the NHANES data from 2001-2006, and found a 10% decrease [2]. From a personal observation standpoint, that figure seems conservative (internet surfing for hours after your desk job shift, anyone?). It’s safe to say that all 603 extra daily calories have been landing in the nation’s collective adipose depot.

It’s also safe to say that all this finger-pointing at carbohydrate is just as silly as the finger-pointing toward fat in the ’80′s. Lustig takes the scapegoating of carbohydrate up a notch by singling out fructose. Perhaps the most passionate point he makes throughout the lecture is that fructose is a poison. Well, that’s just what we need in this day and age – obsessive alarmism over a single macronutrient subtype rather than an aerial view of the bigger picture.

Fructose is evil, context be damned

So, is fructose really the poison it’s painted to be? The answer is not an absolute yes or no; the evilness of fructose depends completely on dosage and context. A recurrent error in Lustig’s lecture is his omission of specifying the dosage and context of his claims. A point he hammers throughout his talk is that unlike glucose, fructose does not elicit an insulin (& leptin) response, and thus does not blunt appetite. This is why fructose supposedly leads to overeating and obesity.

Hold on a second…Lustig is forgetting that most fructose in both the commercial and natural domain has an equal amount of glucose attached to it. You’d have to go out of your way to obtain fructose without the accompanying glucose. Sucrose is half fructose and half glucose. High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) is nearly identical to sucrose in structure and function. Here’s the point I’m getting at: contrary to Lustig’s contentions, both of these compounds have substantial research showing not just their ability to elicit an insulin response, but also their suppressive effect on appetite [3-6].

But wait, there’s more. In studies directly comparing the effect of fructose and glucose preloads on subsequent food intake, one showed no difference [7], while the majority have shown the fructose preload resulting in lesser food intake than the glucose preload [8-10]. A recent review of the literature on fructose’s effect on satiety found no compelling case for the idea that fructose is less satiating than glucose, or that HFCS is less satiating than sucrose [11]. So much for Lustig’s repeated assertion that fructose and fructose-containing sugars increase subsequent food intake. I suppose it’s easier to sensationalize claims based on rodent data.

In the single human study I’m aware of that linked fructose to a greater next-day appetite in a subset of the subjects, 30% of total daily energy intake was in the form of free fructose [12]. This amounts to 135 grams, which is the equivalent of 6-7 nondiet soft drinks. Is it really that groundbreaking to think that polishing off a half-dozen soft drinks per day is not a good idea? Demonizing fructose without mentioning the dose-dependent nature of its effects is intellectually dishonest. Like anything else, fructose consumed in gross chronic excess can lead to problems, while moderate amounts are neutral, and in some cases beneficial [13-15].

I’m obviously not in favor of replacing anyone’s daily fluid intake with soft drinks, but I can already see a number of straw man arguments headed my way. This is because people have a tendency to think in either-or terms that strictly involve extremes. I’ll quote an elegant review by independent researcher John White that echoes my thoughts [16]:

Although examples of pure fructose causing metabolicupset at high concentrations abound, especially when fed asthe sole carbohydrate source, there is no evidence that thecommon fructose-glucose sweeteners do the same. Thus, studies using extreme carbohydrate diets may be useful for probing biochemical pathways, but they have no relevance to the human diet or to current consumption.

Atkins, Japan, & alcohol – oh my!

One of Lustig’s opening assertions is that The Atkins diet and the Japanese diet share one thing in common: the absence of fructose. This is flat-out false because it implies that the Japanese don’t eat fruit. On the contrary, bananas, grapefruits, Mandarin oranges, apples, grapes, watermelons, pears, persimmons, peaches, and strawberries are significant staples of the Japanese diet [17]. Lustig’s claim also implies that the Japanese do not consume desserts or sauces that contain added sucrose. This is false as well.

Another oversimplification Lustig makes is that fructose is “ethanol without the buzz,” and that fructose is toxic to the liver. This once again helps me illustrate my point that even in the case of alcoholic beverages, their risk or benefit to health is dose-dependent. Just like his extremist treatment of fructose, Lustig bases his case on the effect of chronic isolated ethanol consumption in large doses. It’s easy to examine ethanol out of its normal context within beverages such as wine, because then you can conveniently ignore the evidence indicating its potential health benefits when consumed in moderation [18].

Partial redemption

Towards the end of Lustig’s lecture, he mentions that fructose within fruit is okay because its effect is neutralized by the fiber content. To a degree, this is a valid claim. However, in building this stance, he uses sugarcane to illustrate just how fiber-dominant natural sources of fructose are, and this is the exception rather than the rule. He claimed that, “Wherever there’s fructose in nature, there’s way more fiber.” That statement is far from universally true. Drawing a few common examples from the major fruits consumed in Japan, a midsize banana contains roughly 27 total grams of carbohydrate, 7 grams of fructose and 3 grams of fiber. A midsize apple contains 25 total grams of carbohydrate, 12 grams of fructose and 4 grams of fiber. Two cups of strawberries contains 24 total grams of carbohydrate, 4 grams of fructose, and 6 grams of fiber.

I would add that fiber is only one of the numerous phytochemicals in fruit that impart health benefits. Thus, it’s not quite as simple as saying that fructose is evil, but once you take it with fiber, you’ve conquered the Dark Side.

Summing up

I have a great deal of respect for Lustig’s professional accomplishments, and I share his concern for the nation’s penchant for sitting around and overconsuming food and beverages of all sorts. However, I disagree (as does the bulk of the research) with his myopic, militant focus on fructose avoidance. He’s missing the forest while barking up a single tree.

So, what’s the upper safe limit of fructose per day (all sources considered)? Again, this depends on a number of variables, not the least of which are an individual’s physical activity level and lean body mass. Currently in the literature is a liberal camp reporting that fructose intakes up to 90 grams per day have a beneficial effect on HbA(1c), and no significant effects are seen for fasting triacylglycerol or body weight with intakes up to 100 grams per day in adults [15]. The conservative camp suggests that the safe range is much less than this; roughly 25-40 grams per day [19]. Figuring that both sides are biased, the middle figure between the two camps is roughly 50 grams for active adults.

Although the tendency is to get hung up on the trivial minutia of an exact gram amount, it’s not possible to issue a universal number because individual circumstances vary widely (this is a concept that baffles anti-fructose absolutists). The big picture solution is in managing total caloric balance with a predominance of minimally refined foods and sufficient physical activity. Pointing the finger at fructose while dismissing dosage and context is like saying that exercise should be avoided because it makes you fat and injured by spiking your appetite and hurting your joints
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Old 09-11-2012, 11:38 AM   #7
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Remember this article? It was posted on here several times by paleo folks.
http://www.naturalnews.com/036077_fr..._function.html
No i never saw that one, but i stopped reading naturalnews ages ago. I think the sugar from fruit is what really accelerated our brain expansion when we were still apes. Which couldnt be more counter to "fructose makes you stupid"

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People are told that fructose from HCFS(refined sugar with all kinds of chemical and additives made in laboratory).(NOt to mention it is made from GMO corn)!!..... is the same as fructose in fruit.
Strictly speaking, it is the same. But in fruit you get minerals vitamins, tons of co-factors that improve metabolism of sugar. So eating fruit is not the same as eating HFCS or sucrose.
Quote:
Gabriel cousens, the biggest joke in the world(this guy is WORSE than all the paleo teachers COMBINED!!!) says eat no more than 2 bananas a day,fructose from FRUIT gives you cancer hahaha... and they consider him as an authority in the raw food movement.Sad.Since he eats no fruit he must be a nutarian,it suits him cause this guy is 100% nuts.
Yeah this guy is a total clown. I actually use my copy of Conscious Eating to prop my office door open. God the amount of shit books ive had to wade through so far...

Quote:
p.s. Great article OP Fructose gets a bad rap cause they don't want people to eat fruit.
Yeah i really do wonder why we are discouraged from eating fruit, and encouraged to eat a lot of fat, particularly PUFA. Ive never felt better since i started quaffing OJ.
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Old 09-11-2012, 11:54 AM   #8
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I like fruit but I like other foods too
Quaffing on orange juice or any other food is wrong
Despite what the nutritional profile indicates.

Too much fruit will screw your teeth ... sooner or later
Anyone denying that will find out for themselves
... sooner or later

Taking one nutrient out of the context of eating as a whole
and looking at its nutritional profile is a wrong approach.
I see it very often. People say this is good for you
and this is bad for you. It's misleading.

Last edited by plam; 09-11-2012 at 11:58 AM.
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Old 09-11-2012, 12:02 PM   #9
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Quaffing on orange juice or any other food is wrong
Despite what the nutritional profile indicates.
Having tried it with fruit/sugar, I have to disagree.
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Old 09-11-2012, 12:18 PM   #10
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Having tried it with fruit/sugar, I have to disagree.
We've all been there, al.
You get the body into a new regime
you notice some short term benefits
and then you want to tell the world!

The art of eating is far simpler and more complex than
It is yet to be discovered.

After all that sugar and coffee, I don't think
Ray Peat is at his best at 73 years of age.
His voice in the podcasts sound as if he's in terrible pain.
Why's that? The voice is a strong indicator of the life energy.
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Old 09-11-2012, 12:32 PM   #11
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We've all been there, al.
You get the body into a new regime
you notice some short term benefits
and then you want to tell the world!
Plam, You have known me long enough to know this is not a short term fad diet im on. Ive been talking to you at least 18 months, so you can asume ive been doing it at least that long.. What you refer to is the first week or so of changing your diet, the "cathecholamine honeymoon" as its been called..

Ray Peat may have a croaky voice in some of his podcasts, but im not gonna assume hes wrong based on the sound of his voice. He doesnt look bad for mid 70s whatever anyone says. I have also noticed that when he is talking to some one really clued up, he doesnt go erm..um.. all the time, his speech flows much much better. Perhaps in his lay interviews he is doing that because he is pausing to try and dumb down what he is saying, so the interviewer can understand.
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Old 09-11-2012, 05:03 PM   #12
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I'm following Ray Peat's guidelines now, and I feel better with more fructose, also balancing my amino acid consumption with gelatin etc.

I think Ray Peat's science is filling in some holes that I had from Aajonus Vonderplanitz's diet.

I'm keeping an open mind though.

You have to experiment and see what works.
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Old 09-11-2012, 06:26 PM   #13
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I'm following Ray Peat's guidelines now, and I feel better with more fructose, also balancing my amino acid consumption with gelatin etc.

I think Ray Peat's science is filling in some holes that I had from Aajonus Vonderplanitz's diet.

I'm keeping an open mind though.

You have to experiment and see what works.
Let us know how you get on Robby, Im very interested to see how these two diets will complement each other. Are you using or planning on using the salt too? I think that's one of ray peats best suggestions. Nothing seems to warm me up like salty orange juice.
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Old 09-11-2012, 11:02 PM   #14
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[QUOTE=plam;1061130006]I like fruit but I like other foods too
Quaffing on orange juice or any other food is wrong
Despite what the nutritional profile indicates.

Too much fruit will screw your teeth ... sooner or later
Anyone denying that will find out for themselves
... sooner or later


this*
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Old 10-11-2012, 05:37 AM   #15
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Fructose has been given a bit of a hard time recently. Its been maligned as some evil poison, and i think thats unfair. So lets have a thread dedicated to all the good things fructose does for us. Im sure the fruity vegans will have plenty of fructose love to share.


Benefits of Fructose
I <3 fructose. It makes my day everyday.
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Old 10-11-2012, 09:08 PM   #16
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I <3 fructose. It makes my day everyday.
Make your day a Dolmio day! ...

I watcha you Mario.. -_- ..
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Old 13-11-2012, 07:17 AM   #17
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Let's not become too enamored with fructose lest we become like the 30-bananas-a-day brigade, the self righteous crusade of vegans foaming at the mouth over the stupid, evil meat eaters that plague our world.
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Old 13-11-2012, 07:46 AM   #18
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Originally Posted by kabaraz View Post
Let's not become too enamored with fructose lest we become like the 30-bananas-a-day brigade, the self righteous crusade of vegans foaming at the mouth over the stupid, evil meat eaters that plague our world.
Haha, dont worry about that. I will never be upset if someone doesnt eat fructose. Thats their business. Im just trying to point out that the current wave of negativity surrounding it is bullshit.
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Old 13-11-2012, 05:47 PM   #19
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If I wasn't already married I'd marry fruit for it's amazing fructose.

Just wolfed down 8 bananas after a killer bike ride. Fruit kicks ass
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Old 13-11-2012, 08:43 PM   #20
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Fructose is > Glucose Part I
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“One should never accept a statement of facts unless he feels confident that it is in agreement with experiment.”
(Richard Feynman)



Introduction

The discussion herein is essentially a continuation of parts of “Sugar vs. Starch.”

Briefly, in the aforementioned post, we learned that fructose (and orange juice) does not raise endotoxin levels (a good thing) -- as compared to isocaloric amounts of other nutrients. We also learned that fructose protects against high-fat diet induced oxidative stress and inflammation; glucose, however, does not. Finally, fructose -- when added to the diet in place of other carbohydrates -- facilitates weight loss, lowers blood pressure, and improves glycemic control.

The campaign against fructose -- which has, in effect, directed attention away from the real issues -- is so obviously misguided that I wonder if even the most adamant fructose bashers have studied the issue properly.

This post, in particular, will expand upon the discussion of fructose and glucose.


1. Glucose


It was earlier shown that the consumption of mixed meals elicits a state of oxidative stress and inflammation (Aljada et al. 2004). Whether this was due to the calories ingested, or whether it was nutrient specific, however, was unknown. Therefore, Dhindsa et al. performed an experiment to provide clarification on this matter, which entailed giving -- to healthy volunteers -- either vodka, glucose, or water. They found that the generation of ROS and NF-κB binding was increased in the volunteers who received glucose; but there was no change in those who received vodka (Dhindsa et al. 2004). NF-κB activation causes the premature aging of our skin.


About 70g of glucose was used in this experiment, which is close to how many grams of fructose the (obese) subjects were given in the weight loss study, briefly mentioned here. In that study, those who ate fructose lost more weight and were generally healthier -- despite getting about 8 times more fructose (from fruit) than the controls did (Madero et al. 2011).

Dhindsa and his colleagues showed, a couple of years later, that glucose ingestion in human subjects raised levels of TNF-α (Aljada et al. 2006).

The addition of fructose (or reduction of calories), however, protects against the damage induced by glucose. Fruit, on average, contains equal amounts of glucose and fructose. Starchy vegetables contain glucose only (with some exceptions).


2. Fructose

2.1 It is commonly thought that the stimulation of insulin secretion is the prerogative of glucose only and this is used as basis for claiming that fructose could lead to obesity (by interfering with satiety signals). But fructose, in fact, can stimulate insulin secretion -- by increasing local concentrations of ATP and by activating the “sweet receptors” on β cells. (Kyriazis, Soundarapandian & Tyrberg 2012).

Fructose is usually present with glucose -- even in high fructose corn syrup sweetened beverages -- and fructose, potentiates glucose stimulated insulin release (a good thing).

I propose that glucose and fructose beneficially complement each other: fructose potentiates glucose-stimulated insulin secretion and the harmful effects of glucose are effectively neutralized by fructose.


2.2 As it was discussed in a previous post, weight loss is associated with a lot of favorable changes that can make the interpretation of study results problematic.

A high intake of fructose, however, does not necessarily lead to weight gain in humans; but many of the studies in which harm was reported, from high fructose consumption, were associated with weight changes as well. Gaining weight on any kind of diet is a result of chronic, positive energy balance -- not the consumption of fructose. Fructose can actually accelerate weight loss when it replaces other carbohydrates in the diet.

Chronic fructose ingestion also lowers leptin and insulin levels -- both of which are associated with inflammation (Rajendran et al. 2012, Rosenbaum, Leibel 1999).


3. Conclusions

The studies -- many in rats -- that have managed to show harm by fructose, have used doses that were calculated to cause harm (e.g. one recent study I saw used 349 grams per kilogram in rats).

The studies that people base their fear of fructose on, as a whole, are inconclusive. So if a group tries to make a case that fructose is harmful and therefore should be avoided, they are effectively trying to jam a square shaped peg into a round shaped hole because the data does not support their claims.

But even worse, the fructose bashers are directing attention away from the real problems because an excess of anything causes harm.

Fructose is usually present in foods with glucose and in their union, the harmful effects of eating either alone, is attenuated.

For these reasons (and others), until further notice, I believe fruit is superior to starchy vegetables.


References

Aljada, A., Friedman, J., Ghanim, H., Mohanty, P., Hofmeyer, D., Chaudhuri, A. & Dandona, P. 2006, "Glucose ingestion induces an increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB, a fall in cellular inhibitor kappaB, and an increase in tumor necrosis factor alpha messenger RNA by mononuclear cells in healthy human subjects", Metabolism: clinical and experimental, vol. 55, no. 9, pp. 1177-1185.
Aljada, A., Mohanty, P., Ghanim, H., Abdo, T., Tripathy, D., Chaudhuri, A. & Dandona, P. 2004, "Increase in intranuclear nuclear factor kappaB and decrease in inhibitor kappaB in mononuclear cells after a mixed meal: evidence for a proinflammatory effect", The American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, vol. 79, no. 4, pp. 682-690.
Dhindsa, S., Tripathy, D., Mohanty, P., Ghanim, H., Syed, T., Aljada, A. & Dandona, P. 2004, "Differential effects of glucose and alcohol on reactive oxygen species generation and intranuclear nuclear factor-kappaB in mononuclear cells", Metabolism: clinical and experimental, vol. 53, no. 3, pp. 330-334.
Kyriazis, G.A., Soundarapandian, M.M. & Tyrberg, B. 2012, "Sweet taste receptor signaling in beta cells mediates fructose-induced potentiation of glucose-stimulated insulin secretion", Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, vol. 109, no. 8, pp. E524-32.
Madero, M., Arriaga, J.C., Jalal, D., Rivard, C., McFann, K., Perez-Mendez, O., Vazquez, A., Ruiz, A., Lanaspa, M.A., Jimenez, C.R., Johnson, R.J. & Lozada, L.G. 2011, "The effect of two energy-restricted diets, a low-fructose diet versus a moderate natural fructose diet, on weight loss and metabolic syndrome parameters: a randomized controlled trial", Metabolism: clinical and experimental, vol. 60, no. 11, pp. 1551-1559.
Rajendran, K., Devarajan, N., Ganesan, M. & Ragunathan, M. 2012, "Obesity, inflammation and acute myocardial infarction - expression of leptin, IL-6 and high sensitivity-CRP in Chennai based population", Thrombosis journal, vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 13.
Rosenbaum, M. & Leibel, R.L. 1999, "Clinical review 107: Role of gonadal steroids in the sexual dimorphisms in body composition and circulating concentrations of leptin", The Journal of clinical endocrinology and metabolism, vol. 84, no. 6, pp. 1784-1789.
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