Go Back   David Icke's Official Forums > Main Forums > Lawful Rebellion / Non Compliance / Sovereignty

Reply
 
Thread Tools
Old 26-11-2017, 01:30 PM   #41
the apprentice
Inactive
 
Join Date: Jan 2010
Posts: 22,637
Likes: 2,982 (2,088 Posts)
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by JustMe418 View Post
I think you have an altruistic view of what people are like but things like black friday sales show that people are not all about sharing and helping.

If people think they can get an adavantage they will do that.

I do like the idea of everybody sharing and helping but I realised a long time ago that its not likely to happen like that, at least not for a long time on this world.
Only if you let them,

But if people are asking you to help them in order of helping themselves, then not doing so when one can, show ones own insecurities.

There comes a time when these kinds of philosophy must be universally reciprocal.
the apprentice is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 26-11-2017, 10:01 PM   #42
reverendjim
Inactive
 
Join Date: May 2011
Location: canada
Posts: 8,307
Likes: 1,343 (819 Posts)
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by iamawaveofthesea View Post
The Ballachullish Goddess



The ballachullish goddess is a carved wooden figure dug up in the west coast village of Ballachullish. It has been radio-carbondated to 2500 years ago. She has been damaged as have so many ancient artifacts in scotland we are told by transit and through the drying out process. She is depicted as holding male phallic objects

To me she represents the land itself which is fertilised by the skies rains and by the ploughing and sowing of mankind. She represents, in my eyes, the veneration the people had for the land which like us goes through stages of life as the cycles of the seasons progress through the year.

The creatrix goddess and old hag of winter known as the Cailleach is said to leave her home on Scotlands highest peak Ben Nevis and spread her wintry plaid over the countryside during winter only to wash it clear in the spring, in the corryvreckan whirlpool when the land and the goddess herself are renewed. The hills themselves are scarred from her raking claws as she sculpted the land with her winds and storms.

Further to the south a plough was retrieved from the ruins of an old crannog in Loch Tay suggesting a ritualistic purpose to the building and to the object itself. A modern recreation of a crannog has been built near the site, which in my opinion looks not unlike a liberty cap mushroom!



The plough could be said to represent the masculine phallus as it sows the land and even today the shetlanders hold a festival in which the girls of the community are dressed up as elaborately decorated horses while the young lads compete to plough the best furrows in the sands of the beach with miniture ploughs:





Clearly the bonds between the people and their land run deep within scotland but could there be something more then just a power grab involved in the attempts by some at breaking that bond?

Is it possible that not only is self-sufficiency a threat to the centralised control of the NWO but perhaps a peoples sense of self and also their connection with and place in nature could also be anti-thetical to the technocratic domination of the NWO social engineers?
you have answered your own question and it actually gets to the heart of the matter. they've been doing this for a long time now. and they will continue til its over. keep your chin up though...they won't survive it either.
reverendjim is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 28-11-2017, 03:02 PM   #43
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

The Reformation- the second great land grab

In 1500 the church owned a quarter of the country's land but the Reformation saw the appropriation of church lands from 1520-1620; this was because the church absorbed HALF of the land revenue and the nobles coveted that so they sided with John Knox and the reformers. Despite the corruption of the church the promise of new land and wealth saw the nobles pushing reform of the church.

The nobles put their own people into the church and began to sabotage it from within. They organised themselves into the 'Lords of the Congregation' and created the first covenant; among them were nobles like the campbells and the erskines.

King James the VI and his son Charles I favoured episcopalianism as it granted them the power to appoint bishops but the nobles did not want a return to catholicism as it could have meant losing their appropriated land back to the church so they entrenched their rights in law leading to the third land grab.

Through legislation like the Registration Act 1617 and the Prescription Act 1617 they managed to legalise their appropriation of church lands
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 28-11-2017 at 04:10 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 28-11-2017, 04:57 PM   #44
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Nessie: the call to adventure

I heard the canny folk tell of a creature stirring in the mountains which i knew i must see for myself. I rode for days with a companion into the highlands until we came to a howff.

As we sat drinking we enquired among the locals of the whereabouts of the beast and were told that it could be found over the next hill.

The next morning we approached the foot of the hill and i turned to my friend for encouragement but he looked back at me ashen faced and shook his head. I nodded and carried on up the screefield alone.

As i reached the bealach a wind tore over the crest tugging at my clothes and hair. I pulled my plaid about my shoulders and calling the names of my ancestors for courage i pushed on into the gale.

Once over the bealach I could see the next glen before me. The blasted hillsides held only sparse vegetation devoid of life. At the bottom of the glen was a loch with water as black as peat.

I gazed on the water and as i did so i noticed the surface stirring. Something began to emerge from the water; rising to the height of a sheiling i could see a cavernous nostril appear which rose from the water revealing a wicked jaw of sharp teeth each as long as a man.

It continued to rise until it was taller then a broch and still it grew! It's slender face atop a long neck.... impossibly large it drew itself to its full height and turned to fix its gaze upon me...
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 28-11-2017, 05:13 PM   #45
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

The Great Migration

__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-01-2018, 03:34 PM   #46
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Prescription

Prescription of heritable rights conferred title to land to someone who occupied it for 40 years. This meant that through the various legal chicanery or violent skullduggery exercised by the nobles, land that was held by them uncontested for 40 years would become their legal property.

''On the face of it, the act was indeed conceived of as a means to resolve the conflicts that had emerged between, for example, land held on feus granted by the church prior to the reformation and the claims made on that same land by the nobility who had managed to secure titles converting their previous liferent interests into a feu. Quite whether a test of possession was very fair when so often there was a huge disparity in political and economic power between the parties in conflict is a moot point. But two things are clear.

Firstly, the 1617 act was not simply a means of resolving an honest conflict of evidence. On the contrary, it was the means whereby the powerful were able to call on the law to secure the advantage they sought to gain by having stolen church lands.

Secondly, even if it was conceived of as a means of settling genuine conflicts in titles, it soon ceased to be used for such cases and became instead a means to legitimise the appropriation of land which had never been granted to the owner in the first place.''
-p25, Wightman

''in other words, it did not matter what had gone before, what the rights and wrongs were, whether the owner had ever been granted the land or what the circumstances were surrounding the acquisition. So long as a title 'can so be construed as to embrace the whole lands' and so long as the claimant has possessed them, the title is settled.''
p26
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 02-01-2018 at 03:43 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 02-01-2018, 04:00 PM   #47
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Register of Sasines

''The establishment of the Register of Sasines in 1617 allowed for the establishment of a public register in which deeds could be recorded which were then legally defendable . The Registration Act and the Prescription Act were, from the political standpoint, intimately related. The former provided a registrable title and the latter enabled any dubiety to be cured by the passage of time.'' -p27

The word 'sasine' is derived from the french 'saisir' meaning to hold or seize which may reflect the means by which many nobles acquired new land at that time, however as a process it had its origins in the ritual of a superior clasping a handful of soil and passing it to a vassal.

The creation of the register of sasines enabled the nobles to solidify their claims of ownership to land in 1617. Those granted fues were also keen to see the system formalised.

The register of sasines is still used today but where land changes hands the title is transferred to the Land Register, a computerised map-based system providing a state-guaranteed title
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 02-01-2018 at 05:40 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 08-01-2018, 04:43 PM   #48
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Succession

''If the first half of the seventeenth century was mainly concerned with strengthening the legal framework of landed property, the second half was very much concerned with securing the future of the landed families who had taken advantage of it by the means of the law of succession and entail'' wightman p 29

The key issue of succession or inheritance was clouded for many of the nobility in Scotland because they often held land elsewhere such as in england or france and were therefore affected by the different laws of different places.

In 1292 Edward I created the common law of inheritance in scotland to resolve the succession problem that occured with the death (poisoning) of the maid of norway. The court set up by edward decided that inheritance was to be decided through primogeniture which is to say that the eldest son would inherit. Females could inherit but only if there were no male alternatives.

Primogeniture was used as a way to perpetuate the fuedal system as it prevented the division of estates. This maintained the pattern of large scale land ownership by denying rights from anyone but the eldest son.

''Adam Smith was one of the many astute observers who was critical of primogeniture.

When land , like moveables, is considered as the means only of subsistence and enjoyment, the natural law of succession divides it, like them, among all the children of the family; all of whom the subsistence and enjoyment may be supposed equally dear to the father. This natural law of succession accordingly took place among the Romans, who made no more distinction between elder and younger, between male and female, in the inheritance of lands, than we do in the distribution of moveables. But when land was considered as the means, not of subsistence merely, but of power and protection, it was thought better that it should descend undivided to one' p30

''Primogeniture was at the heart of aristocratic pivilege and, in concentrating power in so few hands, led to the revolutions that swept europe in the late eighteenth century. The Napoleonic Code of 1804, which abolished privileges based on birth, ended primogeniture in france and was influential in ending it too in many other countries across europe. The code, which still to this day forms the basis of French inheritance law, legally obliges landowners to divide their estates among their children equally.

In scotland, by contrast, it was not until 1964 that primogeniture was finally abolished. The Succession (Scotland) Act 1964 governs succession to this day.'' p30

However this new law allowed land owners to choose who inherited the land and therefore the old practise of primogeniture endured.

''Of all the legal framework surrounding landownership, the law of succession in Scotland is the single greatest reason the pattern of private landownership remains so concentrated compared with the rest of europe'' p30

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 08-01-2018 at 04:51 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 08-01-2018, 05:00 PM   #49
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

The Merchant Class

So far Andys book has been looking at fuedalism and the grip that norman incomers gained over the land that they took off the people they came to rule over. Then those families took down the church and carved up the church lands and then the common areas of land too.

However I want to make the point that scotland's land today is not all owned by the aristocrats and a lot of wealthy interests have bought up land in scotland. These days some people make a lot of money in the city for example in hedge funds or in oil abroad and seek ways to invest all that money with land in scotland being seen as an investment along with art and precious metals and is their form of land hoarding any less oppressive then the hoarding by the old aristocratic families? I would argue not.

Who owns Scotland?
Wealthy foreign owners of Scottish estates are facing a backlash from locals, writes John Arlidge
JOHN ARLIDGE
Sunday 25 February 1996 00:02 GMT

HALF of Scotland is owned by just 500 people, few of whom are actually Scots. As Britain's great land-owning aristocratic families decline, a new breed of foreign laird is exploiting Scotland's arcane land laws to buy up tracts of the Highlands and islands - Europe's last great wilderness.

The revelation comes in two new books which examine who owns Scotland. The authors have searched through ancient deeds and estate agents' sales brochures to compile the most detailed picture of land ownership for a generation.

They show that most lairds no longer hail from Britain's tweed-clad huntin', shootin' and fishin' classes; these days your local feudal overlord is more likely to be a self-made continental millionaire or an entrepreneur from Dubai, Egypt, Malaysia, Hong Kong or plain old America.

The findings have sparked a political row north of the border. Many of the new lairds are absentee land-owners who, environmentalists claim, neglect Scotland's greatest asset - the land itself.

Nationalist MPs and crofters, frustrated by the failure of Westminster politicians to bring Scotland into line with England and other European nations by abolishing feudal structures and regulating land use, are drawing up plans to limit foreign land ownership and introduce environmental codes for all estates. They want ministers to compile a full public Land Register.

The two books, Who owns Scotland now? and Who owns Scotland, update John McEwen's ground-breaking attempt to sketch Scotland's land-owning geography 30 years ago. His study revealed that ancient British families dominated the hills, straths, glens and islands, controlling lucrative salmon beats and deer stalking from the Borders to Barra.

Since the Fifties and Sixties, however, the decline of some of the most distinguished and notorious names in the Highlands - the clan chiefs of the Frasers of Lovat, the Sutherlands and the Wills tobacco family - has paved the way for new owners to take to the hills.

Andy Wightman, author of Who owns Scotland, which will be published in April, explains: "Some of the old landowners like the Duke of Buccleuch, the Duke of Atholl and Cameron of Lochiel have survived. Their old money is still good and some of their estates have expanded. But other families have fallen on hard times and a new group of landowners has stepped in swiftly to take their place. Many of these are from overseas and as they move in, a new pattern of land ownership is emerging."

All over Scotland there are now glens and peaks that are forever Swiss, Danish, Malaysian, Middle-Eastern and American. One year ago the whisky distilling MacDonald-Buchanan family sold off the Strath Conon estate in Ross-shire, which they had held for three generations. The new kilted monarch of the 50,000-acre glen is Kjeld Kirk-Christiansen, who runs the huge Danish Lego corporation.

On the Hebridean island of Eigg, Keith Schellenberg, the fantastically wealthy former captain of Britain's Olympic bobsleigh team who once described "his" islanders as "drunken, ungrateful, lawless, barmy revolutionaries", sold up last year as part of a divorce settlement with his second wife Margaret
Udny-Hamilton. The new laird is the chain-smoking, beret-wearing "fire" painter, "Professor" Marlin Eckhard Maruma from Stuttgart.

Visitors to Queen's View in Glen Avon, where Queen Victoria used to look out on her Royal fiefdom, now look down on land owned by the mysterious businessman behind the Kuala Lumpur-based Andras conglomerate. He bought the 40,000-acre estate, once owned by the Wills family, for pounds 6m last year.

Some ancient aristocratic families have hit the buffers in spectacular fashion. The Lovat Frasers' downfall began when three family members died suddenly; one was gored to death by a buffalo in Tanzania, another collapsed while hunting, and the third succumbed to old age.

Others have been crippled by debt. Losses in the Lloyd's insurance market forced Lord Kimball, a Lloyd's Name, to sell the 47,000-acre Altnaharra estate in Sutherland. Whatever the cause, the result is that fewer than half of the big Highland estates are owned by Scots.

"It's a dramatic change," said George Rosie, the veteran Scottish land- reform campaigner. "In the 19th-century, parliament passed an Act allowing foreigners to buy any property. As Britain was then the biggest rooster on the midden, the idea that any foreigner would be able to buy into Britain was risible. But now there are millions of wealthy foreigners and Scotland is ripe for the plucking. And plucked we have been."

Some of the new wave of overseas buyers enjoy good relations with locals and have earned environmentalists' praise for their land management practices. Paul van Vlissingen, the Dutch businessman whose "holiday cottage" is the eight-bedroom white-washed Letterewe lodge on the banks of Loch Maree in Wester Ross, has helped to fund a new swimming pool and re-introduced native woodland on his 80,000-acre estate.

Other lairds, however, have been accused of barring access to walkers and neglecting the natural environment. "Mountain Closed" signs have recently appeared on estates north of Ullapool. In Perthshire, His Excellency Mahdi Mohammed Al Tajir, from the United Arab Emirates who owns the Blackford Estate, home of Highland Spring mineral water, has been accused of abandoning farms on the slopes of the Ochil Hills.

Nationalist politicians say Scotland's free market in land - it is one of the few countries in Europe which allows wealthy foreigners to buy up unlimited amounts of land with no questions asked - has created a "land lottery". While far-sighted landowners are welcome, they say new measures should be introduced to limit the size of their holdings and to remove those who neglect their land.

Later this year, the Scottish National Party, which has set up an independent land commission, will unveil new proposals. Labour, too, has pledged to use a devolved Scottish parliament to introduce changes, and the Scottish Crofters' Commission is encouraging crofting communities to raise money to take over their marginal plots. Even Michael Forsyth, the Scottish Secretary, has jumped on the ox-cart, announcing plans to hand over millions of acres of government-owned crofting and forestry estates to small-holders. In Scotland, land is suddenly a political issue.

Dr James Hunter, a Skye-based environmental historian, said: "Land has moved up the agenda ever since the first crofters took over their land in Assynt 1992. That showed that land ownership patterns could change. Since then we have had controversies over the Knoydart estate and other Highland wilderness areas. The prospect of devolution - a Scottish parliament would address these long-standing grievances - has also concentrated minds."

The wind of change has unsettled landowners who will this week launch an unprecedented campaign to counter reformers' demands. At a special public meeting tomorrow, Graeme Gordon, convenor of the Scottish Landowners' Federation, which represents 4,000 estate owners north of the border who manage some seven million acres, will claim that the debate over land ownership is based on "dangerous generalisations and misleading assertions".

He will tell his audience that the "majority of landowners are committed custodians of natural heritage who provide jobs, housing and security for remote communities often at a personal financial loss".

As the prospect of a reforming Scottish parliament looms, the battle for the Highlands is only just beginning.
https://www.independent.co.uk/news/u...d-1320933.html

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 08-01-2018 at 05:11 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 12-01-2018, 10:13 PM   #50
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Entail

Primogeniture could not secure the continued ownership of an estate within a family if the eldest son was irresponsible or managed the land badly as bankruptcies and debts could see lands lost

Also the system of 'appraisal' meant that the debts of land owners were marketable and could be sold by the creditor to third parties.

With many noble families struggling with debts a series of acts were passed in the 1600's to prevent the loss of land through appraisals. The 'Entail' process was created to protect landowners from the market and involved the person who was to succeed to an estate being named in advance in the Register of Entails to ensure that the land would then pass to them. By 1825 half of scotland was held by entailed estates

'Adam Smith was against entails as well as primogeniture:
''Entails are thought necessary for maintaining this exclusive privilege of the nobility to the great offices and honours of their country; and that order having usurped one unjust advantage over the rest of their fellow citizens, lest their poverty should render it ridiculous, it is thought reasonable that they should have another.''
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 21-01-2018, 10:59 AM   #51
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Is It Time To Retire The Word "Capitalism"?
by Tyler Durden
Fri, 01/19/2018 - 10:49

Our current socio-economic system is nothing but the application of force on the many to enforce the skims, scams and privileges of the self-serving few.

I've placed the word capitalism in quotation marks to reflect the reality that this word now covers a wide spectrum of economic activities, very little of which is actually capitalism as classically defined. As I have explained here for over a decade, the U.S. economy is dominated by cartels and quasi-monopolies that are enforced by the Central State, a state-cartel system of financialized rentier skims that has no overlap with Adam Smith's free market, free enterprise concept,i.e. classical capitalism.

This is what passes for "capitalism" in modern-day America: the super-rich get super-richer, a thin slice of technocrats, speculators and entrepreneurs advance their wealth and the vast majority lose ground or stagnate:



Here's another snapshot of state-financier "capitalism" in modern-day America: the centralized organs of the state (the quasi-public Federal Reserve) creates trillions of dollars and hands the nearly free money to financiers, insiders and speculators, all of whom benefit immensely as this flood of cash pushes stocks into the stratosphere:



There are other versions of "capitalism" that are equally rapacious, all of which are iterations of crony-capitalism: gangster-capitalism, theocratic-capitalism, colonial-capitalism, and so on.

The key feature of these forms of organized pillage that mask their predatory nature by claiming to be "capitalist" is they ruthlessly suppress the three core dynamics of classical capitalism:

1. Competition

2. Open/free markets

3. Free flow of capital in all its forms (financial, social, intellectual, etc.)

The only way the few can pillage the many is if the many are denied access to competition, open markets and freely flowing capital. All the predatory, parasitic and exploitive systems that hide behind the word "capitalism" skim the wealth of the many into the hands of the few by limiting competition (cartels and monopolies such as sickcare and higher education), controlling markets (you must buy from the state-mandated cartels and monopolies) and restricting capital to insiders, financial elites and cronies of the state--three terms that describe one elite.

Once the few eliminate competition, open markets and access to capital, the many are enslaved, regardless of how many times the magic words "democracy" and "capitalism" are invoked to cover the systemic exploitation.

I propose we start calling things by their real names: state-financier systems of rentier skims, and all the other predatory, parasitic exploitive systems operated by the few at the expense of the many will no longer get the cover of the word "capitalism." They will be called what they are: exploitive, predatory, parasitic pillaging that enriches a corrupt self-serving elite that is enforced by a corrupt, self-serving state.

I propose we call free-market, free-enterprise, voluntary systems STOC: sustainable, transparent, opt-in, competition.

These dynamics are the antithesis of the state-cartel hierarchies that dominate the global economy and that function by enriching the few at the expense of the many. If a system is a sustainable, transparent, opt-in free marketplace of open competition, no elite could wrest control of the system to benefit itself at the expense of all the other participants.

I've explained why centralized hierarchies have only one possible output: soaring inequality and injustice in my books Resistance, Revolution, Liberation, Why Things Are Falling Apart, Inequality and the Collapse of Privilege and Why the Status Quo Failed and is Beyond Reform

I've sketched out an alternative way of living in my books Money and Work Unchained and A Radically Beneficial World.

If an economic/financial system isn't sustainable, transparent, opt-in, and wide open to competition, it isn't capitalism--it's a self-serving rentier skim trying to mask its predatory, rapacious reality. Remember, good ideas don't require force, and our current socio-economic system is nothing but the application of force on the many to enforce the skims, scams and privileges of the self-serving few.

It's time to retire the word "capitalism" and strip the predatory, self-serving and thoroughly corrupt elite of their phony cover.

* * *

My new book Money and Work Unchained is $9.95 for the Kindle ebook and $20 for the print edition. Read the first section for free in PDF format. If you found value in this content, please join me in seeking solutions by becoming a $1/month patron of my work via patreon.com.
https://www.zerohedge.com/news/2018-...ord-capitalism
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 28-01-2018, 08:39 PM   #52
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Feudalism in Transition

'Entails were finally abolished completely along with fuedal tenure on 28 November 2004 and the Register of Entails was consigned to the safekeeping of the National Archives of Scotland.

Of all the institutions of landownership that have developed in Scotland, primogeniture and entail are the two most responsible for the remarkable concentrated pattern of private landownership. I cannot put the argument better than Adam Smith himself:

'This original engrossing of uncultivated lands, though a great, might have been a transitory evil. They might soon have been divided again, and broken into small parcels either by succession or by alienation. The law of primogeniture hindered them from being divided by succession: the introduction of entails prevented their being broke into small parcels by alienation.'
-Wightman p35

''At the earliest stages of fuedalism, Crown feudal charters granted to native lords and immigrant anglo-normans were revocable by the king via acts of revocation at any time and this was the principle weapon used to maintain he loyalty and support of the nobles''-p35

The ability of the monarch to grant heritable feus came with an Act in 1503 however fues had to be renewed by a cash payment and the inheritance agreed by the monarch for the estate to pass to the next generation.
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 01-02-2018, 07:33 PM   #53
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Urinal in a pub in Glasgow that names three men involved in the highland clearances:

__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
Likes: (1)
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 07-02-2018, 08:53 AM   #54
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Life on Earth began in Scotland… with 440mn year old fungus, scientists discover
Published time: 2 Mar, 2016 18:17

University of Cambridge scientists have discovered the origins of land-based life on the Scottish Hebridean Island of Kerrera, in the form of a primitive fungus.

Tortotubus fungus, also found in Gotland, Sweden, is said to be one of the first organisms to make its way from the sea on to land.

The fungus, which is no taller than the width of a human hair, is the oldest land-dwelling organism on fossil record and is likely to have made the transition from the oceans over 440 million years ago.

Crucially for humans, the fungus kick-started the process of rot and soil, a condition pivotal to the evolution of mammals.

A report on the discovery suggests the fungus played an important role in the nitrogen cycle, which enabled a fertile layer of soil to build up.

“Before there could be flowering plants or trees, or the animals that depend on them, the processes of rot and soil formation needed to be established,” said Dr Martin Smith, who wrote a report on the discovery.

“During the period when this organism existed, life was almost entirely restricted to the oceans: nothing more complex than simple mossy and lichen-like plants had yet evolved on the land,” Smith said.
https://www.rt.com/uk/334335-life-sc...gus-cambridge/
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 08-02-2018, 07:42 AM   #55
raburgeson
Senior Member
 
raburgeson's Avatar
 
Join Date: Apr 2015
Posts: 1,382
Likes: 443 (296 Posts)
Default

If they provide you one you have no lawyer either. Right now today your representation in court depends on your ability to pay. Things do not change.
raburgeson is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 08-02-2018, 04:08 PM   #56
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Quote:
Originally Posted by raburgeson View Post
If they provide you one you have no lawyer either. Right now today your representation in court depends on your ability to pay. Things do not change.
law is built on shifting ground

this thread exposes how that legal ground was altered to allow powerful bloodline families to steal the land from the native people of scotland

Those people did not live lives defined by legalese or beurocracy. Despite their martial courage the pen did prove mightier than the sword and they were in what was essentially a con trick, displaced from their ancestral lands

Nowadays there are some lawyers who do care about the land ownership issue and hopefully they can win this battle on a the ground of their enemy. We can help them in that by making noise over this issue and keeping it at the forefront of public discussion
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 08-02-2018 at 04:09 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 13-02-2018, 05:01 PM   #57
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

The poor had no lawyers

As a fue passed down through generations but had to be renewed by a payment of cash it was essentially a lifelong tenancy

After the failed jacobite rising in 1745 a series of land reforms were passed.

''Wardholding was abolished as were heritable jurisdictions. Feuars (vassals in possession of a fuedal charter from a superior) were also liberated from the obligation to obtain their superiors consent for selling land and, by this reform, the beginnings of what is now recognised as Scottish landownership can be identified. landowners were free to develop their land with minimal interference from superiors or the crown. Of course, they still had to abide by the terms of their fuedal charter and the limitations that it laid down.

But not all legal authorities conspired to sanction the ease with which lawyers were able to annex land in the course of conveyances-annexations which, by subsequent occupation and further clever drafting, became part of their estate by stealth. Professor Cosmo Innes (1798-1874), the famous advocate and Professor of Universal History and Greek and Roman Antiquities at the University of Edinburgh, wrote in his lectures on scotch legal antiquities:

'I do not suppose that any cruelty or injustice was ever premeditated by the legislature or the government that there was any intention to favour the rich at the expense of the poor, but there are things in the history of our law that i cannot help censuring the more because i believe the evil was for the most part attributable to the straining of the law by lawyers. The books tell us what impediments the humane law in favour of the 'puir pepil that labours the grunde' had to encounter from the practicing lawyers of the day. I think as little humanity has been shown in the divisions of the commons. Looking over our country, the land held in common was of vast extent. In truth, the arable land- the cultivated land of scotland, the land early appropriated and held by charter- is a narrow strip on the river bank or beside the sea. The inland. the upland, the moor, the mountain were really not occupied at all for agricultural purposes, or served only to keep the poor and their cattle from starving. They were not thought of when charters were made and lands feudalised. Now as cultivation increased, the tendancy in the agricultural mind was to occupy these wide commons, and our lawyers lent themselves to appropriate the poor man's grazing to the neighbouring baron. They pointed to his charter with its clause of parts and pertinents, with its general clause of mosses and moors-clauses taken from the style book, not with any reference to the territory conveyed in that charter, and although the charter was hundreds of years old, and the lord had never possessed any of the common, when it came to be divided, the lord had never possessed any of the common, when it came to be divided, the lord got the whole that was allocated to the estate, and the poor cottar none. The poor had no lawyers.'

Not only did the poor have no lawyers. They spoke no latin either and were not in the habit of travelling to edinburgh on a regular basis to examine the title deeds of the nobility.'
wightman pgs 36-37
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24-02-2018, 12:18 PM   #58
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Meanwhile in England...

While the gaels were being lawyered off their lands in the north the english were fairing no better. The passing of the Inclosure Acts saw the transient summer work force that would look for work in the countryside forced of the land and into towns and cities. As the populations swelled in the towns and cities the public health situation decreased as conditions worsened. The larger urban populations were then exploited by the bloodlines in their 'industrial revolution' where the readily available supply of labour meant poor wages and work conditions became the norm

Inclosure Acts
(from wikipedia)

The Inclosure Acts[1] were a series of Acts of Parliament that empowered enclosure of open fields and common land in England and Wales, creating legal property rights to land that was previously held in common. Between 1604 and 1914, over 5,200 individual enclosure acts were passed, covering 6.8 million acres (2,800,000 ha; 28,000 km2).[2]

Prior to the enclosures in England, a portion of the land was categorized as "common" or "waste" or not in use. "Common" land was under the control of the lord of the manor, but a number of rights on the land (such as pasture, pannage, or estovers) were variously held by certain nearby properties, or (occasionally) held in gross by all manorial tenants. "Waste" was land without value as a farm strip – often very narrow areas (typically less than a yard wide) in awkward locations (like cliff edges, or inconveniently shaped manorial borders), but also bare rock, and so forth; "waste" was not officially used by anyone, and thus was often cultivated by landless peasants[3].

The remainder of the land was organised into a large number of narrow strips, with each tenant possessing a number of disparate strips throughout the manor, as would the manorial lord. Called the open field system, it was administered by manorial courts, which exercised some kind of collective control[3]. Thus what might now be considered a single field, would under this system have been divided among the lord and his tenants; poorer peasants (serfs or copyholders, depending on the era) would be allowed to live on the strips owned by the lord, in return for cultivating his land.[4] This system facilitated common grazing and crop rotation.[4]

Any particular individual might possess several strips of land within the manor, often separated by some distance from one another. In search of better financial returns, landowners looked for more efficient farming techniques[5]; enclosure Acts for small areas had been passed sporadically since the 12th century, but with the rise of new agricultural knowledge and technology in the 18th century, they became more commonplace. Because tenants (even copyholders) had legally enforcable rights on the land, substantial compensation was provided to extinguish them; as a result, many tenants were active supporters of enclosure, but the Acts enabled landlords to force reluctant tenants to comply with the process.

With securer control of the land, landlords were able and willing to make innovations that improved the crop yield, which led to the Agricultural Revolution; the higher productivity also enabled landowners to justify higher rents for the people working the land. In 1801, the Inclosure (Consolidation) Act was passed to tidy up previous acts. In 1845, another General Inclosure Act allowed for the appointment of Inclosure Commissioners who could enclose land without submitting a request to Parliament.

The tenants displaced by the process often left the countryside to work in the towns. The greater availability of food caused population numbers to rapidly expand, which meant that within a few generations, the compensation the tenants had received was spread so thinly among their descendants that many found themselves in penury.[citation needed] This made the industrial revolution possible – at the very moment new technological advances required large numbers of workers, a concentration of large numbers of people in need of work had emerged, together with a food supply productive enough to ensure the workers had the necessary energy; the former country tenants and their descendants became workers in industrial factories within cities[6].
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inclosure_Acts
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 24-02-2018 at 12:18 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24-02-2018, 12:24 PM   #59
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Penal transportation- another form of forced depopulation of britain
From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Penal transportation or simply transportation refers to the relocation of convicted criminals, or other persons regarded as undesirable, to a distant place, often a colony for a specified term; later, specifically established penal colonies became their destination. While the prisoners may have been released once the sentence was served, they generally did not have the resources to get themselves back home.

England transported its convicts, political prisoners as well as prisoners of war from Scotland and Ireland to its overseas colonies in the Americas from the 1610s until early in the American Revolution in 1776, when transportation to America was temporarily suspended by the Criminal Law Act 1776 (16 Geo. 3 c.43).[1] The practice was mandated in Scotland by an act of 1785, but was less used there than in England. Transportation on a large scale resumed with the departure of the First Fleet to Australia in 1787, and continued there until 1868.

Initially based on the royal prerogative of mercy,[4] and later under English Law, transportation was an alternative sentence imposed for a felony; it was typically imposed for offences for which death was deemed too severe. By 1670, as new felonies were defined, the option of being sentenced to transportation was allowed.[5][6] Forgery of a document, for example, was a capital crime until the 1820s, when the penalty was reduced to transportation. Depending on the crime, the sentence was imposed for life or for a set period of years. If imposed for a period of years, the offender was permitted to return home after serving out his time, but had to make his own way back. Many offenders thus stayed in the colony as free persons, and might obtain employment as jailers or other servants of the penal colony.

Transportation was not used by Scotland before the Act of Union 1707; following union, the 1717 Transportation Act specifically excluded its usage in Scotland.[7] Under the Transportation, etc. Act 1785 (25 Geo. 3 c. 46) the Parliament of Great Britain specifically extended the usage of transportation to Scotland.[8] It remained little used[9] under Scots Law until the early 19th century.

Transportation to North Ameri
ca

From the early 1600s until the American Revolution of 1776, the British colonies in North America received transported British criminals. In the 17th century transportation was carried out at the expense of the convicts or the shipowners. The Transportation Act 1717 allowed courts to sentence convicts to seven years' transportation to America. In 1720, an extension authorised payments by the Crown to merchants contracted to take the convicts to America. Under the Transportation Act, returning from transportation was a capital offence.[49][55] The number of convicts transported to North America is not verified although it has been estimated to be 50,000 by John Dunmore Lang and 120,000 by Thomas Keneally. Maryland received a larger felon quota than any other province.[56] Many prisoners were taken in battle from Ireland and Scotland and sold into indentured servitude, usually for a number of years.[57][page needed]

The American Revolution brought transportation to an end. The remaining British colonies in what is now Canada were close to the new United States of America, thus prisoners sent there might become hostile to British authorities. British gaols became overcrowded, and dilapidated ships moored in various ports were pressed into service as floating gaols known as "hulks"[58]. As a result, the British Government decided to look elsewhere.

Transportation to Australia

In 1787, the "First Fleet" of convict ships departed from England to establish the first British settlement in Australia, as a penal colony. The fleet arrived at Port Jackson (Sydney) on 26 January 1788, a date now celebrated as Australia Day. Norfolk Island was a convict penal settlement from 1788-94, and again from 1824-47. The First Fleet included boats containing food and animals from London. The ships and boats of the fleet would explore the coast of Australia by sailing all around it looking for suitable farming land and resources. In 1803, Van Diemen's Land (modern-day Tasmania) was also settled as a penal colony, followed by the Moreton Bay Settlement (Queensland) in 1824. The other Australian colonies were "free settlements", as non-convict colonies were known. However, the Swan River Colony (Western Australia) accepted transportation from England and Ireland in 1851, to resolve a long-standing labour shortage. Until the massive influx of immigrants during the Australian gold rushes of the 1850s, the free settlers had been outnumbered by English and Irish convicts and their descendants. However, compared to America, Australia received many more English prisoners.

Transportation from Britain and Ireland officially ended in 1868, although it had become uncommon several years earlier.[59]
https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Penal_transportation
__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali

Last edited by iamawaveofthesea; 24-02-2018 at 12:25 PM.
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Old 24-02-2018, 12:28 PM   #60
iamawaveofthesea
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Jan 2014
Posts: 24,603
Likes: 12,845 (7,346 Posts)
Default

Daoirí Farrell - Van Diemen's Land

__________________
polish your heart- Al ghazali
iamawaveofthesea is offline   Reply With Quote
Reply

Bookmarks

Thread Tools

Posting Rules
You may not post new threads
You may not post replies
You may not post attachments
You may not edit your posts

BB code is On
Smilies are On
[IMG] code is On
HTML code is On

Forum Jump


All times are GMT. The time now is 08:44 AM.


Shoutbox provided by vBShout (Lite) - vBulletin Mods & Addons Copyright © 2018 DragonByte Technologies Ltd.