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Old 23-12-2011, 11:09 PM   #1
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Default Inderdiscipline Synthesis Cosmology

Interdiscipline Synthesis Cosmology (ISC)

There is a new intellectual effort striving for the truest and most complete description of reality based on all of the information in the world. It is called "Interdiscipline Synthesis Cosmology" (ISC), which is a label for the understanding of the universe obtained from combining information from a large number of endeavors.

ISC must therefore be considered a natural philosophy, rather than a purely scientific theory or religious doctrine, or an in-between compromise, for it will necessarily include many theories and doctrines, and many other philosophies, as well as information from myth, legend, folklore, ancient history, and other knowledge applied to cosmology. It must submit to the scientific method, but that cannot be an excuse to dismiss non-scientific concepts. And a complete ISC would include all of the information in the world as its database.

As a result of investigating the possibility of constructing a valid ISC, then it seems one can conclude that the arts are the natural synthesis of physics and spirituality. There is something all-inclusive about artist's ability to express themselves; to imagine new and complicated subjects; to create new things; and to tap into those metaphysical aspects of our humanity that cannot be detected, even by the most advanced scientific instruments, and which theologians are always attempting to explain. The arts can thus be viewed as the key to understanding how we combine all of the seemingly contradictory information that will be considered in coming up with the complete ISC.

Ideally, therefore, given sufficient time, we can use ISC as a basis for devising a Theory of Existence (ToE), which would be designed to comprehensively describe reality both in scientifically sound and theologically relevant terms. The so-called "holy grail" of the physics community, the Grand Unified Field Theory, would be included in such a theory, as would all non-physics philosophies, religious/spiritual considerations, and so on.

Is not modern physics an investigation into the unseen aspects of nature?
Is not science-fiction simply a collection of modern myths?
Is not theology essentially a branch of metaphysics?

Many scientists are interested in uncovering the deep secrets of nature; the unseen aspects of our existence; the hidden explanations for how different natural processes work (even when they are beholding to corporate and/or government special-interests). How then can science continue to advance our understanding in the future if so many of the conceptualizations scientists rely on are inaccurate or incomplete?

Yes, science has given us many wonderful things, and has advanced our understanding of nature (besides also providing weapons, chemicals, and other harmful things). But there is also recognition that our explanations of natural processes are very limited. And such limitations are likely to dampen future rates of technological and cognitive advancement.

It seems that the next intellectual step-up in our evolutionary development will require a method of finding the most comprehensive view of reality; that is, the most accurate and complete understanding of our existence -- for, without that, we are but a many-minded collective; groping about in-search of meaning for our lives in an information maelstrom.

ISC promises to give us that method, which may lead, in turn, to valid ISC theories.

For instance, there is the prospect that physicists, by ISC, will be given the means to delve more deeply into the so-called "unseen" realms of existence (alternate-dimensional universes) previously considered "spirit" realms (and therefore called "mythological"), while theologians will be given a reputable theoretical means by which they may at last suggest real-world experiments designed to reveal the nature of spirit energies; even the very substance of spirit creatures (and of spirit entities considered all-powerful).

In these respects, it will likely be the endeavor of Tachyonics (study of tachyons) that make such efforts possible, and therefore allows us to create the ultimate ISC ToE.

One outstanding feature of Tachyonics is that it implies the existence of living things made of tachyons, including sentient life-forms. In fact, if we couple the suggestion that tachyons exist to the suggestion that our universe is only one among billions of alternate-dimensional universes, then we can conclude (by recalling the light-cone from Einstein's theory of Special Relativity) that there is one special alternate-dimensional universe that co-exists with the observable universe, and that alternate universe is tachyonic in nature. What is more, the tachyonic universe may be populated by aliens made-up of tachyonic analogs of the real and virtual particles already discovered by experimental physicists.

In other words, if there is a non-zero probability that alien life exists "out there" in the observable universe, then it is likely that alien life exists in at least some of the alternate-dimensional universes postulated to exist; including the tachyonic universe.

The entire collection of alternate-dimensional universes with which we humans may have any theoretical concern (tachyonic or not) is called the "multiverse". But who knows what exists in any of the included alternate-dimensional space-time realms?

Indeed, a primary implication here is that some of the alternate-dimensional aliens that reside in the multiverse may resemble those entities which ancient documents indicate people sometimes came into contact with, in events such as encounters, sightings, and so on, and whom they label as the various "gods", "angels", "demons", and other allegedly supernatural forms of life that science still largely regards as mythical (nonexistent).

Note, therefore, that Tachyonics creates common-ground between physics and theology, since it can be used to describe alternate-dimensional "realms" of space-time imagined by anyone, from the science-fiction writer to the scholarly theologian. And these imaginary realms are allowed to contain any number of alternate-dimensional entities, or forces, or energies, or whatever else we can conceptualize for them.

Tachyonics, as a founding endeavor of ISC, can also provide extrapolation for curious experimenters to use in describing and understanding the unseen aspects of existence that are called "supernatural", but which can now, thereby, be investigating empirically, and for which they previously had no formal scientific terminology.

To be sure, scientists of the future, performing experiments with tachyons, will have need of just such a mathematically rigorous but theoretically flexible representations scheme.

Thus, presently, in realizing that ISC may become useful for explaining detectable and undetectable aspects of reality, for describing and quantifying all of the actual-imaginary variables we will be using in the future, in addition to all of the symbolically-imaginary variables we are already familiar with, scientists have an intellectual footing upon which they may design real instrumentation and test equipment that allows them soon to detect tachyons and/or tachyonic energies -- which will surely lead to means of manipulating tachyons, and thus to practical applications of tachyonic energies.

Make no mistake, Tachyonics offers to us the prospect of incredible technological advancements -- among them: instantaneous interstellar communications systems, the breaking of the lightspeed barrier to spaceflight, and machines that can tap into unlimited sources of energy. And it will certainly be ISC that enables us to comprehend the applied science and engineering required of all such efforts in the future.

Indeed, ISC portends to reveal to us the very physics of the gods.
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Old 25-12-2011, 04:50 PM   #2
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Part 1, Introduction to Tachyons

In this discussion, I will normally use the mathematical definitions of the words "real" and "imaginary"; not their usual literary meanings. If the literary meanings are to be taken instead, I will specify in the text that this is the case. The difference is this; in mathematics, to say something is "imaginary" does not signify that it does not exist; it merely indicates that it belongs to a class that simply cannot be labeled as "real".

Search phrases are: imaginary number, imaginary unit, complex numbers.

For proper understanding, readers must be familiar with the idea of imaginary numbers. So, a brief explanation is given here. Consider: there are some numbers that cannot be included in the set of all real numbers. For instance, there is no real number, x, whose square-root is negative unity; x^(1/2) = -1. However, we can imagine such a number, as follows. Let i = (-1)^(1/2) so that i^2 = -1. Then, for some real number x, we can get the square-root of its negative by writing;
(-x)^(1/2) = [(-1)x]^(1/2) = [(-1)^(1/2)][x^(1/2)] = i[x^(1/2)].
Example: (-25)^(1/2) = [(-1)(25)]^(1/2) = [(-1)^(1/2)][(25)^(1/2)] = i5 .
Such a number is called an "imaginary number".

It happens that the hypothetical particle called the "tachyon" must be described as an imaginary quantity; meaning, variables denoting many of its physical quantities must be multiplied by a negatively-signed imaginary-unit. That said, I introduce the technical concept of faster-than-light (FTL) particles, also referred to as being "superluminal" in nature, and therefore placed in the wider category of superluminal phenomena.

According to Einstein’s theory of Special Relativity (SR), the mass M of a moving particle is different than the mass m of the same particle at-rest in the same frame of reference (coordinate system), as given by a formula denoted;
M = m/[{1-[(v/c)^2]**^(1/2)] ,
where v is the particle's velocity, and c is the lightspeed constant (~ 186,000 mi/sec); as viewed from our everyday (standard) frame of reference. (Serway, 1124)

Obviously, due to the fact that the denominator on the right involves the square-root of a difference, then there are three solutions with respect to the value of v, relative to the lightspeed constant, c;
(1) If v < c, then the above denominator is real and nonzero, which ensures that m is a real quantity; therefore moving mass, M, is positive and real (said to be "bradyonic").
(2) If v = c, then the denominator is infinite, which would be a problem, except that, if we say that the particle has no mass at all, so that m = 0, then the infinity is negated. This, therefore, is the case for massless photons of light (also called "luxons"); described using their energy, momentum, frequency, etc. (without referring to mass).
(3) If v > c, then the denominator is an imaginary number (because it is the square-root of a negative number), which makes m an imaginary quantity, in-turn making the moving mass, M, negative and imaginary. This is the case for particles that travel faster-than-light (FTL), called "tachyons". (Lerner, 1246)

Tachyons have reversed causality, because they exist with negative time (compared to bradyons, with positive time), and always travel FTL. Named “tachyons” by physicist Gerald Feinberg in 1967 (Feinberg, 69), such a particle would also have negative energy and/or momentum, as calculated from a standard reference-frame. And, according to Einstein's energy equation E = m(c^2) (when you plug different velocity values into the equation for M), it would take an infinite amount of energy to slow a tachyon down to lightspeed, just as it takes infinite energy to accelerate an ordinary mass up to lightspeed.

This does not, however, definitively prohibit the existence of tachyons, since it is quite possible that just as many tachyons of various kinds were created in the Big Bang as were the elementary particles we have discovered so far. What is more, since an infinite speed is the tachyon’s zero-energy level, it is not outside the bounds of plausible inference to postulate the generation of very-high-speed tachyons by various bradyonic interactions, because the energy required to do so could be very small.

There is also evidence that we exist in a universe that is actually embedded in an infinite multitude of alternative universes; a so-called "multiverse". That is, the known universe abides in a super-dimensionality, which allows that there exists at least one tachyonic analog of the visible universe; complete with tachyonic analogs of all the elementary particles. (Kane, 13)

Here, then, is how a tachyon appears to work, in simple terms.

Imagine, for a moment, that we have a "magic" gun which shoots imaginary bullets that can travel FTL. That is, the bullets are tachyonic. But we also have a normal gun that we use to shoot a hole in a relatively thin, wooden board which any normal bullet can punch a hole in.

Because of impact and friction and other considerations, a normal bullet will impart some of its forward momentum to the wood as it makes a hole in the board, so that a certain amount of its generalized forces are imparted overall to the board in the direction of the bullet's momentum. It pushes the board in its direction of travel, as it makes a hole through the board.

A tachyonic bullet, however, would impart its corresponding forces in the opposite direction to its direction of travel, as viewed from a standard frame, should we next shoot an identical board with the magic gun, because tachyons would pull towards their source, rather than push away from their source, as they pass through an ordinary object.

And it would appear to a standard observer (assuming we can somehow see a tachyonic bullet) as if the tachyonic bullet came from infinity and landed in the barrel of the magic gun at the instant the trigger was pulled; as if a video of the normal event was run in reverse (though a hole would still be made in the board). What is more, a tachyonic bullet would theoretically be so much more destructive than any ordinary bullet that it could reach unimaginable destructive power, because its superluminal speed would result in an extreme magnitude of forward momentum.

Another profound aspect of the tachyon is that it could very well speed-up as it loses energy, which is the opposite of ordinary particles (which slow down if losing energy). Indeed, the rest energy of a tachyon corresponds to infinite speed (theoretically). And this could have major implications for the long-term evolution of the universe, due to the effect on the entropy of the universe at-large.

In any event, there has been no emphatic evidence to-date, either for or against the existence of tachyons, so there has been no shortage of scientists who oppose the very suggestion that such particles may actually exist, although there are increasing numbers who are taking the possibility seriously. Admittedly, we do not presently possess the capability of manipulating particles that travel FTL in subatomic regions for useful purposes. Hence, the idea of tachyons remains a mere science-fiction concept (although that should soon change).

Nevertheless, there are experimental indications that real particles can be made to go FTL, and there are astronomical observations of objects in the universe that seem to be moving at FTL speeds. What is more, there are no theoretical prohibitions against the existence of tachyons, or against things made of them existing on the other side of the lightspeed barrier. Phenomena involving FTL speeds are referred to as exhibiting "superluminal" (beyond lightspeed) behavior, and experimental investigations into superluminal phenomena include searches for tachyons. So, I take the implications from SR, and the mounting data being collected in the growing trend towards investigating superluminal phenomena, as good enough for me to assume that tachyons exist.

The general study of tachyons can be called "Tachyonics", and includes all efforts to understand, detect, and eventually utilize tachyons and tachyonic energies.

Feinberg, G. “Particles That Go Faster Than Light”, Sci. Am., Feb. ‘70; pp. 69-77.
Kane, G.L. “Experimental Evidence for More Dimensions ...”, Physics Today, May, '98; pp. 13-15.
Lerner, R.G. & Trigg, G.L. Ency. of Physics, 2nd Ed. VCH Publishers, '91.
Serway, R.A. Physics for Scientists and Engineers, 3rd Ed. Harcourt Brace, '92.

Last edited by hkurtrichter; 25-12-2011 at 05:02 PM. Reason: Grammer.
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Old 31-12-2011, 05:48 PM   #3
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The Most Accurate View Of Reality Will Be Provided By ISC

To correctly understand astrological forces, actual magic, and paranormal phenomena in general, we need the most accurate view of our reality that is humanly possible. But to acquire something like that, we must consider all of human knowledge, and there is an overwhelming amount of information to be learned. It is simply impossible for normal individuals to absorb enough data to come to a wholly complete understanding of reality that involves the knowledge from all of human endeavor.

Yet, there is a new natural philosophy that presents itself, to help us solve this dilemma. Called "Interdiscipline Synthesis Cosmology", or "ISC", it is a combination of physical and metaphysical ideas on the nature of the universe, though it is not yet wholly formed.

Literally self explanatory, ISC will be gleaned from a synthesis of as many intellectual disciplines as are needed for generalized completeness. That is, ISC is merely a title denoting a description of reality that results from mixing as many avenues of thought as are required to devise the most accurate and comprehensive view of our existence.

Because the required conceptualization will depend on a number of diverse areas of investigation, ISC is also considered a natural philosophy, as opposed to a lone scientific theory, religious doctrine, or metaphysical treatise, although it must necessarily take into account large numbers of such theories, doctrines, etc., because it's stated purpose is to arrive at the most plausible view of our existence (simultaneously incorporating physics, metaphysics, theology, and so on, without restrictions on information input). Thus, the complete ISC must summarize all human knowledge, and can leave no precepts out of the whole, regardless of whether one discipline is in conflict with another.

And how is this done?

The elements that make up the ISC scenario are chosen as the empiricisms from each discipline by consensus among scholars, and all other contributors in each discipline, despite divisions among contributors, or whether an empirical statement in one discipline conflicts with that in another discipline. The criteria is simply that any given idea is to be considered "empirical" in any discipline within which it is held a fundamental concept by at least three contributors in that discipline. What is more, contributors need not be the established authorities in every discipline, but can include anyone with an interest in a given topic, and who submits information for inclusion into the ISC database.

For example, in many religions, the statement that "willful murder is an evil act" would be held as an empirical tenet of such religions. And it requires only that at least three contributors submit statements to that effect, for the statement to be accepted into the database from which ISC is constructed.

Empiricisms from a sufficiently large number of disciplines (or all, if desired) are then compared to each other, and those which are in conflict can be separated (though not disregarded) and distinguished as the Set of All Contradictions. Whatever is left over after the Contradictions are removed is the basic collection of empirical statements that form the Core of Empirical Statements for the ISC we are attempting to acquire. With that, some logical method of statement resolution can be employed to render as many Contradictions as possible into empirical statements, so the Core can be maximized.

Take the difference between evolution theory and fundamentalist creationism. Clearly the statement that "life was an accident of nature" is quite at odds with the statement that "life was given to us by a creator god". However, it is easy enough to introduce qualifiers in each of these statements, to make them empirical. Thus, we merely state: "Numerous scientists hold that life was an accident of nature." And: "Many religious people believe that life was given to us by a creator god." Thus, both sentiments are restated to make them empirical statements, so they can be included in the Core, since no decision need be made about the validity of either opinion. The empirical versions, though only slightly altered from the originals, constitute valid information input to the ISC Database Core.

One result of preliminary efforts in this respect is the conclusion that the Arts are the natural synthesis of Physics and Spirituality. This would explain, for instance, why some artistic accomplishments (musical, poetic, etc.) are referred to as being "magical" in the way they can effect us emotionally.

ISC may ultimately establish a Theory of Existence (ToE) capable of describing natural processes in both physical and theological terms, as well as explaining all other aspects of our reality. The Grand Unified Field theory sought by physicists, for example, will necessarily be included in such a theory (of course), and will serve as the fundamental conceptualization for that portion of the ToE which explains the visible universe, the current set of elementary particles, and the four basic interaction forces of nature.

There is also the added benefit that ISC may offer ways out of a wide array of modern intellectual quagmires. Consider the possibility that scientists relying on ISC may be given means of delving into ordinarily unattainable areas of research in the microcosm and macrocosm, such as supernatural phenomena, while theologians may be supplied with reputable means by which they may demonstrate, at last, the actual nature of spirit entities -- including the nature even of a supreme being (i.e., an alternate-dimensional alien with characteristics identical to a creator god).

Indeed, the first inescapable result of ISC will likely be that the hypothetical particle called the tachyon (a particle which always travels faster than light) explains some of the most puzzling questions about reality that we know. Three of these questions are: (1) What are spirit creatures made of? (2) What is quantum gravity? (3) What is thought? And the answers are: (1) Spirit creatures apparently have forms made up of tachyons. (2) Gravity quanta are probably special types of tachyons that travel between lightspeed and infinite speed. (3) Thought likely results from the ability of our physical brains to
interact with a ubiquitous but as-yet undetected superluminal energy field.

These apparently new explanations of three mysterious aspects of reality seem destined to become undeniable, according to early work in ISC.

And the notion of the tachyon can be used to explain many other phenomena, including a far-flung array both of unusual natural and of supernatural phenomena. The inevitable result, of course, as strange as it seems, would be the blurring of lines between physics and metaphysics; the elimination of differences between theoretical physicists and theologians. The eventual end, it appears, of many heated and ongoing debates, but the opening of uncounted directions of research and experiment not yet imagined.

Considering what it will take to produce an all-inclusive ISC, therefore, causes us to realize the importance of the tachyon. It is the study of the tachyon (i.e., Tachyonics) that will at-length be the endeavor through which humans are given the most accurate view of our reality -- for it presents the promise of explaining a host of things that are now referred to as "unexplained", including the nature of all paranormal phenomena.
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Old 08-01-2012, 03:12 PM   #4
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Tachyonics and ISC

In my quest to find the most comprehensive view of reality, I have determined that we need a complete Interdiscipline Synthesis Cosmology (ISC) from which we may obtain a concise Theory of Existence (ISC ToE) which will allow us to study all of the relevant information on any subject (including mystical subjects) in an empirical fashion. To get there, then, because we do not yet have such an ISC, but assuming it is feasible, we can begin to construct an ISC Core upon which we build by in-putting data, so as to construct eventually the overall body of ISC, from which an hypothesis can be formed that gives way to a testable model corresponding to the desired ToE.

Researching the subject of cosmology as part of this effort, one comes across Albert Einstein's theory of Special Relativity, which shows that it takes an infinite amount of energy to accelerate a real massive object up to lightspeed. And since we do not have access to infinite amounts of energy, and most of the mainstream particle physicists say they cannot directly detect or utilize particles that move faster than light over quantum (subatomic) distances, the first impulse was to conclude that nothing can go faster-than-light, and, therefore, that nothing exists on the other side of lightspeed. But this is not actually an empirical assumption, since Relativity does not specifically require that nothing can go faster-than-light. It merely indicates that we cannot obtain tachyons by accelerating a known bradyon to or past lightspeed. It does not, then, "prove" that particles which already exist on the other side of lightspeed cannot be there.

Certainly, there was at least a near infinite amount of usable energy expended in the so-called Big Bang that occurred at the beginning of the visible universe, that could have been sufficient to create tachyons, along with all of the particles physicists have detected -- that is, it is highly possible that particles of various sorts were imparted with velocities at that time that were faster-than-light. So, Einstein's Special Theory of Relativity can be viewed as predicting the existence of such FTL particles, called "tachyons".

It turns out that tachyons will probably play a vital role in the development of ISC, made evident while one attempts to form an ISC Core of data. In particular, ISC appears to be implying that the assumption that tachyons exist is a necessary condition (not sufficient, in and of itself, but necessary). And though this condition is not enough to result in a complete ISC, it does help to give us the most correct conceptualization of reality when incorporated with everything else we know about our existence.

Meanwhile, it is possible at this time to draw conclusions based on the understanding we acquire from adopting Tachyonics to help us explain as many previously unexplained natural and supernatural phenomena to which the endeavor can be applied. An example is the guess that gravity is faster-than-light, and must therefore be a tachyonic force. Additionally, Tachyonics promises a great many advances in our technology in the not-too-distant future, including instantaneous interstellar communications systems, the building of spaceships capable of physically breaking the lightspeed barrier to space-flight, and possible access to infinite or near-infinite amounts of energy.

"Tachyonics" is the label for the study of tachyons. But what exactly are tachyons?

A tachyon, often mentioned in modern science-fiction stories, is an hypothetical particle which always travels faster-than-light, and possesses reversed causality (negative time) compared to ordinary particles (called "bradyons"). As a result, a tachyon must have an imaginary mass and/or energy, mathematically speaking, as viewed from a standard bradyonic frame of reference (e.g., standard coordinate system).

Experimentally, there is no definitive proof for, or against, the existence of tachyons, although there are serious mathematical and experimental implications which point to their existence. Formally, for instance, certain implications from Einstein's theory of Special Relativity are used to predict the existence of tachyons, although our technology must progress to the point at which such objects can be detected sub-atomically, before indisputable evidence for them, and their various properties, can be collected.

Yet, implications of Einstein's Relativity are not to be taken lightly, regardless of whether experimental proof of a prediction based on the theory is available at this time in history. People interested in seeking truth, therefore, might benefit -- if only as an exercise -- by taking stock of the mathematics involved. Furthermore, if we set personal preferences aside, then we must acknowledge that there is no reason to reject the notion of tachyons, or to blithely assign a zero probability to their existence.

The formula for the relativistic mass Mr of a moving particle can be denoted;
Mr = M / [{(1-[(v/c)^2]**^(1/2)] ,
where M is the particle's rest-mass, v is its velocity, and c is the lightspeed constant.
[c = approx. 3x10^8 meters/second = approx. 186,000 miles/second.]
Traditionally, a possible tachyonic mass, Mt, can be taken as an analog of the relativistic mass (Mr) by writing;
Mt = -iMr,
where i is the standard imaginary-unit. [i = (-1)^(1/2) ; i^2 = -1 .]
[Note that the minus sign on the imaginary-unit is mandatory, in this definition.]

Examples of Empirical Implications for the Existence of Tachyons:
(1) There are large-scale interstellar systems which appear to involve superluminal speeds, relative to other interstellar objects. And while these may not be tachyonic, they prove that things in the universe can at-least appear to be traveling faster-than-light.
[For details, web-search the specific phrase: "Superluminal Velocities in Quasars".]
(2) There are experiments involving the phenomenon of photonic tunneling which imply that photons of electromagnetism can sometimes be made to behave like tachyonic analogs of themselves; crossing real distances faster-than-light. That is, photons can momentarily obtain superluminal speeds under certain laboratory conditions.
[For details, web-search the specific phrase: "Superluminal Photonic Tunneling".]
(3) There have been experiments in which neutrinos have turned up with negative rest-masses; indicating that they can behave like tachyons, or they have tachyonic structure.
[For details, web-search the specific phrase: "Superluminal Behavior of Neutrinos."]
(4) The phenomena referred to as "quantum entanglement", in which bradyons that start-out closely connected appear to maintain some form of connection after separation finds an explanation in the assumption that the connection is tachyonic in nature.
[For details, web-search the specific phrase: "Quantum Entanglement."]

And the list goes on.

In light of these kinds of considerations, but due to the lack of well-funded experiments in which tachyons are the subject, it must be viewed as sufficient to take these and the given mathematical implications as reason-enough to guess that tachyons exist.

The study of tachyons, or "Tachyonics", gives new insights into previously unexplained natural and supernatural phenomena, and can therefore serve as the founding discipline upon which a valid Interdiscipline Synthesis Cosmology (ISC) can be built, from which, in turn, we will develop of an all-inclusive Theory of Existence (ToE) capable of giving us the most accurate understanding of reality that is humanly possible.

Last edited by hkurtrichter; 08-01-2012 at 03:21 PM. Reason: Correcting typos.
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Old 14-01-2012, 01:32 AM   #5
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Part 2, Introduction to Superluminal Gravitation


I describe gravity as a superluminal force by suggesting that point-like tachyons give rise to the causally-reversed radiation pressure we experience as Newton’s law of universal gravitation.

The idea involves setting Schrödinger’s wave equation equivalent to the equation of a line in space, for the tachyon held as causing gravitation. In particular, this model of gravity envisions an infinitesimally small point-particle, epitomizing the mathematical notion of a point in space, and suggests that there may exist such point-like tachyons radiating naturally (and constantly) from all real masses in all directions; each such tachyon traveling perfect Euclidean-straight lines from their sources to infinity, imparting some of their causally-reversed momentum to all of the “real” objects through which they pass on their journey. And since reversed causality orients an imparted momentum-vector in the opposite direction to the direction of the tachyon's travel, then such tachyons would collectively establish negative radiation pressure in ordinary space. This is what we understand as the gravity described by Newton’s law of gravitation, locally, and by Einstein’s General Theory of Relativity, when dealing with large astronomical reaches.

Also, if gravity is tachyonic, and there is a superluminal universe in connection with the detectable universe (but unseen due to existing in alternate-dimensional space-time), then the gravity from tachyonic matter would cause repulsion for all ordinary matter, and this could explain the "dark energy" and "dark matter" that astronomers are interested in understanding more completely.

I provide here a textual rendering of my theory. Readers are invited to check my work (e.g., search keywords). But since it is speculative, it can be ignored.

The Concept of Tachyons and Tachyonic Spacetime

Einstein’s famous equation for the rest-mass of a real particle is;
E = m(c^2),
where E is energy, m is mass, and c is the lightspeed constant. But it is derived from the energy equation for a moving mass, involving momentum;
E^2 = (pc)^2 + [m(c^c]^2,
where p is the particle’s momentum.
The difference is that momentum at rest is zero. And the problem with that is; the reference-frame for a resting particle is relative to the observer, and must be specified case-by-case. There is no absolute rest-frame; everything in existence moves somehow, relative to everything else. Nevertheless, let us use the simplified formula, because it is easier to work with.

If E = m(c^2) is positive, for a real mass, m , then -E = -m(c^2) can designate the analogous tachyonic mass, -m ; i.e., particle of mass -m and energy -E is a tachyon (faster-than-light, FTL), where, if v is any velocity. Thus, we have the three cases:
(1) 0 < v < c for ordinary particles, called “bradyons”,
(2) v = c for massless particles, called “photons” and “luxons“, and
(3) c < v < (infinity) for tachyons obtained as analogs of bradyons.
[Other tachyons can be imagined, including those traveling infinitely fast, but I view most of those as accounting for other phenomena.]

Next, let's define convenient variables, to make for concise text;
v+ = v where 0 < v < c , for bradyons,
v = c , for photons, and
v- = v where c < v < (infinity), for tachyons.
Also, assign special symbols for other important variables.
For a bradyon, let m+ be the mass, E+ the energy, and p+ the momentum.
For a photon or luxon, let m = 0 , E be energy, and p be the momentum.
For a tachyon, let m- be the mass, E- the energy, and p+ the momentum.

The Empirical Variables:
{bradyons: v+, m+, E+, p+ | (E+)^2 = [(p+)c]^2 + [(m+)(c^2)]^2 **
{photons: v = c , m = 0 , E , p | E^2 = (pc)^2 **
{tachyons: v- , m- , E- , p- | (E-)^2 = [(pt-)c]^2 + [(m-)(c^2)]^2 **

These are the most important empirical (testable) quantities and formulas, here.

Notice that there is no absolute zero velocity, regardless of the reference-frame; even for the center of the detectable universe, because we do not know if the center of the universe is moving with respect to empty space. Consequently, a zero velocity specified for a given real reference-frame is purely relative, while an absolute zero velocity is an imaginary quantity. And there exists no absolute infinite velocity for a tachyon, although a relative infinite velocity can be specified, theoretically, in a tachyonic reference-frame.

We should also address the issue of the lightspeed constant, to remove possible ambiguity. For example, we now know that all the physical constants (including lightspeed) change slowly with time, as the universe expands, although we can continue to use the latest confirmed values of the “constants” for most purposes. But the knowledge that the lightspeed constant changes along with the evolution of the universe begets important ramifications for cosmologists. It does not, as a rule, however, alter the present discussion very much. Yet, it warrants mention. And regardless of it, I make use of the lightspeed constant just as Einstein did. Hence, to stress my reliance on the lightspeed constant, c , recall the relativity operator, R, Einstein made use of, and which is derived from the Lorentz Transformations. It is defined;
R = 1 / sqrt{1 - [(v/c)^2]** .
[Einstein preferred the Greek letter alpha for this.]

Applying R multiplicatively to some quantity associated with a rest-state for a particle results in the corresponding quantity for the particle in motion; assuming standard coordinate systems. For instance, if m+ is a resting particle‘s mass, we can let M+ = Rm+ be the moving mass. Similarly, R can be applied to other measurable or calculable quantities, such as velocity, momentum, and time (rendering them “relativistic”).

It's this operator, R, that implies the existence of tachyons (particles that always travel FTL, and which are said to be “superluminal” in character), due to the presence of the velocity ratio, v/c , under a radical-sign in the denominator. To the point, the three overall categories of particles (bradyons, photons, and tachyons) arise directly from applying the operator in describing reality.

Take a generic rest-mass, m , as an example, where M = Rm defines the corresponding moving mass. So, whenever v < c , then R is a real number, and therefore M is real.
But if v = c , then, by convention, R = 0 (or else it is said to be “undefined”), making M = 0 , which is the specific case for photons.
Thus, if v > c , then R is an imaginary number, making M an imaginary mass.
We thus justify the nomenclature; m+ is bradyonic rest-mass, m = 0 is photonic rest-mass, and m- is tachyonic rest-mass -- so moving masses are;
M+ = Rm+ , M = Rm = 0 , and M- = Rm- .
With velocities, we can let; V+ = Rv+ , V = Rv = c , and V- = Rv- .
And with time, let T+ = Rt+ , T = Rt , and T- = Rt- .

Important! Use the equation for R to plot a graph setting velocity against time in three-dimensional space, to give the “light cone” of Special Relativity.
[Online reference http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Light_cone.]
[Print reference, textbook Modern Physics for Scientists and Engineers, by Thornton & Rex, Saunders College Publishing, '93. Pg. 50, 1st edition.]

Mere inspection of the light-cone (and test-runs of the formula for R) suggests that the universe has three time-dependent "regions"; the past, present, and future for an event, or for a moving object. It can also suggest the existence of objects (such as subatomic particles) that are not "real", mathematically, but which are not strictly forbidden, theoretically, on the other side of lightspeed.

A tachyon is one such object, with negative time (reversed causality), and imaginary mass (compared to bradyons, with real mass and positive time).

Tachyons travel backwards in time as viewed from a standard bradyonic system in which time-flow is counted as "forward" for positive real mass. However, a tachyon would have positive time as viewed from a superluminal system, from which normal bradyons would appear to have negative time.

The important consequence in context is that a tachyon's momentum will appear opposite to that of an analogous bradyon, as seen from a bradyonic system. One can assume, then, that a collision between a tachyon and bradyon would result in post-collision trajectories, momenta, and various anomalies that take into account the reversed causality of the tachyon, observed from a standard bradyonic frame.

If bradyons radiating from a radioactive object give rise to radiation pressure, pushing things away from the object in the space surrounding it, then perfectly analogous tachyons radiating from the same sample would produce radiation pressure that pushes in towards the object. Radiating tachyons would impart negative radiation pressure. We might conclude, then, that this negative-radiation-pressure accounts for the pull of gravity between all real massive bodies; assuming tachyons actually do radiate spontaneously in all directions.

Prime Implication: The universe we observe from bradyonic space-time has a counterpart, or more correctly an extension, in tachyonic space-time. That is, for a given bradyon, we can speculate an analogous tachyon in a superluminal manifold, which further implies that a superluminal universe may co-exist, and is interactive, with the visible universe. What that means experimentally is that we should start considering the influences of super-dimensional factors in our tests. In fact, we should continue looking for a universal superluminal substructure.

Last edited by hkurtrichter; 14-01-2012 at 01:38 AM. Reason: Correcting typos and spelling.
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Old 14-01-2012, 01:42 AM   #6
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i agree
after you have worked your whole life in search of a better existence you'll look back and see that the only thing that ever brought happiness was the love you found and the love you gave.
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Old 18-03-2012, 07:12 PM   #7
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Part 3, Richter's Assertions on Superluminal Gravitation

My thesis asserts that gravity is tachyonic. That is, I suggest that gravity is faster-than-light, and could thus be tachyonic in its quantum nature.

The thesis is summarized by the following set of assertions.

Concise Assertions:

1. Gravity is faster than light, and is therefore a tachyonic force.

2. The apparent "pull" of gravity is due to negative radiation pressure from the collective action (due to reversed causality) of a special tachyon referred to as the Gravitational Exchange Tachyon, or GET particle.

3. Newtonian gravitational force F is the sum of the individual forces imparted by the GET particles, as these superluminal particles travel perfect straight-line paths from their sources to some infinite distance away.

4. A GET particle's path is along the radius of curvature (Ricci scalar) of the field equations of Einstein's theory of General Relativity (GR). And because the GET are quanta, by definition, the resulting model of gravity they insinuate makes GR compatible with modern Quantum Mechanics.

5. The GET quanta can be considered spin-less, waveless, point-like particles with at least one outstanding property; they impart some fraction of their forward momentum to real objects through which they pass -- thus setting up negative radiation pressure because of their reversed causality. Being waveless, then, their wave-equation is reduced to a linear reference (the equation of a line).

6. The GET quanta exist within very strict limits; they are faster-than-light, but never reach infinite velocity; a tachyon's mass is inversely proportional to its speed, as viewed from a bradyonic reference-frame; tachyonic time is negative compared to positive bradyonic time, etc.

7. The accelerating expansion of the universe can be accounted for by taking the cosmological constant of GR as the observed result of the superluminal gravity of the tachyonic universe that co-exists with the visible universe.

8. If the gravity of a bradyon is tachyonic, then the gravity of a tachyon, also superluminal, must be repulsive to bradyons. Thus, the gravity from tachyons can explain Dark Energy, and tachyons themselves constitute Dark Matter.

9. Using GET particles to establish a model of quantum gravity serves as the basis for constructing an empirical Grand Unified Field Theory (GUFT) that finally unifies gravity with the other fundamental forces of nature.

10. The GUFT, along with Tachyonics (study of tachyons), enables construction of an Interdiscipline Synthesis Cosmology, as a spring-board for a full Theory of Existence capable of explaining the universe in the most comprehensive manner that is humanly possible, including all natural and supernatural phenomena.

Added Commentary:

I believe tachyonics (the study of tachyons) can be used to explain (in a testable mathematical format) many previously-unexplained paranormal phenomena, by recognizing that many such phenomena are superluminal in nature, or are closely related to tachyonic forces, and that they can thus be investigated scientifically (along with all other superluminal phenomena).

Also, many mysterious natural phenomena can be explained using Tachyonics. For instance, enigmas such as the life force, the root of sentience, and the true seat of human emotions can be explained using theoretical tachyonic fields-of-force that interact with our physiology -- with some of these forces taken in analogy to known forces, and others conjectured based on experimental data.

Even quantum gravity finds a viable explanation by applying tachyonics to the problem, which results in a way to make Einstein's theory of General Relativity compatible with Modern Quantum Mechanics (the stumbling block long in the path to obtaining a testable Grand Unified Field Theory in standard gauge-field format), which incorporates gravity with the other fundamental forces of nature (electromagnetism, the weak nuclear, and the strong nuclear forces).

But Tachyonics offers many more advances than understanding such things as the substance of spirit creatures (alternate-dimensional aliens), the nature of Dark Matter and Dark Energy, and the actuality of astrological influences. It promises to give us experiments that will quickly lead to the design of near-instantaneous communications systems that work across unlimited astronomical distances; the breaking of the lightspeed barrier to space-flight, in physical manned space-craft; and possible access to infinite sources and magnitudes of energy.

Think about it. Tachyonics is the future.

Comments welcomed. E-mail: [email protected]
Richter's Wikia Pages on Tachyonic Gravity:
Richter's Forums:
(1) The Tachyonics Society of America Discussion Boards
(2) The Tachyonics Engineering-Physics Group
(3) The Independent Order of Esaerehn Wizardry
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