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Old 05-09-2016, 08:57 AM   #1
lovethyself
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Default ‘Turing Learning’ allows machines to learn by observation

Machines can learn from observing other machines, using what researchers call Turing Learning.
Roboticists from the University of Sheffield found that it is possible for swarms of robots to learn from other swarms of robots by simply observing their actions. Until today, it was believed that machines can only learn when told what to look for by humans.

The new discovery uses what the team described as ‘Turing Learning’, a technique inspired by the famous Turing test, in which a machine attempts to fool a person that is it actually a human.

“Our study uses the Turing test to reveal how a given system – not necessarily a human – works,” explained Roderich Gross from the Department of Automatic Control and Systems Engineering at the University of Sheffield. “In our case, we put a swarm of robots under surveillance and wanted to find out which rules caused their movements. To do so, we put a second swarm – made of learning robots – under surveillance too. The movements of all the robots were recorded and the motion data shown to interrogators.”

Unlike in the Turing test, the interrogators in this case were not human, but intelligent computer programs. These programs were tasked with distinguishing between the two swarms – the original one and the learning one. Every time the program correctly identified motion data from the original swarm, it received a reward. It was also rewarded for identifying motion of the learning swarm as counterfeit. The goal is for the learning robots to persuade the interrogator that they are the original robots.

The experiments have proved that it is possible for computer systems to learn how other either natural or artificial systems work by simple observation.

“Imagine you want a robot to paint like Picasso,” said Gross. “Conventional machine learning algorithms would rate the robot’s paintings for how closely they resembled a Picasso. But someone would have to tell the algorithms what is considered similar to a Picasso to begin with. Turing Learning does not require such prior knowledge. It would simply reward the robot if it painted something that was considered genuine by the interrogators.”

The researchers believe the technology could find many applications. For example, machines could observe human behaviour and imitate it, or learn how to recognise whether someone is telling the truth.

“Computer games, for example, could gain in realism as virtual players could observe and assume characteristic traits of their human counterparts,” Gross said. “They would not simply copy the observed behaviour, but rather reveal what makes human players distinctive from the rest.”

This ability to recognise characteristic patterns could also be used to detect abnormalities in the functioning of industrial systems and other machines such as cars and aeroplanes.

In the next phase, the researchers want to use the learning robots to observe the behaviour of biological systems e.g. groups of animals such as swarms of bees or shoals of fish.

The study, published in the journal Swarm Intelligence, took inspiration from the famous Turing test, developed by Second World War-era computer scientist Alan Turing. The test aims to establish whether a machine has achieved human-level intelligence by evaluating its ability to engage in natural-language conversations.

During the test, a machine and a human are interacting with a human interrogator. The interrogator’s task is to tell the difference between messages sent by the machine and those by the human.

It took 65 years for the first machine to succeed in the test and fool the interrogator. In June 2014, 60 years after Turing’s death, a computer program called Eugene simulating a 13 year old boy, developed by Russian researchers, managed to persuade 10 out of 30 judges it was actually human.

http://eandt.theiet.org/news/2016/au...g-learning.cfm
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Old 05-09-2016, 08:59 AM   #2
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Default The first machine that learns by observing

For the first time a machine has just learned by observing, without receiving any direct instruction is the last milestone achieved by artificial intelligence, and the first step to a new generation of machines that can 'understand the fly' every instruction without being programmed . In the future, such machines could also understand human behavior, going so far as to predict it. To get the result, published in the journal Swarm Intelligence, was the British University of Sheffield.

The method that has resulted in this result is based on the imitation game proposed by the computer Dad, the British mathematician Alan Turing, to see if a machine is able to 'think'.

While the Turing test consists of a challenge between man and the computer in which the latter wins if is mistaken for 'human', the Sheffield University experiment sees the field in an artificial intelligence program and two swarms of robots, one of which is able to learn and to imitate the movements of the other. The task in which he had to try artificial intelligence has been to recognize the swarm that mimics the other: a goal that the machine has reached full, simply observing carefully the movements of the robots.

"The advantage of this approach is that the man will not have to give instructions to the machines," said Roderich Gross, who led the research. '' Imagine that you want to create a robot that picture painter like Picasso. Someone - he said - should first tell the learning algorithms how to paint like Picasso. Our method does not require such knowledge a priori, we should only reward the robot that can paint alone as Picasso. "

Machines that can simply learn by observing, said researcher, could allow in the future to obtain artificial intelligence systems capable of predicting human behavior with in security applications, for example to find out if someone is lying in identity checks online.

http://www.ansa.it/scienza/notizie/r...e93892d97.html
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