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Old 12-06-2007, 08:53 PM   #1
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physorg-news
Published: 1 hour ago, June 12, 2007

Matter Flashed at Ultra Speed

Quote:
Using a robotic telescope at the ESO La Silla Observatory, astronomers have for the first time measured the velocity of the explosions known as gamma-ray bursts. The material is travelling at the extraordinary speed of more than 99.999% of the velocity of light, the maximum speed limit in the Universe.

"With the development of fast-slewing ground-based telescopes such as the 0.6-m REM telescope at ESO La Silla, we can now study in great detail the very first moments following these cosmic catastrophes," says Emilio Molinari, leader of the team that made the discovery.

Gamma-ray bursts (GRBs) are powerful explosions occurring in distant galaxies, that often signal the death of stars. They are so bright that, for a brief moment, they almost rival the whole Universe in luminosity. They last, however, for only a very short time, from less than a second to a few minutes. Astronomers have long known that, in order to emit such incredible power in so little time, the exploding material must be moving at a speed comparable with that of light, namely 300 000 km per second. By studying the temporal evolution of the burst luminosity, it has now been possible for the first time to precisely measure this velocity.

Gamma-ray bursts, which are unseen by our eyes, are discovered by artificial satellites. The collision of the gamma-ray burst jets into the surrounding gas generates an afterglow visible in the optical and near-infrared that can radiate for several weeks. An array of robotic telescopes were built on the ground, ready to catch this vanishing emission.

On 18 April and 7 June 2006, the NASA/PPARC/ASI Swift satellite detected two bright gamma-ray bursts. In a matter of a few seconds, their position was transmitted to the ground, and the REM telescope began automatically to observe the two GRB fields, detecting the near-infrared afterglows, and monitored the evolution of their luminosity as a function of time (the light curve). The small size of the telescope is compensated by its rapidity of slewing, which allowed astronomers to begin observations very soon after each GRB's detection (39 and 41 seconds after the alert, respectively), and to monitor the very early stages of their light curve.

The two gamma-ray bursts were located 9.3 and 11.5 billion light-years away, respectively.

For both events, the afterglow light curve initially rose, then reached a peak, and eventually started to decline, as is typical of GRB afterglows. The peak is, however, only rarely detected. Its determination is very important, since it allows a direct measurement of the expansion velocity of the explosion of the material. For both bursts, the velocity turns out to be very close to the speed of light, precisely 99.9997% of this value. Scientists use a special number, called the Lorentz factor, to express these high velocities. Objects moving much slower than light have a Lorentz factor of about 1, while for the two GRBs it is about 400.

"Matter is thus moving with a speed that is only different from that of light by three parts in a million," says Stefano Covino, co-author of the study. "While single particles in the Universe can be accelerated to still larger velocities - i.e. much larger Lorentz factors - one has to realise that in the present cases, it is the equivalent of about 200 times the mass of the Earth that acquired this incredible speed."

"You certainly wouldn't like to be in the way," adds team member Susanna Vergani.

The measurement of the Lorentz factor is an important step in understanding gamma-ray burst explosions. This is in fact one of the fundamental parameters of the theory which tries to explain these gigantic explosions, and up to now it was only poorly determined.

"The next question is which kind of 'engine' can accelerate matter to such enormous speeds," says Covino.

Source: European Southern Observatory
btw....Additional Links
Chapter 13
The Death of Stars: Stellar Recycling

Quote:
Picturing structure with spectropolarimetry
The spectropolarimetry of SN 2002ic has provided the most detailed picture of a Type Ia system yet. Polarimetry measures the orientation of light waves; for example, Polaroid sunglasses "measure" horizontal polarization when they block some of the light reflected from flat surfaces. In an object like a cloud of dust or a stellar explosion, however, light is not reflected from surfaces but scattered from particles or from electrons.
If the dust cloud or explosion is spherical and uniformly smooth, all orientations are equally represented and the net polarization is zero. But if the object is not spherical -- shaped like a disk or a cigar, for example -- more light will oscillate in some directions than in others.

Even for quite noticeable asymmetries, net polarization rarely exceeds one percent. Thus it was a challenge for the ESO spectropolarimetry instrument to measure faint SN 2002ic, even using the powerful Very Large Telescope. It took several hours of observation on four different nights to acquire the necessary high-quality polarimetry and spectroscopy data.

The team's observations came nearly a year after SN 2002ic was first detected. The supernova had grown much fainter, yet its prominent hydrogen emission line was six times brighter. With spectroscopy the astronomers confirmed the observation of Hamuy and his associates, that ejecta expanding outward from the explosion at high velocity had run into surrounding thick, hydrogen-rich matter.

Only the new polarimetric studies, however, could reveal that most of this matter was shaped as a thin disk. The polarization was likely due to the interaction of high-speed ejecta from the explosion with the dust particles and electrons in the slower-moving surrounding matter. Because of the way the hydrogen line had brightened long after the supernova was first observed, the astronomers deduced that the disk included dense clumps and had been in place well before the white dwarf exploded.

"These startling results suggest that the progenitor of SN 2002ic was remarkably similar to objects that are familiar to astronomers in our own Milky Way, namely protoplanetary nebulae," says Wang. Many of these nebulae are the remnants of the blown-away outer shells of Asymptotic Giant Branch stars. Such stars, if rotating rapidly, throw off thin, irregular disks.


A matter of timing....seeSupernova Science Center
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Old 12-06-2007, 09:00 PM   #2
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Published: 4 hours ago, physorg.com, June 12, 2007
Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome
Quote:
Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome

A University of Warwick physicist has uncovered how female cells are able to choose randomly between their two X chromosomes and why that choice is always lucky.
Undergraduate research shows leaderless honeybee organizing
Published: 23 hours ago, physorg-news, June 11, 2007

Honeybee. Credit: James Ward

Undergraduate education generally involves acquiring “received knowledge” – in other words, absorbing the past discoveries of scholars and scientists. But University of North Carolina at Charlotte senior biology major Andrew Pierce went beyond the textbooks and uncovered something previously unknown.

Pierce’s discovery has to do with detecting a significant new detail concerning the behavior of the European honeybee – perhaps the most studied and economically important insect on Earth. Beyond agriculture, the finding may also have key implications for understanding the dynamics of all social animals, including man.

Pierce’s recently reported his research in an article appearing in the behavioral biology research journal Ethology, with co-authors Lee Lewis and UNC Charlotte biology professor Stanley Schneider, Pierce’s mentor. Pierce was first author on the paper – a rare achievement for an undergraduate.

“It was a very good work and an impressive achievement for a student researcher – he got a publication as an undergraduate,” Schneider noted. “I really like working with our undergraduate honors students – they are so bright.”

Pierce, age 22, has been working as a researcher in Schneider’s lab for the past two years through a UNC Charlotte Honors College program that fosters research experiences for undergraduates.

Using an ingeniously designed experiment, Pierce and his co-authors were able to document details of bee social behavior that fundamentally confirm the hypothesis that major colony activities are initiated by the cumulative group actions of the colony’s older workers, not by the queen’s individual decision.

What Pierce and colleagues found was that older workers gave signals to the queen and to the rest of the colony that it was time to swarm and leave the hive. Later, they were able to observe inside the swarm itself and see workers give the queen a signal, known as “piping” that tells her to fly.

“Researchers have never reported worker piping being done on the queen before, so some of what we found was exciting,” Pierce said. “It was generally surprising to see the level of interaction that the older bees have with the queen. This doesn’t normally happen in the hive,” he noted.

It’s interesting because it shows that though the queen has a tremendous impact on the colony, she’s not the decision maker,” Schnieder said. “The colony is not a dominance hierarchy and, from a human perspective, this is unusual. Our human society is very dominance hierarchy structured --we have centralized systems of control. But bee colony systems of control are very different – they are totally de-centralized.”

Schneider’s lab studies the honeybee and its behavioral ecology. Like humans, honeybees are remarkable for living in large organized groups where highly developed social behaviors coordinate the efforts of thousands of individuals to accomplish complex tasks – manufacturing, community defense, environmental control and maintenance, food production, brood-rearing and education. Like human civilizations, bee societies follow organizational principles, such as following social rules (like human customs and laws) and division of labor.

But here the similarity ends. Bees do not have large brains and are not capable of complex thought like humans. Though the bee colony is centered around the queen and her reproductive capabilities, findings by Schneider and others indicates that she does not exactly “rule.” Instead, the colony appears to be controlled by the anonymous consensus of the colony’s workers.

Though it is of great interest to researchers studying social behavior, a great mystery still remains regarding how bee societies effectively direct and coordinate complex operations without a central controlling intelligence. Pierce’s finding is part of an ongoing research effort in Schneider’s lab aimed at understanding the mechanisms of leaderless societal management – in particular, the importance of two communication-related behaviors known as the “vibration signal” and “worker piping.”

Different from the famous “waggle dance” that foraging worker bees perform to tell other bees where to find a food source, the vibration signal appears to be a more general, multi-purpose form of communication. Schneider has concluded that this signal, which consists of one bee grabbing another bee (worker or queen) and then vibrating its body, does not convey a specific message, but instead is a form of “modulatory communication” that alters existing bee behaviors (making bees perform their jobs more actively, perhaps) or changes bees response to other signals.

Pierce and Schneider have documented in their current paper how workers use the vibration signal to prepare the queen for swarming by making intrusions into her “court” and vibrating her hundreds of times an hour. She responds by changing her behavior -- reducing her food intake, slowing egg laying and becoming more active. At this point, the workers begin to send a second signal that researchers call “worker piping” at a fevered pitch. Piping, which consists of bees making contact and vibrating their wing muscles rapidly, appears to be a general instruction to fly.

The researchers document that the workers stop using the vibration signal when the queen flies and leaves the nest with the swarm. Piping, however, continues in the swarm, as the bees need to make the queen fly again once a new nest site has been selected.

“Drew Pierce did this project last summer,” Schneider explained. “We constructed a special observation stand where we could actually see how workers were interacting with queens inside a swarm cluster, where they are hanging in a tree. That was really interesting, because nobody had ever really been able to look at that before,” he noted.

“What was interesting was how little attention the workers pay the queen – until it became time to go – to become airborne. Then they started interacting with her at very high rates, and performing the ‘worker piping’ signal on her. This interaction is a behavior that nobody had described before,” Schneider said.

Contrary to the popular conception of a colony controlled by instructions from its breeding queen mother, the research shows a picture of the queen as a passive egg layer whose own behavior is programmed, with changes dictated by signals delivered by older workers.

This does not mean, however, that the colony is controlled by a key group of experienced bees either. The worker bees that deliver the critical signals have short life-spans and tiny brains incapable of managing the colony the way a human village might be managed by a council of elders. Instead, critical strategic choices, such as the assessment that it is time to divide the colony and swarm, appear to be decided by the dynamics of the group itself. Social interactions, environmental pressures or group dynamics in some still-unknown way initiate a string of behaviors that effectively manage complex group activities.


“It is a real challenge to understand how bee colonies work, but it is also fascinating because they are so different. Evolutionarily, they got to the same point as humans – living in these highly organized societies that function with remarkable efficiency -- but they are organized so differently when you start digging into them,” Schneider said. “It’s interesting that these major differences can result in the same emergent social properties. It may tell us something about ourselves.”


Source: University of North Carolina at Charlotte
» Next Article in General Science - Biology: Competition, loss of selfishness mark shift to supersociety

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Old 13-06-2007, 01:35 AM   #3
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The Protocols of the ....bees &...

t h e i n d i e i n t e r v i e w :
e d e n u n g e r


What if you have absolutely nothing in
common with your mother-in-law, or you
just don't like her. How do you deal with
that over the course of a marriage?


Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome
Quote:
Published: 4 hours ago, physorg.com, June 12, 2007
Physicist cracks women's random but always lucky choice of X chromosome
A University of Warwick physicist has uncovered how female cells are able to choose randomly between their two X chromosomes and why that choice is always lucky.

Human males have both a X and a Y chromosome but females have two X chromosomes. This means that in an early stage in the development of a woman’s fertilised egg the cells need to silence one of those two X chromosomes. This process is crucial to survival and problems with the process are related to serious genetic diseases.

Both X chromosomes in a cell have a suicide gene called XIST which, if activated, seals the chromosome behind a barrier of RNA preventing the activation of any other gene. Researchers believe that this suicide gene can be itself blocked by a plug of proteins forming on top of its specific location on the chromosome but they had little idea as to why this should happen randomly to one X chromosome’s gene and not the other.

Scientists are extremely uncomfortable with this randomness and have sought a clear scientific reason as to why one X chromosome was switched off rather than the other. The observations also seem to run counter to the usual idea that the biological mechanisms evolve in ways that allow a "best" choice to be made between things rather than a random one.


Now researchers led by University of Warwick physicist Dr Mario Nicodemi have explained how this randomness occurs and why that it is beneficial. This will help understand the problems of a small number of women who unusually don’t have a completely random distribution of X chromosomes but the explanation may have much wider implications as at least 10% of our genes may behave in similar ways as mechanism that "chooses" between X chromosomes. Examples of this range from the immune system to our olfactory apparatus.

Coming at the problem from the perspective of a physicist Dr Nicodemi has found an explanation for the random selection based on thermodynamics. Research has already shown that at the key moment in this process both X chromosomes are brought close together within the cell. The Warwick researcher paper says that what happens next is that material for a "protein plug" then begins to gather around both of the XIST suicide genes on each X Chromosome. This starts a race between the two build ups of protein. Inevitably one of these two nascent protein plugs narrowly wins that race and reaches an energy state in which it can pull together all the material building up in both plugs into a single protein plug. That single plug then closes off one of the XIST suicide genes allowing its host X chromosome to continue to operate. However the other XIST suicide gene is now freed to activate and shuts down its X chromosome.

Since putting forward this explanation researchers in Harvard have observed actual plugs of protein shutting down X chromosome XIST genes in a manner giving further confirmation to Dr Nicodemi’s research. So the randomness is explained but what about researchers’ other concerns" Dr Nicodemi believes the randomness actually does give an evolutionary advantage. The mechanism means equal numbers of both the maternal and paternal X chromosome are preserved in the gene pool and the resultant population thus has more chance of surviving any biological threat targeted at a single version of the X chromosome.

Source: University of Warwick
» Next Article in Physics - Physics: Scientists take steps toward quantum communications
A team of European scientists has proved
within an ESA study that the weird quantum effect called 'entanglement' remains intact over a distance of 144 kilometres.
How to Live in Harmony with your Mother inlaw or Daughter inlaw

The mother-in-law/daughter-in-law relationship is one of the most complicated human connections. It comes with a built-in conflict before the relationship ...
http://www.marriagemissions.com/fami...ow_to_live.php

DAUGHTER-IN-LAW a future MOTHER-IN-LAW

Mother's influence on him is the sense of security. The new woman (WIFE) cannot tolerate because her sense of security expects 100% involvement from her ...
http://www.sadashivan.com/marriagedr...ails/id10.html

adhunika blog » Mother in law-Daughter in law: From a theoretical .../mother-in-law-in-law-daughter-in-law-from-a-theoretical-perspective/
...Classic Mother in law-Daughter in law relationship issue is about relationship and its complexities reflecting a personality in joint family living in ...


The Daughter-in-law - Soma

Soma's mother-in-law felt very fortunate to have such a religious daughter-in-law. From that day on the mother-in-law started to love Soma. ...
http://www.jainworld.com/education/level1/lesson14.htm


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Old 13-06-2007, 01:56 AM   #4
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news Published: 4 hours ago, physorg.com, June 12, 2007

Hidden Planet Pushes Star's Ring a Billion Miles Off-Center
Quote:
Hidden Planet Pushes Star's Ring a Billion Miles Off-Center

- Hubble image of Fomalhaut ring.
Credit: University of Rochester


A young star's strange elliptical ring of dust likely heralds the presence of an undiscovered Neptune-sized planet, says a University of Rochester astronomer in the latest Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society.

Stars in the early stages of life are surrounded by dust clouds that thin out and dissipate as the star reaches maturity, becoming rings in their final stages. One star, however, has a dust ring that has long puzzled astronomers because it is not centered around the star as usual. Instead, the ring is elliptical, with the parent star off to one side.

"We wanted to know why this ring was off-center," says Alice C. Quillen, Associate Professor of Astronomy and author of the study. "People guessed there might be a planet in there, but nobody knew where it might be, or how big it might be. Now we've got a very good idea."

Roughly 250 planets have been discovered so far around stars other than our Sun. Most have been revealed by the way the planets influence their parent stars, but Quillen has been working for years on understanding the delicate interaction between stellar dust disks and the planets that shape them. She is now one of the world's experts in predicting planet size and position from the features of a star's dust ring.

Quillen used new images from the Hubble Space Telescope that caught the star, Fomalhaut, and its surrounding ring almost edge-on and in more detail than ever before. Fomalhaut, 25 light-years away, is the brightest star in the autumn sky. Using a device called a coronagraph that blocks out a star's light so dimmer objects near it can be seen, the Hubble revealed that Fomalhaut was indeed off-center within its ring. The images were also clear enough to show that the ring itself had a surprisingly sharp edge.

That sharp edge was the clue Quillen was looking for. Since ascertaining one of the first extra-solar planets using dust-ring analysis in 2002, Quillen has greatly strengthened her planet-ring interaction models. Treating the ring like a hydrodynamic structure, for instance, is necessary for younger stars whose dust is relatively fine and acts more like a fluid—while the physics of dust collision become dominant in older ring systems where the dust has begun clumping into larger bodies.

The sharp inside edge of Fomalhaut, Quillen calculated, demanded that a relatively small, Neptune-size planet was tucked right up against the inner side of the ring, using its gravity to toss dust in the area out of orbit.

According to Quillen's calculations, the ring is elliptical because the Neptunian planet's own orbit around Fomalhaut is elliptical—a curiosity in such a young system. When stars form from a giant cloud of gas and dust, the angular momentum of the cloud carries over to all the objects that form from the cloud, including new planets. Those new planets should, initially at least, orbit in nice, circular paths—not elliptical ones. Fomalhaut's ring is offset by 1.4 billion miles, more than 15 times the distance from the Earth to the Sun, suggesting the hidden planet's orbit is also tremendously skewed.

"Something had to skew that planet, and that's what we're working on now," says Quillen. "There may have been fantastic planetary collisions early on that changed their orbits. We're working on figuring out how many more planets of what size you'd need to account for that elliptical orbit, and to account for why there is no other dust inside that ring."

Quillen's model will remain just a theory until a new generation of telescopes can actually see the Formalhaut planets in question. These telescopes will be equipped with sophisticated coronagraphs that can block out Formalhaut's light enough to let the planets themselves shine through.


Source: University of Rochester
» Next Article in Space & Earth science - Astronomy: Matter Flashed at Ultra Speed
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Old 13-06-2007, 02:03 AM   #5
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Old 13-06-2007, 06:09 AM   #6
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wow looks like lots of amazing information here
ill save it and read it @ somestage.

thanks
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Old 21-07-2007, 04:21 PM   #7
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Physicists get ultra-sharp glimpse of electrons
Published: 22 hours ago, 13:13 EST, physorg.com, July 20, 2007

In this image showing the energy levels of electrons in a two-dimensional system, the electrons can be thought of as a sea, filling all the lowest places available and with a surface at sea level. In the picture, the dark line across the center is the sea level. Bright lines show where the energy levels are. The distance of the lines from the sea level shows how large their energy is, with lines below the center showing states that are normally filled (underwater) and lines above the center showing states that are normally empty (up in the air). Tracing out the energy levels as the number of electrons in the system is changed, from left to right in the plot, scientists can learn how electrons behave together in large groups. Graphic courtesy / Ashoori Group Lab


MIT physicists have developed a spectroscopy technique that allows researchers to inspect the world of electrons confined to a two-dimensional plane more clearly than ever before.


Two-dimensional electron systems, in which electrons are walled in from above and below but are free to move in a plane as if they were placed on a sheet of paper, are rarely observed in the natural world. However, they can be created in a laboratory and used, for example, in high-frequency amplifiers found in cell phones.

The new spectroscopy technique measures electron energy levels with 1,000 times greater resolution than previous methods, an advance that has "tremendous power to tell you what the electrons are doing," said MIT physics professor Ray Ashoori, author of a paper on the work published in the July 12 issue of Nature. This technique has already revealed some surprising behavior, and the researchers believe it will shed new light on many physical phenomena involving electrons.

Ashoori and postdoctoral associate Oliver Dial took advantage of a quantum phenomenon known as tunneling to create the most detailed image ever of the spectrum of electron energy levels in a 2D system.

The new spectroscopy technique relies on a phenomenon that defies the laws of classical mechanics. Electrons, because they exhibit wavelike behavior, can move between two locations separated by a barrier without having to pass over the barrier--a phenomenon known as "quantum tunneling."

"We anticipate that this technique will help us discover all kinds of new physics," said Ashoori. "We're looking into a realm that was just not visible to us before."

Electrons trapped in 2D systems exist in specific energy levels, just as electrons orbiting an atom's nucleus in three dimensions exist in distinct quantum energy levels. By measuring which energy levels are occupied, physicists can study how electrons behave together in large groups.

The researchers used short pulses of electricity to induce electrons to tunnel from a 2D system to a 3D system, and vice versa. By measuring the resulting voltage difference, they could calculate the energy states of the electrons in the 2D system.

The spectroscopy experiments were performed inside a semiconducting crystal cooled to 0.1 degrees above absolute zero.

Until now, the primary method for performing this kind of spectroscopy relied on photoemission. The new method has an energy resolution that is 1,000 times finer than the best photoemission measurements.

Physicists have also traditionally used "transport" techniques that measure electrical currents flowing in response to applied voltages to learn about 2D electron energy levels, but that technique only offers a partial look at what electrons are doing.

"Similar to creating small ripples on the surface of a sea, transport techniques only tell us about what is happening very close to the water's surface," said Dial. "Pictures made with this high-resolution spectroscopy provide, in essence, one of the first glimpses of the entire ocean in these systems and show what a beautiful and interesting world exists beneath the surface."


Source: MIT
» Next Article in Physics - Physics: Trapped, Imaged Single Atoms May Enable Powerful Quantum Computing

An image of one plane of the cubic atom array. Bright spots are single atoms; the haze is from atoms trapped in out-of-focus planes.
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Old 21-07-2007, 04:30 PM   #8
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Vikings - waves again?
----- see this video -What is the magnetic field?- and pause at 00:29 and count - the 19? magnetic lines of force - in - sand?
__________lisa-waves
______________
______________ 14waves-of-color
Wiggle your toes in the sand-- --on MARS... -- interesting artifact? buried in the sand...

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Old 21-07-2007, 04:38 PM   #9
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Old 21-07-2007, 07:33 PM   #10
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great posts edit!!
__________________
"The ultimate ignorance is the rejection of something you know nothing about and refuse to investigate"

"The only way to make a dream come true is to wake up!"

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Old 21-07-2007, 11:50 PM   #11
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Thanks.


... first light which freed itself
VIRAJ...
Quote:
VIRAJ ...
The Maha-Chohan, a high Official, of rank equal to that of a Manu or a Bodhisattva.

Mai - Man
These Manasa are the Arupa or incorporeal sons of the Prajapati Viraj, ..... Manu may be compared to the white light which gives birth to the vibrations of ...
www.theosophy-nw.org/theosnw/ctg/mai-man.htm
..offspring of Viraj
7Li
Li
6Li
Data for Lithium (Li). Atomic Number = 3. Atomic Weight = 6.941 ...
and not as an "island of stability" ..much, now-a-days
...soft, silver white
Lith
Quote:
The metal itself is usually less a handling hazard than the caustic hydroxide produced when it is in contact with moisture. Lithium should be stored in a non-reactive compound such as naphtha or a hydrocarbon.
In humans lithium compounds have not been found to play a natural biological role; large amounts are slightly toxic. Lithium appears to be an essential trace element for goats, and possibly rats, suggesting a role in humans by analogy. However, the essentiality of ultratrace mineral in humans is far more difficult to determine, due to the difficulty and ethical issues involved with the experiments, which involve total isolation from the environment, and unpalatable semi-synthetic foods.
When used as a drug, blood concentrations of Li+ must be carefully monitored.

Lithium has been found to be superconductor below 0.0004 K temperatures. This scientific finding paves the way for developement of the theories of the superconductivity since the structure of atomic lattice of lithium is the simplest of all metals.
& Lithium in the environment
Effects of exposure to Lithium: Fire: Flammable.

Last edited by edit; 22-07-2007 at 12:31 AM. Reason: vibrations of.. silver white
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Old 22-07-2007, 12:49 AM   #12
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ruby ..the first laser beam..and >

formula
Quote:
Reuben == Leah ^2 + Leah ^2.
..and >
____________ http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showt...?t=6459&page=2
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Old 22-07-2007, 01:38 AM   #13
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are you trying to tell us something Very important?cuz most of youre treads confusing me alot.
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Old 22-07-2007, 01:46 AM   #14
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Lightbulb

Surface Plots
http://www.roughrecords.net/images/MOBIUS.jpg
http://www.wwinds.com/revolutions/
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Old 23-07-2007, 12:48 AM   #15
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physorg.com, July 22, 2007

Tightly packed molecules lend unexpected strength to nanothin sheet of material
Quote:


Experiments by scientists at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory, have revealed how to drastically change the properties of certain materials by confining their molecules in nanospaces. This false-color image taken via a transmission electron microscope, shows a transparent sheet of closely packed gold nanoparticles separated by organic spacers. The sheet lies atop a silicon chip. The light green area is where the sheet covers a hole in the silicon chip. Credit: Image courtesy of Klara Mueggenburg and Heinrich Jaeger

Scientists at the University of Chicago and Argonne National Laboratory have discovered the surprising strength of a sheet of nanoparticles that measures just 50 atoms in thickness.

“It’s an amazing little marvel,” said Heinrich Jaeger, Professor in Physics at the University of Chicago. “This is not a very fragile layer, but rather a robust, resilient membrane.”

Even when suspended over a tiny hole and poked with an ultrafine tip, the membrane boasts the equivalent strength of an ultrathin sheet of plexiglass that maintains its structural integrity at relatively high temperatures.

When we first realized that they can be suspended freely in air, it truly surprised all of us,” said Xiao-Min Lin, a physicist at Argonne’s Center for Nanoscale Materials.

The characteristics of the nanoparticles are described in the July 22 issue of the journal Nature Materials in a paper written by Jaeger and Lin, along with Klara Mueggenburg, a graduate student in physics at the University of Chicago, and Rodney Goldsmith, an undergraduate student at Xavier University in New Orleans who participated as part of the National Science Foundation’s Research Experience for Undergraduates program. The work was funded by the NSF-supported Materials Science and Engineering Center at the University of Chicago. Additional support came from the U.S. Department of Energy.

The material’s characteristics make it a promising candidate for use as a highly sensitive pressure sensor in precision technological applications. “If we use different types of nanoparticles to make the same kind of suspended membrane, we can even imagine using these devices as chemical filters to promote catalytic reactions on a very small length scale,” Lin said.

As artificial atoms, the nanoparticles might also serve as building blocks in assembling specially designed nano-objects. “This is the ultimate limit of such a solid. It’s just one layer,” Jaeger said. “What is interesting is that already one layer is so resilient and has these interesting properties.”

But the payoff is scientific as well as technological. Scientists had already discovered that the electronic properties of semiconductor material can change dramatically when its tiniest metallic components are tightly packed between organic molecules, a phenomenon called nano-confinement. But now we find that mechanical properties can also change dramatically. On a basic science level, that’s why this is exciting,” Jaeger said.

The experimental material consisted of gold particles separated by organicbumpers” to keep them from coming into direct contact. The research team suspended this array of nanoparticles in a solution, then spread the solution across a small chip of silicon, a popular semiconductor material. When the solution dried, it left behind a blanket of nanoparticles that drape themselves over holes in the chip, each hole measuring hundreds of nanoparticles in diameter. Then the researchers probed the strength of the freely suspended nanoparticle layer by poking it with the tip of an atomic force microscope.


Plexiglass draws its strength from the nature of its polymers, long chains of molecules that become entangled with one another. But the short-chain polymers the research group used to link the nanoparticles were scarcely long enough to qualify as polymers at all.

They probably do not have the chance to entangle like a ‘card-carrying’ polymer would do,” Jaeger said. “The molecules are anchored to the gold particles, but only on one end. The strength comes from compressing them between the gold particles.”

The research team also found that the material held together when heated until reaching temperatures of 210 degrees and beyond.

While the Chicago-Argonne experiments focused on two-dimensional sheets, they generally agree with computer simulations on similar three-dimensional assemblies of smaller nanoparticles conducted by Uzi Landman’s team at Georgia Institute of Technology.

The behavior of these systems is sensitive to dimensionality, and this is a subject that should be explored in the future,” said Landman, the Fuller Callaway Chair in Computational Materials Science at the Georgia Institute of Technology. “This actually brings another control parameter into question. Change the dimensionality, you change the properties.”

Source: University of Chicago

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Old 23-07-2007, 12:49 AM   #16
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THE ANUNNAKI
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Old 23-07-2007, 01:02 AM   #17
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Understanding light at the nanoscale:
a nano-sized double-slit experiment

By Lisa Zyga
Quote:

Experimental configuration of the SPP double-slit experiment.
SPPs excite the polariton modes on the metal waveguides (“slits”). The probe taps into the SPP waves
and scatters the light toward a photodetector
.
Image credit: Rashid Zia and Mark Brongersma.
©2007 Nature Publishing Group.


PSTM image of SPP polariton interference.
Image credit: Rashid Zia and Mark Brongersma.
©2007 Nature Publishing Group.
Before nanotechnology can reach its full potential, researchers must understand the way things work on the nanoscale—which is often very different from the macroscopic world. One of these areas is light, and how light interacts with matter on tiny scales.

full story >>

» Next Article in Nanotechnology - Physics:
On a wire or in a fiber, a wave is a wave



Measured intensity of guided polariton waves (a) yields a diffraction pattern similar to that seen in classic optical experiment from 200 years ago. Numerical simulation based on proposed analytical framework results in a nearly identical pattern (b).
Credit: Rashid Zia

Last edited by edit; 23-07-2007 at 01:08 AM. Reason: ..a wave is a wave
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Old 23-07-2007, 02:08 AM   #18
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solar cell that can be painted or printed on flexible plastic sheet
www.godlikeproductions.com
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solar cell that can be painted or printed on flexible plastic sheet
Emperor Kenton
User ID: 255028 solar cell that can be painted or printed on flexible plastic sheet
7/22/2007 8:43 PM

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Researchers at New Jersey Institute of Technology (NJIT) have developed an inexpensive solar cell that can be painted or printed on flexible plastic sheets. “The process is simple,” said lead researcher and author Somenath Mitra, PhD, professor and acting chair of NJIT’s Department of Chemistry and Environmental Sciences. “Someday homeowners will even be able to print sheets of these solar cells with inexpensive home-based inkjet printers. Consumers can then slap the finished product on a wall, roof or billboard to create their own power stations.” This will be useful for even space programs.

[link to theanalystmagazine.com]


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User ID: 206474 Re: solar cell that can be painted or printed on flexible plastic sheet7/22/2007 8:48 PM
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very cool! i saved the link


there was just a post on cheap solar cells made from plastics,, if you don't have it and want it i will repost it

Anonymous Coward
User ID: 270716Re: solar cell that can be painted or printed on flexible plastic sheet
7/22/2007 8:49 PM Quote

Hi Kenton...



I`ve not been here for a while... what happened to the pipe pic ?

Anonymous Coward
User ID: 255028Re: solar cell that can be painted or printed on flexible plastic sheet
7/22/2007 8:58 PM Quote



very cool! i saved the link


there was just a post on cheap solar cells made from plastics,, if you don't have it and want it i will repost it

Quoting: malu


Please do.

I've been hearing about solar cells printed on plastic now for many years.

Wondered often what happened to that tech, guess it now resurfaces, more so as a tech that might be adapted at home on our inkjet printers.
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Old 23-07-2007, 02:15 AM   #19
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a flexible plastic sheet ...
treehugger/
It can operate with no fuel, ...
thefraserdomain.typepad.com ... that combine plastic solar cells ...
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Old 23-07-2007, 02:37 AM   #20
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Solar Power Breakthrough: Solar Dyes
Could Be Put In Windows, Clothing

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