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Old 13-04-2015, 05:36 PM   #681
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Natural Antibiotic


The Most Powerful Natural Antibiotic Ever – Kills Any Infections in The Body

Read More At http://www.getholistichealth.com/412...s-in-the-body/

The basic formula of this powerful tonic dates back to medieval Europe, that is, from the era when people suffered from all sorts of diseases and epidemics.

This master cleansing tonic is actually an antibiotic that kills gram-positive and gram-negative bacteria. It has also a powerful antiviral and antifungal formula, increases blood circulation and lymph flow in all parts of the body. This plant-based remedy is the best choice for the fight against candida.

This tonic has helped many people to cure many viral, bacterial, parasitic and fungal diseases and even plague! Its power should most certainly not be underestimated.

It can cure many chronic conditions and diseases. Encourages blood circulation, and purifies blood. This formula has helped millions of people throughout the centuries to fight the most deadliest diseases. The secret is in the powerful combination of high-quality natural and fresh ingredients!


Read More At http://www.getholistichealth.com/412...s-in-the-body/
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Old 05-05-2015, 08:01 PM   #682
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MARSHMALLOW




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Althaea_officinalis

Althaea officinalis (marsh-mallow,[1] marsh mallow, or common marshmallow) is a perennial species indigenous to Africa, which is used as a medicinal plant and ornamental plant. A confection made from the root since ancient Egyptian time evolved into today's marshmallow treat.[citation needed]

Description
The stems, which die down in the autumn, are erect, 3 to 4 ft (0.91 to 1.22 m), simple, or putting out only a few lateral branches. The leaves, shortly petioled, are roundish, ovate-cordate, 2 to 3 in (51 to 76 mm) long, and about 11⁄4 inch broad, entire or three to five lobed, irregularly toothed at the margin, and thick. They are soft and velvety on both sides, due to a dense covering of stellate hairs. The flowers are shaped like those of the common mallow, but are smaller and of a pale colour, and are either axillary, or in panicles, more often the latter.

The stamens are united into a tube, the anthers, kidney-shaped and one-celled. The flowers are in bloom during August and September, and are followed, as in other species of this order, by the flat, round fruit which are popularly called "cheeses".

The common mallow is frequently called "marsh mallow" by country people, but the true marsh mallow is distinguished from all the other mallows growing in Great Britain by the numerous divisions of the outer calyx (six to nine cleft), by the hoary down which thickly clothes the stems and foliage, and by the numerous panicles of blush-coloured flowers, paler than the common mallow. The roots are perennial, thick, long and tapering, very tough and pliant, whitish yellow outside, white and fibrous within.

The entire plant, particularly the root, abounds with a mild mucilage, which is emollient to a much greater degree than the common mallow.[citation needed] The generic name, Althaea, is derived from the Greek "ἄλθειν" (to cure), from its healing properties. The name of the family, Malvaceae, is derived from the Greek "μαλακός" (soft; Latin "mollis"), from the special qualities of the mallows in softening and healing.
Marshmallow
Most of the mallows have been used as food, and are mentioned by early classic writers with this connection. Mallow was an edible vegetable among the Romans; a dish of marsh mallow was one of their delicacies. Prosper Alpinus stated in 1592 that a plant of the mallow kind was eaten by the Egyptians. Many of the poorer inhabitants of Syria subsisted for weeks on herbs, of which marsh mallow is one of the most common. When boiled first and fried with onions and butter, the roots are said to form a palatable dish, and in times of scarcity consequent upon the failure of the crops, this plant, which grows there in great abundance, is collected heavily as a foodstuff.

Traditional uses
The leaves, flowers and the root of A. officinalis (marshmallow) all have medicinal properties. These are reflected in the name of the genus, which comes from the Greek ἄλθειν (althein), meaning "to heal".[2] In traditional Chinese medicine, Althaea officinalis is known as 藥蜀葵 (pinyin: yàoshǔkuí). It is claimed to increase the flow of breast milk and soothe the bronchial tubes.[3]

Marshmallow is traditionally used as a treatment for the irritation of mucous membranes[4], including use as a gargle for mouth and throat ulcers, and gastric ulcers.[5] A study on rats concluded that an extract from the flowers has potential benefits for hyperlipidemia, gastric ulcers and platelet aggregation.[6] The root has been used since the Middle Ages in the treatment of sore throat.[7]

The root extract (halawa extract) is sometimes used as flavouring in the making of a Middle Eastern snack called halva. The flowers and young leaves can be eaten, and are often added to salads or are boiled and fried.

The later French version of the recipe, called pâte de guimauve (or "guimauve" for short), included an eggwhite meringue and was often flavoured with rose water. Pâte de guimauve more closely resembles contemporary commercially available marshmallows, which no longer contain any actual marshmallow.

Chemistry
Chemical constituents include altheahexacosanyl lactone (n-hexacos-2-enyl-1,5-olide), 2β-hydroxycalamene (altheacalamene) and altheacoumarin glucoside (5,6-dihydroxycoumarin-5-dodecanoate-6β-D-glucopyranoside), along with the known phytoconstituents lauric acid, β-sitosterol and lanosterol.[8]
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In informal governance, everybody within frame and determination of his knowledge and apprehension; thinks that he works
for himself and his idea.

Beyond that frame and determination he realy works for those who know
and comprehend better.

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Old 07-05-2015, 06:25 PM   #683
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Safflower




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safflower

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower is native to arid environments having seasonal rain. It grows a deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments.

History
Safflower is one of humanity's oldest crops. Chemical analysis of ancient Egyptian textiles dated to the Twelfth dynasty identified dyes made from safflower, and garlands made from safflowers were found in the tomb of the pharaoh Tutankhamun.[2] John Chadwick reports that the Greek name for safflower κάρθαμος (kārthamos) occurs many times in Linear B tablets, distinguished into two kinds: a white safflower (ka-na-ko re-u-ka, 'knākos leukā'), which is measured, and red (ka-na-ko e-ru-ta-ra, 'knākos eruthrā') which is weighed. "The explanation is that there are two parts of the plant which can be used; the pale seeds and the red florets."[3]

Safflower was also known as carthamine in the nineteenth century.[4]

Production
It is a minor crop today, with about 600,000 tons being produced commercially in more than sixty countries worldwide. India,[5] United States, and Mexico are the leading producers, with Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, China, the Arab World, Argentina and Australia accounting for most of the remainder.

Other names include Sallflower, Beni, Chimichanga, or Carthamus tinctorius and in Pashto it is called Kareza (as it is found abundantly in Afghanistan and Tribal belts of Pakistan).

Uses
Traditionally, the crop was grown for its seeds, and used for coloring and flavoring foods, in medicines, and making red (carthamin) and yellow dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available.[2] For the last fifty years or so, the plant has been cultivated mainly for the vegetable oil extracted from its seeds.

Safflower seed oil is flavorless and colorless, and nutritionally similar to sunflower oil. It is used mainly in cosmetics and as a cooking oil, in salad dressing, and for the production of margarine. It may also be taken as a nutritional supplement.[6] INCI nomenclature is Carthamus tinctorius.

Safflower seed is also used quite commonly as an alternative to sunflower seed in birdfeeders, as squirrels do not like the taste of it.[7]
Safflower

Oil
There are two types of safflower that produce different kinds of oil: one high in monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently the predominant edible oil market is for the former, which is lower in saturates than olive oil, for example. The latter is used in painting in the place of linseed oil, particularly with white paints, as it does not have the yellow tint which linseed oil possesses.

In dietary use, high–linoleic safflower oil has also been shown to increase adiponectin, a protein that helps regulate blood glucose levels and fatty-acid breakdown.[8] During a 16-week, double-blind controlled study conducted at The Ohio State University, researchers compared high-linoleic safflower oil (SAF) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).[9] [clarification needed] They studied post-menopausal women who had high blood sugar and wanted to lose weight. These participants showed an average reduction of 6.3 percent belly fat and an average of 20.3 percent increase in the important belly fat hormone, adiponectin.

Hornstra et al analyzed a group where safflower oil replaced animal fats in the diets of people who had had a heart attack. The group receiving extra safflower oil in place of animal fats had a significantly higher risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. As expected, increasing omega-6 linoleic acid from safflower oil in the Sydney Diet Heart Study significantly reduced total cholesterol; however, these reductions were not associated with [reduced] mortality outcomes. Moreover, the increased risk of death in the intervention group presented fairly rapidly and persisted throughout the trial.[10] An updated meta-analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acid intervention trials showed trends toward increased risks of death from coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease from increasing omega-6 linoleic acid intakes suggesting that the cardiovascular benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be attributable to omega-3 polyunsaturated fats.[citation needed]

In culinary use, safflower oil compares favorably with other vegetable oils with its high smoke point.[citation needed]

Flower
Safflower flowers are occasionally used in cooking as a cheaper substitute for saffron, and were sometimes referred to as "bastard saffron".[11]

In coloring textiles, safflower's dried flowers are used as a natural textile dye. The pigment in safflower is the benzoquinone-derived chemical carthamin and it is classified as a quinone-type dye. It is a direct dye which is also known as CI Natural Red 26. Yellow, mustard, khaki, and olive are the most common colors in textiles. Even bright reds and purples can be reached using alkaline processing. Indians used this red dye as their official red tape on legal documents.[12] All hydrophilic fibers (all natural fibers, such as cotton, wool, etc.) may be dyed with this plant. Polyamide textiles can also be dyed without a mordant agent because of its wool-like chemical structure. Polyester, polyacrylonitrile, and others which are hydrophobic synthetic fibers can be dyed only in the presence of a mordant.[citation needed]

Safflower concentrate is an ingredient of the carbonated soft drink Tizer and some types of Sunkist.[citation needed]

Ancient Egyptians found the flower pleasing to the eye and included it in garlands placed on mummies.[12] Dried safflower flowers (紅藍花 honglanhua, 草紅花 caohonghua, 刺紅花 cihonghua) are used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate pain, increase circulation, and reduce bruising.[13] They are included in herbal remedies for menstrual pain and minor physical trauma.[14] In India, the flowers are used for their laxative and diaphoretic properties, and are also used for children's complaints of measles, fevers and eruptive skin conditions.[12]

Transgenics
The defunct pharmaceutical company SemBioSys Genetics tried to use transgenic safflower plants to produce human insulin as the global demand for the hormone grows. Safflower-derived human insulin was in the PI/II trials on human test subjects.[15]
__________________
Informal governance is more subtle and lasts longer than formal and structured one.
In informal governance, everybody within frame and determination of his knowledge and apprehension; thinks that he works
for himself and his idea.

Beyond that frame and determination he realy works for those who know
and comprehend better.

Last edited by piskavac; 07-05-2015 at 06:44 PM.
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Old 07-05-2015, 07:03 PM   #684
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Once more, I would like to accent the importance of one mighty curing herb which can be grown easily in moderate to colder region, and contains over 70 active components.

It is LICORICE
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Old 09-05-2015, 12:10 PM   #685
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Wormwood




http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Artemisia_absinthium

Artemisia absinthium (absinthium, absinthe wormwood, wormwood, common wormwood, green ginger or grand wormwood) is a species of Artemisia, native to temperate regions of Eurasia and Northern Africa. It is grown as an ornamental plant and is used as an ingredient in the spirit absinthe as well as some other alcoholic drinks.

Description
This section does not cite any references or sources. Please help improve this section by adding citations to reliable sources. Unsourced material may be challenged and removed. (June 2013)

Artemisia absinthium is a herbaceous, perennial plant with fibrous roots. The stems are straight, growing to 0.8–1.2 metres (2 ft 7 in–3 ft 11 in) (rarely 1.5 m, but, sometimes even larger) tall, grooved, branched, and silvery-green. The leaves are spirally arranged, greenish-grey above and white below, covered with silky silvery-white trichomes, and bearing minute oil-producing glands; the basal leaves are up to 25 cm long, bipinnate to tripinnate with long petioles, with the cauline leaves (those on the stem) smaller, 5–10 cm long, less divided, and with short petioles; the uppermost leaves can be both simple and sessile (without a petiole). Its flowers are pale yellow, tubular, and clustered in spherical bent-down heads (capitula), which are in turn clustered in leafy and branched panicles. Flowering is from early summer to early autumn; pollination is anemophilous. The fruit is a small achene; seed dispersal is by gravity.

It grows naturally on uncultivated, arid ground, on rocky slopes, and at the edge of footpaths and fields.

Toxicity
Artemisia absinthium contains thujone, a GABAA receptor antagonist that can cause epileptic-like convulsions and kidney failure when ingested in large amounts.[4]
Wormwood
Cultivation
Artemisia absinthium. Inflorescences

The plant can easily be cultivated in dry soil. It should be planted under bright exposure in fertile, mid-weight soil. It prefers soil rich in nitrogen. It can be propagated by ripened cuttings taken in Spring or Autumn in temperate climates, or by seeds in nursery beds. Artemisia absinthium also self-seeds generously. It is naturalised in some areas away from its native range, including much of North America and Kashmir Valley of India.[5]

This plant,[6] and its cultivars 'Lambrook Mist'[6] and 'Lambrook Silver'[7] have gained the Royal Horticultural Society's Award of Garden Merit.

Uses
It is an ingredient in the spirit absinthe, and is used for flavouring in some other spirits and wines, including bitters, vermouth and pelinkovac. In the Middle Ages, it was used to spice mead.[8] In 18th century England, wormwood was sometimes used instead of hops in beer.[9]
Etymology[edit]

Artemisia comes from Ancient Greek ἀρτεμισία, from Ἄρτεμις (Artemis).[10] In Hellenistic culture, Artemis was a goddess of the hunt, and protector of the forest and children. absinthum comes from the Ancient Greek ἀψίνθιον.

The word "wormwood" comes from Middle English wormwode or wermode. The form "wormwood" is attributable to its traditional use as a vermifuge.[11] Webster's Third New International Dictionary attributes the etymology to Old English wermōd (compare with German Wermut and the derived drink vermouth), which the OED (s.v.) marks as "of obscure origin".

Cultural history
Nicholas Culpeper insisted that wormwood was the key to understanding his 1651 book The English Physitian. Richard Mabey describes Culpeper's entry on this bitter-tasting plant as "stream-of-consciousness" and "unlike anything else in the herbal", reading "like the ramblings of a drunk", and Culpeper biographer Benjamin Woolley suggests the piece may be an allegory about bitterness, as Culpeper had spent his life fighting the Establishment, and had been imprisoned and seriously wounded in battle as a result.[12]

William Shakespeare referred to Wormwood in his famous play Romeo and Juliet: Act 1, Scene 3. Juliet's childhood nurse said, "For I had then laid wormwood to my dug" meaning that the nurse had weaned her own daughter off of suckling by using the bitter taste of Wormwood.

Artemisia absinthium is traditionally used medicinally in Europe, and is believed to stimulate the appetite and relieve indigestion.[13]
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Informal governance is more subtle and lasts longer than formal and structured one.
In informal governance, everybody within frame and determination of his knowledge and apprehension; thinks that he works
for himself and his idea.

Beyond that frame and determination he realy works for those who know
and comprehend better.

Last edited by piskavac; 09-05-2015 at 12:18 PM.
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Old 17-05-2015, 08:46 AM   #686
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Cress




http://www.naturalmedicinalherbs.net...=cress&x=0&y=0

Medicinal use of Cress: The leaves are antiscorbutic, diuretic and stimulant. The plant is administered in cases of asthma, cough with expectoration and bleeding piles. The root is used in the treatment of secondary syphilis and tenesmus. The seeds are galactogogue. They have been boiled with milk and used to procure an abortion, they have been applied as a poultice to pains and hurts and have also been used as an aperient.

Description of the plant:
Annual
45 cm (1 foot) height
Flovering: June to July
Habitat of the herb: Not known in a truly wild situation.

Edible parts of Cress:
Young leaves - raw or cooked. A hot cress-like flavour, it makes an excellent addition (in small quantities) to the salad bowl. An analysis is available. Root is used as a condiment. A hot pungent flavour, but the root is rather small and woody. The fresh or dried seedpods can be used as a pungent seasoning. The seed can be sprouted in relatively low light until the shoots are a few centimetres long and then be used in salads. They take about 7 days to be ready and have a pleasantly hot flavour. An edible oil is obtained from the seed.
Cress
Other uses of the herb:
The seed yields up to 58% of an edible oil that can also be used for lighting.

Propagation of Cress:
Seed - if you want a succession of young leaves then it is possible to sow the seed in situ every 3 weeks in succession from early spring to early autumn. Germination is very rapid, usually taking place in less than a week. When sowing seed for use in mustard and cress, the seed is soaked for about 12 hours in warm water and then placed in a humid position. Traditionally, it is sown in a tray on a thin layer of soil, or on some moist blotting paper, and the tray is placed in a warm dark place for a few days to encourage rapid and rather etiolated growth. The seedlings can then be placed in a lighter position for a couple more days to turn green before being eaten. The cress seed should be sown about 3 - 4 days before the mustard for them both to be ready at the same time.

Known hazards of Lepidium sativum (Cress): None known
__________________
Informal governance is more subtle and lasts longer than formal and structured one.
In informal governance, everybody within frame and determination of his knowledge and apprehension; thinks that he works
for himself and his idea.

Beyond that frame and determination he realy works for those who know
and comprehend better.

Last edited by piskavac; 17-05-2015 at 09:02 AM.
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Old 20-05-2015, 09:38 AM   #687
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Gardenia




http://www.itmonline.org/arts/gardenia.htm

Key Herb for Dispelling Dampness and Heat Via the Triple Burner

by Subhuti Dharmananda, Ph.D., Director, Institute for Traditional Medicine, Portland, Oregon

Gardenia (shanzhizi, or simply zhizi) is the fruit of Gardenia jasminoides, one of the frequently used herbs in Chinese medicine. It has an intense bitter taste and a relatively strong cold nature. Yang Yifan has given a detailed description of its qualities and uses (1):

Gardenia is bitter and cold and enters the heart, lung, and triple burner meridians. Bitterness and cold may clear heat and descend fire. Gardenia can gently and slowly direct heat downwards from the upper burner. It can also promote urination and leach out heat from the heart and lung. It can be used for heat accumulation in the chest, irritability, restlessness, sensations of tightness in the chest, and insomnia.

As the triple burner is the passage not only of qi, but also of water, gardenia enters the triple burner meridian and regulates its function. As bitterness can dry dampness and cold can clear heat, this herb can be used to treat damp-heat syndrome in all three burners-for example, infections of the eyes or eczema on the face and neck caused by damp-heat of the upper burner; jaundice due to damp-heat in the middle burner and qi constraint of the liver and gallbladder; or painful urinary dysfunction due to damp-heat in the lower burner which disturbs the function of the bladder.

Gardenia also has the function of cooling the blood and relieving heat-poison. It can be used in different bleeding conditions, such as nosebleed, hematemesis, and blood in the urine. It can also be applied topically for burns.

In the last paragraph of Yang's description, the mention of "different bleeding conditions" mainly refers to heat in the blood, which is said to cause the blood to become erratic and escape the vessels.

Although most herbalists use the whole dried gardenia fruit, in China the herb material is sometimes differentiated by portion of the fruit selected and the processing method. Dr. Jiao Shude explains (2):
Raw gardenia (simple, dried fruit, as commonly used; shengzhizi) drains fire
Stir-fried gardenia (chaozhizi) and charred gardenia (zhizitan) stanch bleeding
Gardenia husk (gardenia fruit without seeds; zhiziyi) clears heat from the lung and the surface
Gardenia seed (zhiziren) clears internal heat and eliminates heart vexation

In sum, gardenia is used for "all forms of febrile diseases, frenetic movement of hot blood, damp-heat jaundice, and damp-heat strangury (obstructed urination)."

ACTIVE COMPONENTS
The primary active components of gardenia are iridoid glycosides (mainly geniposide and gardenoside), chlorogenic acid, and ursolic acid. In a water-ethanol commercial extract of the fruits, gardenoside and other iridoids made up 70% of the extract, chlorogenic acid 20%, and ursolic acid 10%. In addition, a complex iridoid glycoside, crocin, is the yellow pigment seen in the fruit. This same pigment is obtained from saffron (see Appendix 1). The gardenia iridoids and chlorogenic acid have been shown to stimulate flow of bile.

GARDENIA IN FORMULAS
In most cases, gardenia is incorporated into large formulas, where it serves to add or reinforce a fire-purging action. The most commonly used formulation with gardenia as a main ingredient is Huanglian Jiedu Tang (Coptis and Scute Combination), in which gardenia is combined with three other herbs that clear heat and dry dampness: coptis, scute, and phellodendron. The formula is indicated for heat in all three burners (sanjiao), to alleviate symptoms such as fever, irritability, insomnia, bleeding, jaundice, and skin eruptions (3). Gardenia is "directed" to resolve heat in a specific burner by combination with certain herbs. As typical examples: for the lower burner, rhubarb and/or moutan; for the middle burner, scute and/or gentiana; for the upper burner, soja and/or coptis. A small formula with gardenia and rhubarb, Yinchenhao Tang, is mentioned in Appendix 2.

APPENDIX 1: Gardenia and Saffron
Gardenia and Saffron as Sources of the Yellow Pigment Crocin
Crocin extract is the trade term for the yellow, water-soluble food colorant obtained from Gardenia jasminoides (commonly called "cape jasmine") and from Crocus sativus (saffron). The extracts are not used interchangeably in all applications since saffron is valued as much for its aroma and flavor as for its coloring properties and, moreover, it is the world's most expensive spice/colorant, while gardenia extract is relatively inexpensive. The following table compares the two sources (4):Quality for Comparison Saffron Gardenia
Usage For flavoring and imparting a yellow color to foods. Yellow food colorant. The extract lacks the flavor components of saffron that are desired.
Common name for processed product Saffron extract or crocin extract. Crocin extract; gardenia extract.
Raw material source Stigmas of a crocus flower; mainly cultivated. Fruits of a shrub; mainly cultivated.
Botanical source Crocus sativus (Iridaceae). Gardenia jasminoide (Rubiaceae).
Synonyms for botanical source No others Gardenia florida; Gardenia grandiflora; Gardenia augusta.
Common names for botanical source Saffron (English); safran (French and German); azafran (Spanish); fanhunghua (Chinese); Za'faran (Arabic). Cape Jasmine, garden gardenia; bunga cina (Malaysia); ceplok piring (Indonesia); rosal (the Philippines); phut cheen (Thailand).
Distribution Indigenous to Greece, Turkey and Iran; now widely cultivated across temperature zones from Europe to China and in the Americas. Indigenous to southern China and Japan; widely cultivated elsewhere, especially in Southeast Asia.
International Trade About 50 tons/year. Unquantified, but relatively small.
Major exporters Spain and Iran rank first; India ranks second. China.
Major importers Gulf and Middle East states. Far East and Southeast Asian countries.
Availability of reliable published information Good. Poor.
Gardenia
Crocin is the gentiobiose form of the carotenoid crocetin. In addition to the crocins, cape jasmine fruits contain iridoid and flavonoid pigments. The aroma of saffron arises from a volatile aldehyde, safranal, which is produced during processing from picrocrocin; the latter is responsible for the bitter taste of saffron.

Cape jasmine is an evergreen shrub that originates from southern China and Japan. It is now widely cultivated in the tropics and sub-tropics, particularly in Southeast Asia both as a garden ornamental and as a source of a yellow food colorant. The pigments are contained in the fruit that is used in the Far East, either directly or after drying, in a wide range of dishes and as a medicinal decoction with other herbs. In recent years, usage of the extract has developed in the processed food industries in Western Europe as a less expensive colorant substitute for saffron in applications where the latter's flavor is not required. It is usually sold under the name of "crocin extract." Typical dosage levels of the extract in confectionery and bakery products range from 0.05 to 0.1%, while fish products in brine may contain up to 1.5%. Geniposide from gardenia can be reduced to the colorless aglycone genipin which, in turn can be transformed into a blue color, used as a dye, by simple chemical transformation using methylamine

APPENDIX 2:Yinchenhao Decoction
Yinchenhao Tang (Capillaris Combination) is a purgative that has been researched extensively because of its potent bile-purging activity. Its modern formulation is 18-30 grams capillaris (yinchenhao; Artemisia capillaris), 12-15 grams gardenia, and 6-9 grams rhubarb. Its main indication is clearing damp-heat in cases of biliary obstruction, as may occur with acute hepatitis, cholecystitis, and gallstones.

Gardenia is considered an important contributor to the effects of this formula, with gardenoside as one of the potent biliary stimulants. It has been shown that gardenoside is mostly present in the interior of the gardenia fruits and that if gardenia is decocted intact, the resulting extraction of gardenoside is limited. Therefore, gardenia shells should be crushed prior to decocting (4).

Yinchenhao Tang is classified in modern Chinese medicine guides as a formula for clearing damp accumulation and promoting urination. The Advanced Textbook of Traditional Chinese Medicine explains (5):

This prescription is indicated for cases of jaundice due to the accumulation of dampness-heat in the interior. Internal accumulated dampness-heat disrupts qi activity, causing dysuria, abdominal fullness, thirst, yellow and greasy tongue coating, and smooth and rapid pulse. In the prescription, capillaris is a special agent for relieving jaundice, and is used in a larger dosage as the chief ingredient to eliminate heat and dampness. Gardenia serves as the adjuvant ingredient to purge dampness-heat from the triple burner through urination. Rhubarb is applied as the assistant ingredient to purge accumulated heat and promote bowel movements. The three drugs together eliminate dampness-heat through urination and defecation, thus relieving jaundice.

Jaundice is not a condition frequently presented to modern practitioners in the West, but accumulation of damp-heat is commonly reported. In such cases, capillaris is less important as a component of treatment, and can be given in lower dosage, while gardenia remains a central herb for dispelling both dampness and heat.

REFERENCES
Yang Yifang, Chinese Herbal Medicines Comparisons and Characteristics, 2002 Churchill Livingstone, London.
Mitchell C, et al. (translators), Ten Lectures on the Use of Medicinals from their Personal Experience of Jiao Shude, 2003 Paradigm Publications, Brookline, MA.
no author cited, Natural Colorants and Foodstuffs, 1995 Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations, http://www.fao.org/docrep/V8879E/v8879e09.htm
Huang Bingshan and Wang Yuxia, Thousand Formulas and Thousand Herbs of Traditional Chinese Medicine, vol. 2, 1993 Heilongjiang Education Press, Harbin.
Liang Guangyi, et al., Effects of different compounding of formulae on content of gardenoside in Yinchenhao Decoction, Journal of Traditional Chinese Medicine 2002; 22(1): 55-60.
State Administration of Traditional Chinese Medicine, Advanced Textbook on Traditional Chinese Medicine and Pharmacology, (vol. 2) 1995-6 New World Press, Beijing.
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CHICORY





http://www.hindawi.com/journals/ecam/2013/579319/

Evidence-Based Complementary and Alternative Medicine
Volume 2013 (2013), Article ID 579319, 13 pages
http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2013/579319
Review Article
Cichorium intybus: Traditional Uses, Phytochemistry, Pharmacology, and Toxicology
Renée A. Street,1 Jasmeen Sidana,2 and Gerhard Prinsloo3

1Medical Research Council, HIV Prevention Research Unit, Westville, Durban 4041, South Africa
2School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Jalandhar-Delhi G.T. Road (NH-1), Phagwara, Punjab 144411, India
3Department of Agriculture and Animal health, University of South Africa (UNISA), Florida Campus, Florida 1710, South Africa

Received 2 August 2013; Revised 22 October 2013; Accepted 22 October 2013
Academic Editor: Young-Rae Lee
Copyright © 2013 Renée A. Street et al. This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

Abstract
The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae) is made up of six species with major geographical presence in Europe and Asia. Cichorium intybus, commonly known as chicory, is well known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Although this plant has a rich history of use in folklore, many of its constituents have not been explored for their pharmacological potential. Toxicological data on C. intybus is currently limited. This review focuses on the economic and culturally important medicinal uses of C. intybus. Traditional uses, scientific validation, and phytochemical composition are discussed in detail.

1. Introduction
The genus Cichorium (Asteraceae) consists of six species with major distribution areas in Europe and Asia [1]. In several Asteraceae, inulin, a β-2,1 linked fructose polymer with a terminal glucose residue, functions as a reserve carbohydrate in stems, tubers, and taproots [2]. Cichorium intybus L., commonly known as chicory, is an erect fairly woody perennial herb, around 1 m in height with a fleshy taproot of up to 75 cm in length and large basal leaves [1, 3]. Historically, chicory was grown by the ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant, coffee substitute, and vegetable crop and was occasionally used for animal forage. In the 1970s, it was discovered that the root of C. intybus contained up to 40% inulin, which has a negligible impact on blood sugar and thus is suitable for diabetics [4]. To date, C. intybus is grown for the production of inulin on an industrial scale [2]. The name of the plant is derived from Greek and Latin. Cichorium means field and intybus is partly derived from the Greek “to cut”, because of the leaves, and partly from the Latin tubus to indicate the hollow stem [5].

Chicory is a hardy plant and can endure extreme temperatures during both vegetative and reproductive growth stages [1]. When broken, all plant parts exudate a milky latex [3]. Cichorium intybus is cultivated for numerous applications and can be divided into four main varieties or cultigroups according to their use [6]: (1) “industrial” or “root” chicory, predominantly cultivated in northwestern Europe, India, South Africa, and Chile, produces the taproot as a coffee substitute or for inulin extraction; (2) “Brussels” or “witloof” chicory is commonly cultivated around Europe as industrial chicory for etiolated buds (chicons) by forcing; (3) “leaf” chicory is used as fresh or cooked vegetables; and (4) “forage” chicory, initially derived from wild chicory commonly found along roadsides and waste areas, has been used since the mid-1970s to intensify herbage obtainability in perennial pastures for livestock.

Cichorium intybus is a medicinally important plant in Eurasia and in parts of Africa. Despite its long tradition of use, the plant is not described in the European Pharmacopoeia or in any official Pharmacopoeia of a European Union member state [5]. However, due to its prevalent distribution, different parts of the plant have been used in traditional medicines globally [7]. Important phytochemicals are distributed throughout the plant, but the main contents are present in the root [1]. This review focuses on the economic and culturally important medicinal uses of C. intybus. Traditional uses, scientific validation, and phytochemical composition are discussed in detail.

2. Traditional Uses
Medicinal plants have been used for centuries and numerous cultures still rely on indigenous medicinal plants to meet their primary health care needs. It is likely that the insightful knowledge of plant-based remedies in traditional cultures advanced through trial and error and that the most important cures were carefully passed from one generation to another [8]. Historically, chicory was grown by the ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant [9] and it has had a long history of therapeutic use both in areas where it is indigenous and in areas where it has been introduced. The various common or local names describing this plant may be ascribed to the widespread use by different folkloric groups.

Different preparations of this plant are employed to treat various symptoms and ailments (Table 1). The juice is said to be a folk remedy for cancer of the uterus and for tumors [4]. In South Africa, although it is considered a widespread weed, leaves, stems, and roots are made into a tea for jaundice and chicory syrup is used as a tonic and purifying medicine for infants [3]. In Turkey, an ointment is made from the leaves for wound healing [10]. Decoction refers to a preparation that is made by adding cold water to the plant material which is then boiled and allowed to simmer for 5–10 min after which it is strained [8]. Chicory decoctions are traditionally made from individual plant parts and/or from the plant as a whole.

According to the European monograph, traditional use of chicory roots includes the relief of symptoms related to mild digestive disorders (such as feeling of abdominal fullness, flatulence, and slow digestion) and temporary loss of appetite [11]. Prior to the wars in Afghanistan, folkloric reports described the use of aqueous root extracts as a light-sensitive plant remedy for malaria. This indigenous knowledge has since been confirmed and the antimalarial compounds of C. intybus roots have been identified as the light-sensitive sesquiterpene lactones lactucin and lactucopicrin [12]. The flowers of the chicory plant (Cichorii flos) are used as a herbal treatment of everyday ailments such as a tonic and appetite stimulant and as a treatment of gallstones, gastroenteritis, sinus problems, cuts, and bruises [4]. In Italy, the whorls are made into a decoction and used as a depurative [13]. Chicory seeds are one of the main ingredients of Jigrine, a commercial product of India used for the treatment of various diseases of the liver [14]. Other plant parts are also used for liver disorders, namely, aerial parts in Bosnia and Herzegovina [15] and roots in Serbia and India [16, 17].

3. Chemical Constituents
Chicoric acid has been identified as the major compound in methanolic extracts of chicory (Table 2) [18]. Aliphatic compounds and their derivatives comprise the main fraction while terpenoids comprise minor constituents of the plant. The flowers of chicory contain saccharides, methoxycoumarin cichorine, flavonoids, essential oils [4], and anthocyanins contributing to the blue colour of the perianth [19]. Table 2 provides a summary of the compounds isolated and identified from chicory. Octane, n-nonadecane, pentadecanone, hexadecane, and a tentatively identified compound have been found as principal volatile components [4]. A list of volatile compounds is given in Table 3.

4. Pharmacological Activities
Cichorium intybus presents a little investigated plant in terms of phytochemistry and pharmacology. Over 100 individual compounds have been isolated and identified from this plant (Table 2), the majority of which are from the roots. Most of the pharmacological studies on this plant document the testing of aqueous and/or alcoholic extracts only. Apart from the pharmacologically important activities, the use of C. intybus (hairy root cultures) has also been implicated in the phytoremediation of DDT [20].

4.1. Antimicrobial Activity
The antibacterial activity of the organic acid-rich extract of fresh red chicory (C. intybus var. sylvestre) was tested against periodontopathic bacteria including Streptococcus mutans, Actinomyces naeslundii, and Prevotella intermedia. The compounds identified from the active extract include oxalic acid, succinic acid, quinic acid, and shikimic acid. All of the organic acids were found to decrease biofilm formation and adhesion of bacteria to the cells, with different levels of efficacy. These compounds also induced biofilm disruption and detachment of dead cells for the cultured substratum [21]. In other reports on the antimicrobial activity of C. intybus, the crude aqueous and organic seed extracts were found to be active against four pathogenic microorganisms, namely, Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli, and Candida albicans, and root extracts had pronounced effects on Bacillus subtilis, S. aureus, Salmonella typhi, Micrococcus luteus, and E. coli [22, 23]. The leaf extract of C. intybus also showed a moderate activity against multidrug resistant S. typhi [24]. Guaianolides-rich root extracts of C. intybus have shown antifungal properties against anthropophilic fungi Trichophyton tonsurans, T. rubrum, and T. violaceum [25]. A sesquiterpenoid phytoalexin cichoralexin isolated from chicory exhibited potent antifungal activity against Pseudomonas cichorii [26].

4.2. Anthelmintic Activity
Several studies have been conducted on grazing animals to determine the anthelmintic potential of secondary metabolites present in C. intybus. Grossly, it has been concluded that the animals grazing on chicory have a higher performance index and lower incidence of gastrointestinal nematode infestations. In the majority of the experiments, the condensed tannins and sesquiterpene lactones were responsible for anthelmintic activity [27]. Anthelmintic activity of chicory has also been noticed in the case of lambs wherein the total number of abomasal helminths was found to be lesser in the lambs grazing on this plant [28]. The condensed tannin and sesquiterpene-rich extracts of C. intybus were evaluated for their efficacy against the larvae of deer lungworm, Dictyocaulus viviparous and other gastrointestinal nematode larvae using a larval migration inhibition assay. A dose-dependent decrease in the larval motility was observed in both lungworm and gastrointestinal nematodes [29]. The sesquiterpene lactone-rich extracts of C. intybus were also found to inhibit egg hatching of Haemonchus contortus [30].

4.3. Antimalarial Activity
The infusion of fresh roots of C. intybus has a history of use as a remedy for malarial fevers in some parts of Afghanistan. The bitter compounds in the plant, namely, lactucin, lactucopicrin, and the guaianolide sesquiterpenes, isolated from aqueous root extracts of chicory were concluded to be the antimalarial components of the plant. Lactucin and lactucopicrin completely inhibited the HB3 clone of strain Honduras-1 of Plasmodium falciparum at concentrations of 10 and 50 μg/mL, respectively [12, 31].

4.4. Hepatoprotective Activity
The folkloric use of C. intybus as a hepatoprotectant has been well documented. It is one of the herbal components of Liv-52, a traditional Indian tonic used widely for hepatoprotection. In a randomized, double-blind clinical trial conducted on cirrhotic patients, Liv-52 medication reduced the serum levels of hepatic enzymes, namely, alanine aminotransferase and aspartate aminotransferase. It also reduced the Child-Pugh scores and ascites significantly [32]. Another polyherbal formulation, Jigrine, contains the leaves of C. intybus as one of its 14 constituents. Jigrine was evaluated for its hepatoprotective activity against galactosamine-induced hepatopathy in rats. The pretreatment of male Wistar-albino rats with jigrine significantly reduced the levels of aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and urea and increased the levels of blood and tissue glutathione. Histopathological examination of the liver revealed that jigrine pretreatment prevented galactosamine toxicity and caused a marked decrease in inflamed cells [33].

The aqueous-methanolic extract of the seeds of C. intybus has been investigated for the hepatoprotective activity against acetaminophen and carbon tetrachloride-induced liver damage in mice. It was found to decrease both the death rate and the serum levels of alkaline phosphatase, glutamyl oxaloacetate transaminase, and glutamyl pyruvate transaminase [34]. In analogous studies, the antihepatotoxic activity of the alcoholic extract of the seeds and aqueous extracts of the roots and root callus of C. intybus was estimated. The oral administration of these extracts in albino rats led to a marked decrease in the levels of hepatic enzymes. Also, histopathological examination of the liver showed no fat accumulation or necrosis after the treatment [14, 35]. Similar studies have established the hepatoprotective effect of esculetin, a phenolic compound, and cichotyboside, a guaianolide sesquiterpene glycoside reported from C. intybus [36, 37].

The carbon tetrachloride and paracetamol-induced liver toxicities were also found to be counteracted by intraperitoneal administration of crude extracts and fractions of C. intybus. The methanol- and water-soluble fractions exhibited marked reductions in serum glutamyl pyruvate transaminase, serum glutamyl oxaloacetate transaminase, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels. In the same study, toxicity was induced in rat hepatocytes by incubation with galactosamine and thioacetamide [38].

The phenolic acid-rich seed extract of C. intybus was evaluated for its efficacy against hepatic steatosis in vitro and in vivo. The in vitro model of hepatic steatosis was created by incubation of the HepG2 cells with oleic acid leading to intracellular accumulation of fat. The seed extract was effective in decreasing the deposited fat from the cells in case of administration after the initial fat deposition (i.e., nonsimultaneous administration with oleic acid). However, in case of simultaneous administration of seed extract and oleic acid, the extract could not protect the cells from steatosis except at very high doses. The extract also led to the increased release of glycerol (an indicator of triglyceride degradation) in steatotic cells. In case of nonsimultaneous administration, the extract was found to upregulate the expression of SREBP-1c and PPAR-α genes leading to restoration of normal levels of corresponding proteins. In the in vivo model of hepatic steatosis, namely, diabetic rats, treatment with seed extract resulted in significant decrease in fat accumulation and fibrosis [39].The hepatoprotective activity of C. intybus has been correlated to its ability to inhibit the free radical mediated damage. A fraction prepared from the ethanolic extract of the leaves was assessed for preventive action on the free radical mediated damage to the deoxyribose sugar of the DNA (obtained from calf thymus). A dose-dependent decrease in the DNA damage was observed in the present assay [40].

4.5. Antidiabetic Activity
Chicory has reported antidiabetic activity [17, 41]. Based on the traditional use of C. intybus in diabetes mellitus, the hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of the ethanol extract of the whole plant were investigated. Diabetes was induced by intraperitoneal administration of streptozotocin in male Sprague-Dawley rats. The ethanol extract, at a dose of 125 mg/Kg body weight, significantly attenuated the serum glucose levels in the oral glucose tolerance test. A marked decrease in the serum triglycerides and cholesterol was also observed in the extract-treated rats. Hepatic glucose-6-phosphatase activity was found to be reduced in extract-treated diabetic rats as compared to untreated diabetic rats [17]. The antidiabetic effect of the aqueous seed extract of C. intybus has also been investigated. Early-stage and late-stage diabetes were differently induced in male Wistar albino rats by streptozotocin-niacinamide and streptozotocin alone, respectively. The treatment with chicory extract prevented weight loss in both early-stage and late-stage diabetic rats. Chicory-treated diabetic animals resisted excessive increase in fasting blood sugar (assessed by glucose tolerance test). Grossly, normalization of blood parameters, namely, alanine aminotransferase, triacylglycerol, total cholesterol, and glycosylated heamoglobin, was seen in these animals. In early-stage diabetic rats, chicory treatment led to the increase in insulin levels pointing toward the insulin-sensitizing action of chicory [42].

Feeding the diabetic Wistar rats with C. intybus leaf powder led to a decrease in blood glucose levels to near normal value. C. intybus administration also decreased the malondialdehyde (formed by thiobarbituric acid) levels and increased glutathione content. Anticholinesterase activity was restored to near normal, brain lipopolysaccharide decreased, and catalase activity increased [43]. Caffeic acid and chlorogenic acid have been described as potential antidiabetic agents by increasing glucose uptake in muscle cells. Both compounds were also able to stimulate insulin secretion from an insulin-secreting cell line and islets of Langerhans. Another compound, chicoric acid, is also a new potential antidiabetic agent exhibiting both insulin-sensitizing and insulin-secreting properties [44].

4.6. Gastroprotective Activity
C. intybus has been used in Turkish folklore for its antiulcerogenic potency. The aqueous decoction of C. intybus roots was orally administered to Sprague-Dawley rats 15 minutes before the induction of ulcerogenesis by ethanol. More than 95% inhibition of ulcerogenesis was observed in the test group [45].

4.7. Anti-Inflammatory Activity
The inhibition of TNF-α mediated cyclooxygenase (COX) induction by chicory root extracts was investigated in the human colon carcinoma (HT 29) cell line. The ethyl acetate extract inhibited the production of prostaglandin E2 (PGE2) in a dose-dependent manner. TNF-α mediated induction of COX-2 expression was also suppressed by the chicory extract [46].

4.8. Analgesic Activity
Lactucin, lactucopicrin, and 11β, 13-dihydrolactucin exhibited analgesic action in mice in hot plate and tail-flick tests. In the hot plate test, all three compounds exerted an analgesic effect, with lactucopicrin being the most potent compound. In the tail-flick test, the antinociceptive effects of all the tested compounds (30 mg/kg dose) were comparable to that of ibuprofen (60 mg/kg dose). Lactucin and lactucopicrin were also established to have some sedative action as evident from the decreased spontaneous locomotor activity in mice [47].
Chicory
4.9. Antioxidant Activity
The DPPH radical scavenging activity of a polyphenols-rich fraction of C. intybus has been investigated [48]. The anti- and prooxidant activities of Cichorium species were studied in chemical as well as biological systems. In the case of chemical systems, the antioxidant activity of water-soluble compounds in C. intybus var. silvestre was established in the coupled model of linoleic acid and β-carotene. A pro-oxidant activity of some of the chemical components was recorded initially which notably diminished with time and/or thermal treatment. Thereafter, the antioxidant activity of the raw juice and its fractions persisted. The molecular weight ranges of the antioxidant fractions of raw juice were also identified based on dialysis [49]. Two varieties of chicory, namely, C. intybus var. silvestre and C. intybus var. foliosum, have been investigated for their antioxidant (antiradical) activities in two distinct biological systems. The lipid peroxidation assay has been carried out on microsome membranes of rat hepatocytes after the induction of oxidative damage by carbon tetrachloride. The antiradical activity was expressed as the protective activity against lipid peroxidation and calculated as the percentage decrease in hydroperoxide degradation products. The second biological system used was the cultures of S. aureus after treatment with cumene hydroperoxide. The percentage increase of growth of bacteria was noted after the treatment with juices of chicory varieties. In both systems, the juices of chicory varieties showed strong antiradical activities [21, 49].

Red chicory (C. intybus var. silvestre) was studied for its polyphenol content and the antioxidant activity was evaluated by using the synthetic 2,2-diphenyl-1-(2,4,6-trinitrophenyl) hydrazyl radical and three model reactions catalyzed by pertinent enzymatic sources of reactive oxygen species, namely, xanthine oxidase, myeloperoxidase, and diaphorase. Total phenolics were significantly correlated with the antioxidant activity evaluated with both the synthetic radical and the enzyme-catalyzed reactions. On a molar basis, red chicory phenolics were as efficient as Trolox (reference compound) in scavenging the synthetic radical [50]. The aqueous-alcoholic extracts of the aerial parts of C. intybus also inhibited xanthine oxidase enzyme dose dependently [51]. In another study, along with DPPH radical scavenging activity, C. intybus also exhibited inhibition of hydrogen peroxide and chelation of ferrous ion [52].

4.10. Tumor-Inhibitory Activity
The crude ethanolic extract of C. intybus roots caused a significant inhibition of Ehrlich tumor carcinoma in mice. A 70% increase in the life span was observed with a 500 mg/kg/day intraperitoneal dose of the tested extract [53]. The aqueous-alcoholic macerate of the leaves of C. intybus also exerted an antiproliferative effect on amelanotic melanoma C32 cell lines [54]. Magnolialide, a 1β-hydroxyeudesmanolide isolated from the roots of C. intybus, inhibited several tumor cell lines and induced the differentiation of human leukemia HL-60 and U-937 cells to monocyte or macrophage-like cells [55].

4.11. Antiallergic Activity
The aqueous extract of C. intybus inhibited the mast cell-mediated immediate allergic reactions in vitro as well as in vivo. This extract restrained the systemic anaphylactic reaction in mice in a dose-dependent manner. It also significantly inhibited passive cutaneous anaphylactic reaction caused by anti-dinitrophenyl IgE in rats. Other markers of allergic reaction, namely, plasma histamine levels and histamine release from rat peritoneal mast cells, decreased significantly whereas the levels of cAMP increased after the treatment with C. intybus extract [56].

4.12. Other Pharmacologically Important Activities
The ethanol extract of the roots of C. intybus is reported to prevent the immunotoxic effects of ethanol in ICR mice. It was noted that body weight gains were markedly decreased in mice administered with ethanol. However, the body weight was not affected when ethanol was coadministered with the ethanol extract of C. intybus. Similarly, the weights of liver and spleen were not affected when ethanol extract was given along with ethanol. A considerable restoration in the other markers of immunity, namely, hemagglutination titer, plaque forming cells of spleen, secondary IgG antibody production, delayed-type hypersensitivity reaction (in response to subcutaneous administration of sheep red-blood cells to paw), phagocytic activity, number of circulating leucocytes, NK cell activity, cell proliferation, and production of interferon-γ, was registered [57]. The immunoactive potential of an aqueous-alcoholic extract of the roots was established by a mitogen proliferation assay and mixed lymphocyte reaction (MLR). The extract showed an inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in the presence of phytohemagglutinin and a stimulatory effect on MLR [58].

Chicoric acid has shown vasorelaxant activity against nor-epinephrine-induced contractions in isolated rat aorta strips [59]. A pronounced anticholinesterase activity of the dichloromethane extract of C. intybus roots was seen in the enzyme assay with Ellman’s reagent. Two sesquiterpene lactones, namely, 8-deoxylactucin and lactucopicrin, also exhibited a dose-dependent inhibition of anticholinesterase [60]. The methanolic extract displays wound healing effect and β-sitosterol was determined as the active compound responsible for the activity, possibly due to its significant anti-inflammatory and antioxidant effects, as well as hyaluronidase and collagenase inhibition [7].

5. Toxicological Studies
Although C. intybus has a long history of human use, the high levels of secondary metabolites have shown potential toxicological effects. To evaluate the safety of the root extract of C. intybus, Ames test and subchronic toxicity assessment were conducted. The sesquiterpene-rich extract was evaluated for potential mutagenic properties (Ames test) using Salmonella typhimurium strains TA97a, TA98, TA100, and TA1535 and Escherichia coli strain WP2 uvrA. Though cytotoxicity was observed at high extract doses in some strains, mutagenicity was not noted. A 28-day (subchronic) oral toxicity study, conducted in CRL:CD (SD) IGS BR rats, concluded that there was no extract-related mortality or any other signs of toxicological significance [61]. The toxicity evaluation of C. intybus extracts has also been done by Vibrio fischeri bioluminescence inhibition test (Microtox acute toxicity test). This bacterial test measures the decrease in light emission from the marine luminescent bacteria V. fischeri when exposed to organic extracts. The tested extracts showed less than 20% inhibition of bioluminescence and hence were concluded to be safe for human use [54].

6. Clinical Trials
Two clinical studies on chicory roots are reported in the literature, both of which are pilot studies and are therefore considered to be insufficient to support a well-established use indication for chicory root [5]. The first study, a phase 1, placebo-controlled, double-blind, dose-escalating trial, was conducted to determine the safety and tolerability of a proprietary bioactive extract of chicory root in patients with osteoarthritis (OA) [62]. In general, the treatment was well tolerated. Only one patient who was treated with the highest dose of chicory had to discontinue treatment due to an adverse event. The results of the pilot study suggested that a proprietary bioactive extract of chicory root has a potential role in the management of OA and merits further investigation. The second pilot study was conducted to assess whether chicory coffee consumption might confer cardiovascular benefits; thus, a clinical intervention was performed with 27 healthy volunteers, who consumed 300 mL chicory coffee daily for one week [63]. Depending on the inducer used for the aggregation test, the dietary intervention showed variable effects on platelet aggregation. Whole blood and plasma viscosity were both significantly reduced, along with serum MIF levels, after a week of chicory coffee intake. It was concluded that the full spectrum of the effects was unlikely to be attributed to a single phytochemical; nevertheless, the phenolics (including caffeic acid) are expected to play a substantial role. The study offered an encouraging starting-point to describe the antithrombotic and anti-inflammatory effects of phenolic compounds found in chicory coffee.

In the European Union, there is currently only one registered/authorized herbal medicinal product containing C. intybus as single ingredient whilst there are several combination products on the market [5]. The efficacy of herbal medicine Liv-52 consisting of Mandur bhasma, Tamarix gallica, and herbal extracts of Capparis spinosa, C. intybus, Solanum nigrum, Terminalia arjuna, and Achillea millefolium on liver cirrhosis outcomes was compared with the placebo for 6 months in 36 cirrhotic patients. The study concluded that Liv-52 possessed a hepatoprotective effect in cirrhotic patients. This protective effect of Liv-52 can be attributed to the diuretic, anti-inflammatory, anti-oxidative, and immunomodulating properties of the component herbs [32].

7. Cultivation and Sustainable Use
Greeks and Romans began to grow chicory as a vegetable crop 4000 years ago [9]. Since the discovery in the 1970s that chicory root contains up to 40% inulin (polysaccharide), new strains have been created, with inulin content comparable to that of sugar beet [4]. It is a common vegetable in several Western European countries. It is typically grown in a biennial cycle, with a tuberised root produced during the vegetative growth phase [64]. During the first field year, the vegetative growth phase is characterized by the production of a fleshy taproot. The second field year is the generative phase in which the flowering stem is formed and seeds are produced. To produce the eatable leafy vegetable called a chicon, roots are harvested at the end of the first growing period when an appropriate stage of maturity is reached [65]. The application of inulin in the food industry was restricted to the production of coffee substitutes. It was later discovered that inulin could act as a substitute for sugar or fat due to its low caloric value. The most stable form for the commercialization of inulin is the powdered extract for its greater facility of manipulation, transport, storage, and consumption [66].

Chicory is especially attractive as a cash crop since it can reach more than 62 t ha−1 under favourable conditions. Inulin content can reach on average 15% of root fresh weight and a yield of 8 t ha−1 of inulin is achievable [67]. The USA imports more than 2.3 million kilograms of chicons and 1.9 million kilograms of roasted chicory roots for coffee according to 2002 US Department of Commerce tariff and trade data [61]. Numerous studies have focused on different cultivation aspects of chicory. Chicory is considered one of the most important sources of inulin since it has a high root yield potential and also a high root sugar content [68]. A high root yield, a high inulin content, and especially long inulin chains are preferred [69]. Short chain inulin is used for the production of fructose syrup used in sweetening of cold drinks whereas long chain inulin is used as fat replacer and foam stabilizer in food products and also in the production of carboxymethyl inulin [2]. The effect of fertilizers on the growth, development, and yield of chicory has been well studied. In general, increase of nitrogen (N) increases the growth and ultimately the yield, although a high application of N has a negative effect on especially some of the amino acids. Increased N application at levels of 200 kg N ha−1 leads to a decrease in amino acids such as threonine and valine with a pronounced decreased effect on methionine. A level of 100 kg N ha−1 is preferred for enhanced quality [70]. In terms of phosphorous (P), it has been established that chicory has at least two inherent patterns of response to low or zero P conditions. One pattern is the classical increase in the length of the smallest diameter roots in response to P deficient conditions. The second pattern is a significant decrease in root tissue density under low P conditions [71]. It has also been investigated as a suitable catch crop since it has the ability to withdraw N, especially nitrate, from the soil, thereby reducing potential leaching. Additionally, it can withstand competition, has a slow juvenile development and vigorous growth after harvest of the main crop, is frost- and winter-hardy, has a well-developed root system, and does not transmit pathogens or pests to other crops [72]. Canopy closure in chicory is advantageous and critical for yield and can be achieved by a larger supply of assimilates to the shoot [73].

Chicory is greatly influenced by the pH of the soil as this affects the availability of nutrients in the soil to the plant. A study conducted by Anguissola Scotti el al. [74] on two soils of pH, 5.7 and 7.0 indicated that the fly-ash or metal availability to the plant was significantly different at the different pH levels. At a low pH a decrease of Zn, Cu, Cd, and Ni was observed and for neutral soils the added metals are more available to plants than those naturally occurring in soils [75]. Chicory is a cold-requiring long-day plant [72]. In a study by Amaducci and Pritoni [68], it was shown that retarding harvest time significantly affects the content and concentration of inulin. Rainfall has proven to be another important factor since the roots contain a higher water content, thereby affecting the concentration of inulin in the roots. The same results have been obtained in a study by Baert [69] where an early sowing date and harvesting time increased the root yield, total sugar content, and inulin chain length. The increase in yield with an earlier sowing date was up to 30% higher with an increase of 10% with an earlier harvest date. The content of free fructose and sucrose increased and the content of free glucose and inulin decreased with a later harvest time [75].

Even though chicory is a cold-requiring plant, cold storage after harvest can cause a strong decrease in free glucose, an increase in free fructose and sucrose, and hydrolysis of inulin [76]. This has also been observed by Ernst et al. [77] where an onset of cooler temperatures and especially colder temperatures during storage resulted in an increase in sucrose and fructose content. It was found that sucrose increased in the roots of chicory about threefold and fructose increased about tenfold within the first few weeks of cold storage after harvest [77]. The effect of storage at reduced temperature has also been studied on the levels of sesquiterpene lactones. Storage at 2°C and 10°C for up to 13 days had no effect on the level of lactucin-like sesquiterpene lactones in the chicons and after 7 days of storage a slight increase of lactucopicrin content was observed [78]. Several types of discoloration, leaf edge damage, and extensive growth of the internal core can occur in the heads of chicory during postharvest storage, which considerably reduces their market value. An atmospheric composition of 10% O2 and 10% CO2 in combination with a storage temperature of 5°C was found optimal [64]. Low temperature in the field also hastens and enhances bolting and flowering [79, 80]. The type and cultivar have been identified in numerous studies to be the determining factor during the stages of growth [81]. Suhonen [82] found the highest numbers of bolters in those being planted last, for which the mean temperatures during early growth were the highest.

During the postharvest period, the major polyamines present are putrescine, especially in the oldest leaves, although spermidine is present in considerable amounts, showing a tendency to decrease with the increasing physiological age of the leaves. Free sterol content increases with postharvest and also with physiological age of the leaves. Sitosterol is the major free sterol present, followed by stigmasterol and campesterol [83].

Emergence has been reported as one negative aspect of the crop, which could be addressed by specific breeding programmes [68]. Chicory can also be propagated and grown by means of micropropagation by regeneration of meristematic nodules. The leaves are cultivated in vitro and develop into plantlets when transferred to soil [84]. Although chicory can be regenerated in vitro from explants, both through organogenesis and somatic embryogenesis, and from protoplasts, no transgenic plants have yet been reported that have been produced [85].

Promising potential utility technologies of the plant have emerged. Chicory roots pulps are an important by-product of the inulin processing industries and are usually used in animal feed. Other applications can be found for these materials since the extraction of chicory pulp yields high levels of pectin, a polysaccharide extensively used in food as a gelling agent, thickening agent, and stabilizer [86]. The crude protein content in chicory is more valuable than in alfalfa. Furthermore the crude lipid in chicory is generally higher than most varieties of alfalfa [9]. It also has a nutritional quality comparable to lucerne, with a mineral content superior for copper and zinc, with similar proportions of protein, lipid, minerals, and other nutrients, and palatable with good digestion with applicability in the poultry and livestock industry [87, 88].

8. Conclusion
Cichorium intybus has a long tradition of use globally. Historically, chicory was grown by the ancient Egyptians as a medicinal plant, coffee substitute, and vegetable crop and was occasionally used for animal forage. This multipurpose plant contains high amounts of proteins, carbohydrates, and mineral elements [9]. Inulin from chicory roots is considered a functional food ingredient as it affects physiological and biochemical processes resulting in better health and reduction of the risk of many diseases [89].

To date, chicory remains an extremely versatile plant, amenable to genetic manipulation, and there is interest shown in genetically engineered chicory to obtain higher yields and create new potentials [1]. The documented indigenous knowledge relating to the various medicinal uses of chicory has been supported by phytochemical isolation and investigations into biological activity. Nonetheless, many of its constituents have not been explored for their pharmacological potential and further research is necessary to gain better understanding of the phytochemicals against various diseases [9]. Toxicological data on C. intybus is currently limited; however, considering that the Asteraceae family is a known source of allergic problems, a contraindication for hypersensitivity should be included in the safety data [5]. Recent studies suggest the use of C. intybus as a biomonitor for heavy metals [90, 91]; considering that chicory enters the food chain, this plant should be used with caution. The apparent bioactivity of C. intybus shown in preclinical studies (both in vitro and in vivo) is a testament to its historical use in traditional medicine.

Conflict of Interests
The authors declare no conflict of interests.

Acknowledgments
The South African Medical Research Council, University of South Africa and the HOD, School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Lovely Professional University, Punjab, India, are thanked for their support.

----------------------------------------

Because this text is long (40 000 characters), and because DIF prohibits for any post to have over 60 000 characters and with reference list it excedes permitted number of characters (60 000) i needed to cut the reference list off.
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Old 04-08-2015, 01:59 PM   #689
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Eggplant - Aubergine




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Eggplant

Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Solanales
Family: Solanaceae
Genus: Solanum
Species: S. melongena
Binomial name
Solanum melongena L.

Synonyms
Solanum ovigerum Dunal
Solanum trongum Poir.
and see text

Eggplant (Solanum melongena) or aubergine is a species of nightshade grown for its edible fruit.

It is known in South Asia, Southeast Asia and South Africa as brinjal.[1][2][3][4] While "eggplant" is the common name in American, Canadian, and Australian English, "aubergine" is much more common in British English. Other common names are melongene,[5] garden egg,[6] or guinea squash.[7]

The fruit is widely used in cooking, most notably as an important ingredient in dishes such as moussaka and ratatouille. As a member of the genus Solanum, it is related to both the tomato and the potato. It was originally domesticated from the wild nightshade species, the thorn or bitter apple, S. incanum,[8][9][10] probably with two independent domestications, one in the region of South Asia, and one in East Asia.[11]

Description
The eggplant is a delicate, tropical perennial often cultivated as a tender or half-hardy annual in temperate climates. It grows 40 to 150 cm (16 to 57 in) tall, with large, coarsely lobed leaves that are 10 to 20 cm (4–8 in) long and 5 to 10 cm (2–4 in) broad. Semiwild types can grow much larger, to 225 cm (7 ft) with large leaves over 30 cm (12 in) long and 15 cm (6 in) broad. The stem is often spiny. The flower is white to purple, with a five-lobed corolla and yellow stamens. The egg-shaped glossy purple fruit has white flesh with a meaty texture. The cut surface of the flesh rapidly turns brown when the fruit is cut open. On wild plants, the fruit is less than 3 cm (1.2 in) in diameter, but very much larger in cultivated forms, reaching 30 cm (12 in) or more in length.

Botanically classified as a berry, the fruit contains numerous small, soft seeds which, though edible, taste bitter because, as a relative of tobacco, they contain nicotinoid alkaloids.
Names and etymology[edit]

Closeup of an eggplant flower of a long-fruited Chinese variety in Hong Kong.

Some 18th-century European cultivars were yellow or white and resembled goose or hen's eggs, hence the name "eggplant".[12]

Many other names, some of which are superficially quite different, all derive ultimately from a Dravidian word, with modern reflexes in Kannada badanekāyi, Telugu Vangakaya, Malayalam vaṟutina, Tamil kathirikkai. This was borrowed into Sanskrit and Pali as vātiṅgaṇa, vātigama, which in turn was borrowed by Persian as bādinjān بادنجان, then by Arabic as (al-)bāḏinjān باذنجان. In Albanian it is known as patrixhan or patellxhan, both derived from Arabic.[13]

The Arabic name is the common source of almost all European names for this plant, but through two distinct paths of transmission, with the melongene family coming through the eastern Mediterranean, and the aubergine family through the western Mediterranean.

In the eastern Mediterranean, Byzantine Greek borrowed bāḏinjān as μελιτζάνα melitzána, influenced by Greek μελανο- 'black'. That form came into Medieval Latin as melongena, which was used in the botanical works of Tournefort and Linnaeus. Though melongene has become obsolete in the standard English, as has the French melanjan, it persists in the Caribbean English melongene or meloongen. The usual word in Italian remains melanzana.[13] An alternative Italian etymology is "mela insana", insane apple.

Even the archaic English name mad-apple comes from the melongena family: in Italian, the word melanzana was reinterpreted in Italian as mela insana, and translated into English as mad apple.[14]

In the western Mediterranean, (al)-bāḏinjān became Spanish berenjena, Catalan as albergínia, and Portuguese beringela. The Catalan form was borrowed by French as aubergine, which was then borrowed into British English.[15]

In Eastern Slavic languages, such as Russian and Ukrainian, the word baklazhan is used, while Turkish has patlıcan. The Hungarian name of the plant, padlizsán, comes from Bulgarian патладжан or патлиджан, which is in turn from Ottoman Turkish.[citation needed]

In Indian, South African, Malaysian, Singaporean, and West Indian English, the fruit is called brinjal, from the Portuguese.[16] The Indic name baingan or baigan is also sometimes used in South Asian English and in Trinidad.

In Kiswahili, it is called biringanya.[citation needed]
History[edit]

The plant species originated in cultivation. It has been cultivated in southern and eastern Asia since prehistory. The first known written record of the plant is found in Qimin Yaoshu (齊民要術), an ancient Chinese agricultural treatise completed in 544.[17] The numerous Arabic and North African names for it, along with the lack of the ancient Greek and Roman names, indicate it was introduced throughout the Mediterranean area by the Arabs in the early Middle Ages. A book on agriculture by Ibn Al-Awwam in 12th century Arabic Spain described how to grow aubergines.[18] There are records from later medieval Catalan and Spanish.[19]

The aubergine is unrecorded in England until the 16th century. An English botany book in 1597 stated:
This plant groweth in Egypt almost everywhere... bringing forth fruit of the bigness of a great cucumber.... We have had the same in our London gardens, where it hath borne flowers, but the winter approaching before the time of ripening, it perished: nothwithstanding it came to bear fruit of the bigness of a goose egg one extraordinary temperate year... but never to the full ripeness.[20]

Because of the plant's relationship with the Solanaceae (nightshade) family, the fruit was at one time believed to be extremely poisonous. The flowers and leaves can be poisonous if consumed in large quantities due to the presence of solanine.[21]

Cultivated varieties
Three varieties of eggplant.
Different varieties of the plant produce fruit of different size, shape, and color, though typically purple. The most widely cultivated varieties (cultivars) in Europe and North America today are elongated ovoid, 12–25 cm long (4 1⁄2 to 9 in) and
6–9 cm broad (2 to 4 in) in a dark purple skin.

A much wider range of shapes, sizes and colors is grown in India and elsewhere in Asia. Larger varieties weighing up to a kilogram (2.2 pounds) grow in the region between the Ganges and Yamuna rivers, while smaller varieties are found elsewhere. Colors vary from white to yellow or green, as well as reddish-purple and dark purple. Some cultivars have a color gradient, from white at the stem to bright pink to deep purple or even black. Green or purple cultivars in white striping also exist. Chinese varieties are commonly shaped like a narrower, slightly pendulous cucumber, and are sometimes called Japanese eggplants in North America.

Oval or elongated oval-shaped and black-skinned cultivars include 'Harris Special Hibush', 'Burpee Hybrid', 'Black Magic', 'Classic', 'Dusky', and 'Black Beauty'. Slim cultivars in purple-black skin include 'Little Fingers', 'Ichiban', 'Pingtung Long', and 'Tycoon'; in green skin, 'Louisiana Long Green' and 'Thai (Long) Green'; in white skin, 'Dourga'. Traditional, white-skinned, egg-shaped cultivars include 'Casper' and 'Easter Egg'. Bicolored cultivars with color gradient include 'Rosa Bianca', 'Violetta di Firenze', 'Bianca Smufata di Rosa' (heirloom), and 'Prosperosa' (heirloom). Bicolored cultivars with striping include 'Listada de Gandia' and 'Udumalapet'. In some parts of India, miniature varieties (most commonly called vengan) are popular. A particular variety of green brinjal known as Matti gulla is grown in Matti, a village of the Udupi district in Karnataka state.

Cooking
Melanzane alla Parmigiana, or Eggplant Parmesan Wikimedia Commons has media related to Eggplant-based food.

The raw fruit can have a somewhat bitter taste, but becomes tender when cooked and develops a rich, complex flavor. Many recipes advise salting, rinsing and draining of the sliced fruit (known as "degorging"), to soften it and to reduce the amount of fat absorbed during cooking, but mainly to remove the bitterness of the earlier cultivars. Some modern varieties—including large, purple varieties commonly imported into western Europe—do not need this treatment. The fruit is capable of absorbing large amounts of cooking fats and sauces, making for very rich dishes, but salting reduces the amount of oil absorbed. Eggplant, due to its texture and bulk, can be used as a meat substitute in vegan and vegetarian cuisine.[22][23]

The fruit flesh is smooth, as in the related tomato. The numerous seeds are soft and edible along with the rest of the fruit. The thin skin is also edible.

Eggplant is used in the cuisine of many countries. Eggplant is widely used in its native Indian cuisine, for example in sambhar, dalma (a dal preparation with vegetables, native to Odisha), chutney, curry, and achaar. Owing to its versatile nature and wide use in both everyday and festive Indian food, it is often described (under the name "baingan" or "Brinjal") as the "king of vegetables". Roasted, skinned, mashed, mixed with onions, tomatoes and spices and then slow cooked make the famous Indian and Pakistani dish Baingan bharta or gojju, similar to salată de vinete in Romania. Another version of the dish, begun-pora (eggplant charred or burnt), is very popular in Bangladesh and the east Indian states of Odisha and West Bengal where the pulp of the vegetable is mixed with raw chopped shallot, green chilies, salt, fresh coriander and mustard oil. Sometimes fried tomatoes and deep-fried potatoes are also added, creating a dish called begun bhorta. In a dish called bharli vangi, brinjal is stuffed with ground coconut, peanuts, and masala, and then cooked in oil.[24]

It is often stewed, as in the French ratatouille, or deep fried as in the Italian parmigiana di melanzane, the Turkish karnıyarık or Turkish and Greek musakka/moussaka, and Middle-Eastern and South Asian dishes. Eggplants can also be battered before deep-frying and served with a sauce made of tahini and tamarind. In Iranian cuisine, it is blended with whey as kashk e-bademjan, tomatoes as mirza ghasemi or made into stew as khoresh-e-bademjan. It can be sliced and deep-fried, then served with plain yogurt, (optionally) topped with a tomato and garlic sauce, such as in the Turkish dish patlıcan kızartması (meaning fried aubergines) or without yogurt as in patlıcan şakşuka. Perhaps the best-known Turkish eggplant dishes are imam bayıldı (vegetarian) and karnıyarık (with minced meat).

Almagro eggplants
It may also be roasted in its skin until charred, so the pulp can be removed and blended with other ingredients, such as lemon, tahini, and garlic, as in the Arab baba ghanoush and the similar Greek melitzanosalata. In Romania a mix of roasted eggplant, roasted red peppers, chopped onions, tomatoes, mushrooms, carrots, celery and spices is called zacuscă in Romania or ajvar in Croatia and the Balkans. A Spanish dish called escalivada calls for strips of roasted aubergine, sweet pepper, onion and tomato. In the La Mancha region of central Spain a small eggplant is pickled in vinegar, paprika, olive oil and red peppers. The result is berenjena de Almagro, Ciudad Real. A Levantine specialty is Makdous, another pickling of eggplants, stuffed with red peppers and walnuts in olive oil.

Eggplant can be hollowed out and stuffed with meat, rice, or other fillings, and then baked. In the Caucasus, for example, it is fried and stuffed with walnut paste to make nigvziani badrijani. It can also be found in Chinese cuisine, braised (紅燒茄子), stewed (魚香茄子), steamed (凉拌茄子), or stuffed (釀茄子).

Cultivation
Eggplants being sorted just after harvest

In tropical and subtropical climates, eggplant can be sown directly into the garden. Eggplant grown in temperate climates fares better when transplanted into the garden after all danger of frost is passed. Seeds are typically started eight to ten weeks prior to the anticipated frost-free date.

Many of the pests and diseases that afflict other solanaceous plants, such as tomato, pepper (capsicum), and potato, are also troublesome to eggplants. For this reason, it should not be planted in areas previously occupied by its close relatives. Four years should separate successive crops of eggplants. Common North American pests include the potato beetles, flea beetles, aphids, and spider mites. (Adults can be removed by hand, though flea beetles can be especially difficult to control.) Good sanitation and crop rotation practices are extremely important for controlling fungal disease, the most serious of which is Verticillium. A herbicide that is commonly used for eggplant is Dimethyl tetrachloroterephthalate.
Eggplant (Aubergine)
Spacing should be 45 cm (18 in) to 60 cm (24 in) between plants, depending on cultivar, and 60 to 90 cm (24 to 36 in) between rows, depending on the type of cultivation equipment being used. Mulching helps conserve moisture and prevent weeds and fungal diseases. The flowers are relatively unattractive to bees and the first blossoms often do not set fruit. Hand pollination improves the set of the first blossoms. Growers typically cut fruits from the vine just above the calyx owing to the somewhat woody stems. Flowers are complete, containing both female and male structures, and may be self-pollinated or cross-pollinated.[25]

Solanum melongena is included in the Tasmanian Fire Service's list of low flammability plants, indicating that it is suitable for growing within a building protection zone.[26]

Statistics
According to FAO in 2012, production of eggplant is highly concentrated, with 90% of output coming from five countries. China is the top producer (58% of world output) and India is second (25%), followed by Iran, Egypt and Turkey. More than 4,000,000 acres (1,600,000 ha) are devoted to the cultivation of eggplant in the world.[27]

Worldwide eggplant productionTop ten countries
with the largest production of eggplant in 2012[28]
(Tonnes)
Rank Country Production Rank Country Production
1 China 28,800,000 6 Indonesia 518,827
2 India 12,200,000 7 Iraq 460,000
3 Iran 1,300,000 8 Japan 327,400
4 Egypt 1,193,854 9 Spain 246,600
5 Turkey 799,285 10 Italy 217,690

Health properties
Eggplant, rawNutritional value per 100 g (3.5 oz)
Energy 104 kJ (25 kcal)
Carbohydrates 5.88 g
Sugars 3.53 g
Dietary fiber 3 g
Fat 0.18 g
Protein 0.98 g
Vitamins
Thiamine (B1) (3%)
0.039 mg
Riboflavin (B2) (3%)
0.037 mg
Niacin (B3) (4%)
0.649 mg
Pantothenic acid (B5) (6%)
0.281 mg
Vitamin B6 (6%)
0.084 mg
Folate (B9) (6%)
22 μg
Vitamin C (3%)
2.2 mg
Vitamin E (2%)
0.3 mg
Vitamin K (3%)
3.5 μg
Trace minerals
Calcium (1%)
9 mg
Iron (2%)
0.23 mg
Magnesium (4%)
14 mg
Manganese (11%)
0.232 mg
Phosphorus (3%)
24 mg
Potassium (5%)
229 mg
Zinc (2%)
0.16 mg
Link to USDA Database entry
Units
μg = micrograms • mg = milligrams
IU = International units
Percentages are roughly approximated using US recommendations for adults.
Source: USDA Nutrient Database

Nutritionally, eggplant is low in fat, protein, and carbohydrates. It also contains relatively low amounts of most important vitamins and minerals. A 1998 study at the Institute of Biology of São Paulo State University, Brazil, found eggplant juice to significantly reduce weight, plasma cholesterol levels, and aortic cholesterol content in hypercholesterolemic rabbits.[29]

The results of a 2000 study on humans suggested S. melongena infusion had a modest and transitory effect, no different from diet and exercise.[30]

A 2004 study at the Heart Institute of the University of São Paulo found that, "Eggplant extract with orange juice is not to be considered an alternative to statins in reducing serum levels of cholesterol."[31]

The nicotine content of aubergines, a concentration of 0.01 mg per 100g, is low in absolute terms, but is higher than any other edible plant. The amount of nicotine consumed by eating eggplant may be comparable to being in the presence of a smoker, depending on the cooking method.[32] On average, 9 kg (20 lbs) of eggplant contains about the same amount of nicotine as a cigarette.

Allergies
Case reports of itchy skin or mouth, mild headache, and stomach upset after handling or eating eggplant have been reported anecdotally and published in medical journals (see also oral allergy syndrome). A 2008 study of a sample of 741 people in India, where eggplant is commonly consumed, found nearly 10% reported some allergic symptoms after consuming eggplant, with 1.4% showing symptoms within less than two hours.[33] Contact dermatitis from eggplant leaves[34] and allergy to eggplant flower pollen[35] have also been reported. Individuals who are atopic (genetically predisposed to developing certain allergic hypersensitivity reactions) are more likely to have a reaction to eggplant, which may be because eggplant is high in histamines. A few proteins and at least one secondary metabolite have been identified as potential allergens.[36] Cooking eggplant thoroughly seems to preclude reactions in some individuals, but at least one of the allergenic proteins survives the cooking process.
Varieties[edit]
Solanum melongena var. esculentum common eggplant, including white varieties, with many cultivars[37]
Solanum melongena var. depressum dwarf eggplant
Solanum melongena var. serpentium snake eggplant
Genetically engineered variety[edit]

Bt brinjal is a transgenic eggplant that contains a gene from the soil bacterium Bacillus thuringiensis. This variety was designed to give the plant resistance to lepidopteran insects like the brinjal fruit and shoot borer (Leucinodes orbonalis) and fruit borer (Helicoverpa armigera).[38]

On 9 February 2010, the Indian Environment Minister, Jairam Ramesh, imposed a moratorium on the cultivation of Bt brinjal.[39] His decision was made after protest from several groups responding to regulatory approval of the cultivation of Bt brinjal in October, 2009. Ramesh stated the moratorium will last "for as long as it is needed to establish public trust and confidence".
Synonyms[edit]

The eggplant is quite often featured in the older scientific literature under the junior synonyms S. ovigerum and S. trongum. Several other now-invalid names have been uniquely applied to it:[40]
Melongena ovata Mill.
Solanum album Noronha
Solanum insanum L.
Solanum longum Roxb.
Solanum melanocarpum Dunal
Solanum melongenum St.-Lag.
Solanum oviferum Salisb.
Prachi Salisb.

Segmented purple eggplant
A number of subspecies and varieties have been named, mainly by Dikii, Dunal, and (invalidly) by Sweet. Names for various eggplant types, such as agreste, album, divaricatum, esculentum, giganteum, globosi, inerme, insanum, leucoum, luteum, multifidum, oblongo-cylindricum, ovigera, racemiflorum, racemosum, ruber, rumphii, sinuatorepandum, stenoleucum, subrepandum, tongdongense, variegatum, violaceum and viride, are not considered to refer to anything more than cultivar groups at best. On the other hand, Solanum incanum and cockroach berry (S. capsicoides), other eggplant-like nightshades described by Linnaeus and Allioni, respectively, were occasionally considered eggplant varieties, but this is not correct.[40]

The eggplant has a long history of taxonomic confusion with the scarlet and Ethiopian eggplants, known as gilo and nakati, and described by Linnaeus as S. aethiopicum. The eggplant was sometimes considered a variety violaceum of that species. S. violaceum of de Candolle applies to Linnaeus' S. aethiopicum. There is an actual S. violaceum, an unrelated plant described by Ortega, which used to include Dunal's S. amblymerum and was often confused with the same author's S. brownii.[40]

Like the potato and Solanum lichtensteinii, but unlike the tomato, which then was generally put in a different genus, the eggplant was also described as S. esculentum, in this case once more in the course of Dunal's work. He also recognized varieties aculeatum, inerme and subinerme at that time. Similarly, H.C.F. Schuhmacher and Peter Thonning named the eggplant as S. edule, which is also a junior synonym of sticky nightshade (S. sisymbriifolium). Scopoli's S. zeylanicum refers to the eggplant, and that of Blanco to S. lasiocarpum.[40]
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Old 09-06-2016, 12:25 PM   #690
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Western medicine sees the body as a machine, where you try to fix a broken part or take it out. In Eastern Medicine, the body is seen as a garden. If the leaves are wilting or turning brown, you examine the condition of the soil, see if the plant is getting enough water & sun or if the roots are being impinged upon. You don’t just paint the leaves green! From the classic book on Chinese Med 'Between Heaven and Earth'.

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Yeah, but how those rich people will get even richer, if everyone will just use herbs and natural solutions ? We clearly can't have that *sarcasm*
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Old 10-06-2016, 08:01 AM   #691
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Natural Antibiotic


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Read More At http://www.getholistichealth.com/412...s-in-the-body/
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Safflower




https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Safflower

Safflower (Carthamus tinctorius L.) is a highly branched, herbaceous, thistle-like annual plant. It is commercially cultivated for vegetable oil extracted from the seeds. Plants are 30 to 150 cm (12 to 59 in) tall with globular flower heads having yellow, orange, or red flowers. Each branch will usually have from one to five flower heads containing 15 to 20 seeds per head. Safflower is native to arid environments having seasonal rain. It grows a deep taproot which enables it to thrive in such environments.

History
Safflower is one of humanity's oldest crops. Chemical analysis of ancient Egyptian textiles dated to the Twelfth dynasty identified dyes made from safflower, and garlands made from safflowers were found in the tomb of the pharaoh Tutankhamun.[2] John Chadwick reports that the Greek name for safflower κάρθαμος (kārthamos) occurs many times in Linear B tablets, distinguished into two kinds: a white safflower (ka-na-ko re-u-ka, 'knākos leukā'), which is measured, and red (ka-na-ko e-ru-ta-ra, 'knākos eruthrā') which is weighed. "The explanation is that there are two parts of the plant which can be used; the pale seeds and the red florets."[3]

Safflower was also known as carthamine in the nineteenth century.[4]

Production
It is a minor crop today, with about 600,000 tons being produced commercially in more than sixty countries worldwide. India,[5] United States, and Mexico are the leading producers, with Ethiopia, Kazakhstan, China, the Arab World, Argentina and Australia accounting for most of the remainder.

Other names include Sallflower, Beni, Chimichanga, or Carthamus tinctorius and in Pashto it is called Kareza (as it is found abundantly in Afghanistan and Tribal belts of Pakistan).

Uses
Traditionally, the crop was grown for its seeds, and used for coloring and flavoring foods, in medicines, and making red (carthamin) and yellow dyes, especially before cheaper aniline dyes became available.[2] For the last fifty years or so, the plant has been cultivated mainly for the vegetable oil extracted from its seeds.

Safflower seed oil is flavorless and colorless, and nutritionally similar to sunflower oil. It is used mainly in cosmetics and as a cooking oil, in salad dressing, and for the production of margarine. It may also be taken as a nutritional supplement.[6] INCI nomenclature is Carthamus tinctorius.

Safflower seed is also used quite commonly as an alternative to sunflower seed in birdfeeders, as squirrels do not like the taste of it.[7]
Safflower

Oil
There are two types of safflower that produce different kinds of oil: one high in monounsaturated fatty acid (oleic acid) and the other high in polyunsaturated fatty acid (linoleic acid). Currently the predominant edible oil market is for the former, which is lower in saturates than olive oil, for example. The latter is used in painting in the place of linseed oil, particularly with white paints, as it does not have the yellow tint which linseed oil possesses.

In dietary use, high–linoleic safflower oil has also been shown to increase adiponectin, a protein that helps regulate blood glucose levels and fatty-acid breakdown.[8] During a 16-week, double-blind controlled study conducted at The Ohio State University, researchers compared high-linoleic safflower oil (SAF) with conjugated linoleic acid (CLA).[9] [clarification needed] They studied post-menopausal women who had high blood sugar and wanted to lose weight. These participants showed an average reduction of 6.3 percent belly fat and an average of 20.3 percent increase in the important belly fat hormone, adiponectin.

Hornstra et al analyzed a group where safflower oil replaced animal fats in the diets of people who had had a heart attack. The group receiving extra safflower oil in place of animal fats had a significantly higher risk of death from all causes, cardiovascular disease and coronary heart disease. As expected, increasing omega-6 linoleic acid from safflower oil in the Sydney Diet Heart Study significantly reduced total cholesterol; however, these reductions were not associated with [reduced] mortality outcomes. Moreover, the increased risk of death in the intervention group presented fairly rapidly and persisted throughout the trial.[10] An updated meta-analysis of polyunsaturated fatty acid intervention trials showed trends toward increased risks of death from coronary heart disease and cardiovascular disease from increasing omega-6 linoleic acid intakes suggesting that the cardiovascular benefits of polyunsaturated fatty acids may be attributable to omega-3 polyunsaturated fats.[citation needed]

In culinary use, safflower oil compares favorably with other vegetable oils with its high smoke point.[citation needed]

Flower
Safflower flowers are occasionally used in cooking as a cheaper substitute for saffron, and were sometimes referred to as "bastard saffron".[11]

In coloring textiles, safflower's dried flowers are used as a natural textile dye. The pigment in safflower is the benzoquinone-derived chemical carthamin and it is classified as a quinone-type dye. It is a direct dye which is also known as CI Natural Red 26. Yellow, mustard, khaki, and olive are the most common colors in textiles. Even bright reds and purples can be reached using alkaline processing. Indians used this red dye as their official red tape on legal documents.[12] All hydrophilic fibers (all natural fibers, such as cotton, wool, etc.) may be dyed with this plant. Polyamide textiles can also be dyed without a mordant agent because of its wool-like chemical structure. Polyester, polyacrylonitrile, and others which are hydrophobic synthetic fibers can be dyed only in the presence of a mordant.[citation needed]

Safflower concentrate is an ingredient of the carbonated soft drink Tizer and some types of Sunkist.[citation needed]

Ancient Egyptians found the flower pleasing to the eye and included it in garlands placed on mummies.[12] Dried safflower flowers (紅藍花 honglanhua, 草紅花 caohonghua, 刺紅花 cihonghua) are used in traditional Chinese medicine to alleviate pain, increase circulation, and reduce bruising.[13] They are included in herbal remedies for menstrual pain and minor physical trauma.[14] In India, the flowers are used for their laxative and diaphoretic properties, and are also used for children's complaints of measles, fevers and eruptive skin conditions.[12]

Transgenics
The defunct pharmaceutical company SemBioSys Genetics tried to use transgenic safflower plants to produce human insulin as the global demand for the hormone grows. Safflower-derived human insulin was in the PI/II trials on human test subjects.[15]
Thanks for posing these articles swami and piskavec. Real important information that all on this forum should read.
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Old 12-06-2016, 01:59 PM   #692
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I'm just getting into the herbs. Started to make my own tinctures with organically grown medicinal herbs.
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Old 18-06-2016, 06:24 PM   #693
piskavac
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Originally Posted by lurka View Post
Thanks for posing these articles swami and piskavec. Real important information that all on this forum should read.
I got three infractions because of posting about some herbs from commervcial websites, although I don't sell anything, not am I even their consumer, or suggested people to buy from them.

Luckily infractions were wxpired, but I am affraid of next ones.

If someone would like to read about almost 400 easi-to-grow medicinal plants and herbs, I can send him a long table in which I collected them.

i was guided by three principies when created it.

1. There would not be algae. No one of us have a pond in their bavckyard to grow them. So the knowledge about them isn't of great use.
2. There would no be mushrooms. They release big amounts of CO2, and can produce smell because of devcaying organic matter on which they are grown.
3. They can't be taller than two metters, otherwise you can't place them in your room or small (back)yard.
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In informal governance, everybody within frame and determination of his knowledge and apprehension; thinks that he works
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Beyond that frame and determination he realy works for those who know
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Old 26-03-2017, 07:49 PM   #694
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Originally Posted by swamideva View Post
Here is a list of herbs that i found on this forum.


It would be helpful to make sure if you are going to use any of these remedies, to fully investigate them on the net, some are not to be played with.

Some are only to be taken in minute quantities, as in large doses death may occur!

Use common sense and precaution.




A

AGRIMONY HERB - Stops bleeding, diarrhea, gout, gargled for throat inflammations, inflammation of gall bladder.

ALFALFA HERB - Allergies, anemia, appetite, arthritis, bursitis, cramps, diabetes, digestion, gout, morning sickness, nausea, pituitary gland, stomach, ulcers.

ALOE HERB - Burns, acne, constipation, ear infection, eczema, intestines, hemorrhoids, mouth sores, poison ivy, poison oak, psoriasis, stomach.

ALUMROOT - Styptic, astringent, diarrhea, piles, dysentery, gargle for sore throat.

ANGELICA ROOT - Stomach aches, rheumatism, colic, colds, flu, coughs, indigestion, gas, anoxeria, obstructed menses, neuralgia.

ASTRAGALUS ROOT - Energy, infection, metabolic functions, promotes production of interferon.

B

BALM of GILEAD BUDS - Toothaches, rheumatism, diarrhea, coughs, lungs, blood tonic, used externally for sores.

BARBERRY (Yellow Root) - Antiseptic, blood purifier, hepatitis, fevers, hemorrhage, diarrhea, arthritis, sciatica, infections, antibacterial.

BAYBERRY ROOT BARK - Mucous membranes, sinus, thyroid, colds, diarrhea, cancer, hoarseness, leucorrhea, lungs, menstruation, colon, hemorrhage.

BEE POLLEN - Rich in vitamins, minerals, trace elements, stamia and vigor, contains vitamins A,C D & E, natural food supplement.

BEECH DROPS HERB - Diarrhea, dysentery, mouth sores, cancers, cold sores.

BETH ROOT - Coughs, bronchial troubles, lung, hemorrhage, excessive menstruation, leucorrhea, lax conditions of vagina.

BLACK OAK BARK - Hemorrhoids, leucorrhea, thrush, varicose veins, uterus.

BLACKBERRY ROOT - Diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding internally, excellent for runny nose, sinus drainage.

BLACK COHOSH ROOT - Menstrual cramps, uterine troubles, pain relief in childbirth, dropsy, asthma, high blood pressure, circulation equalizer, female hormones.

BLACK HAW BARK - Prevents miscarriage, uterine tonic, sedative, nervine, asthma.

BLACK INDIAN HEMP ROOT - Induces sweating, laxative, headaches, liver disease, indigestion, rheumatism, syphilis.

BLACK WALNUT HULL - Poison ivy, all skin rashes, worms, ringworms.

BLACK WILLOW BARK - Bedwetting, convulsions, baldness, dandruff.

BLADDERWRACK PLANT - Iodine deficiency, Goiter, softens skin, throat irritations, weight loss, softens mucous membranes, thyroid.

BLESSED THISTLE HERB - Liver purifier, flu, colds, reduces fever, promotes flow of bile.

BLOOD ROOT - Warts, excellent eczema, for piles, skin disease, ring worm.
Use as an external application only.

BLUE COHOSH ROOT - Regulate menstrual flow, suppressed menstruation, makes childbirth easier, chronic uterine trouble, vaginitis, cramps, high blood pressure, diabetes, leucorrhea, female hormones.

BLUE FLAG ROOT - Strong laxative, stimulate bile flow, stimulates bowel, liver and kidneys, migraines.

BLUE VERVAIN HERB - Nerves, fever, stomach ache, cloudy urine, mucous in respiratory tract.

BLUE VIOLET HERB - Cancer, serious infections, mild laxative, pulmonary problems, loosen phlegm in
chest.

BONESET HERB - Fever, diuretic, loosen bowels, colds, fever.

BORAGE LEAF - Kidney, urinary bladder, sore throat, fevers, soothes mucous membranes, anti inflammatory.

BUCKTHORN BARK - Gallstones, constipation, liver, itching, parasites, rheumatism, skin diseases, warts, gout, hemorrhoids.

BUGLEWEED HERB- Liver disorders, thyroid, stops bleeding, coughs, ulcers, rheumatis, goiter.

BURDOCK ROOT - Swelling and deposits in joints, arthritis, acne, blood purifier, bursitis, eczema, skin diseases, obesity, ulcers, psoriasis, boils, poison ivy and oak.

BUTCHERS BROOM - Healthy veins, blood circulation, varicose veins.

BUTTERNUT (White Walnut Bark) - Tape worms, fungus, infections, anti-tumor, cathartic, laxative, rheumatism, headaches.

BUTTON SNAKE ROOT - Liver ailments, increase urine flow, muscular pains, rheumatism, respiratory ailments, kidney trouble, bladder problems, increase perspiration.

C

CALAMUS-SWEET FLAG ROOT - Interim heat fevers, stomach, stimulates appetite, tobacco habit, dyspepsia, intermittent fevers.

CAPSICUM FRUIT (Cayenne) - Very stimulating, rheumatism, inflammations, pleurisy, antispasmodic, kidneys, spleen, pancreas, ulcerated stomach, yellow fever, all fevers.

CASCARA BARK - Constipation, gall bladder, liver, hemorrhoids, jaundice, laxative (no griping).

CATS CLAW BARK - Aids body defense system.

CATNIP HERB - Colic, contagious diseases, diarrhea, fever, headache, insomnia, nerves, tension stress,nightmares, parasites.

CHAMOMILE FLOWERS - Sedative, anti-inflammatory, allays arthritis/cramps/ pain, antispasmodic.

CHAPPARAL HERB - Acne, allergies, arthritis, blood purifier, cancer, hair growth, kidneys, obesity, prostate, psoriasis, tumors, warts.

CHICKWEED HERB - Water retention, weight loss, rheumatism, bronchial tubes, scurvy, pleurisy, hoarseness, coughs, colds, bronchitis.

CHICORY ROOT - Diuretic, laxative, fevers, lowers blood sugar, sedative, liver, gallbladder, antibacterial, anti-inflammatory, coffee substitute.

CINQUEFOIL HERB (Five Fingers) - Diarrhea, astringent, skin diseases.

CLEAVERS HERB - Kidney and bladder trouble, wash to clear complexion, fever, all skin disease, blood cleanser, liver strengthener, cancer, scofola, eczema incontinence.

CLOVES FRUIT - Expels worms, diarrhea, bad breath, toothache, stomach cramps.

COLOMBO ROOT - Increase appetite, colic, cramps, dysentery, diarrhea, stomach aches, nausea, general tonic.

COMFREY ROOT - Coughs, catarrh, hemorrhage, asthma, tuberculosis, kidneys, stomach, bloody urine, cancer.

COLTSFOOT LEAF - Asthma, coughs, bronchitis, lung congestion, sore throat, smoke leaves for asthma and coughs.

CORN SILK - Prostate, kidneys urinary bladder, diuretic, gout, cystitis, rheumatism, hypoglycemia, hypertensive.

CRANESBILL ROOT - Diarrhea, hemorrhage, douce for womb troubles, mucus and pus in bladder and intestines, diabetes, brights disease.

CRAMP BARK - Spasms, menstrual cramps, uterine sedative, antispasmodic.

CUCUMBER MAGNOLIA BARK - Typhoid fevers, indigestion, worms, toothache, rheumatism, tobacco habit.

CUL.AMERICAN GINSENG Root - Aphrodisiac, energy, sex stimulant, aging, stamina.

CULVERS ROOT - Strong laxative, induce sweating, stimulate fever.

D

DAMIANA LEAF - Female problems, frigidity, hormones, menopause, hot flashes, prostate, sex stimulant, balance female hormones.

DANDELION ROOT - Prostate, kidneys, anemia, blood builder, diabetes, liver cleanser, low blood pressure, blood purifier, spleen.

DEVILS CLAW ROOT - Arthritis.

DEVILS WALKING STICK TREE BARK - Blood cleaner, boils, skin eruptions, swelling.

DITCH STONE CROP HERB - Laxative, demulcent, tonic,mucous membranes, vaginitis, dysentery, diarrhea, piles, chronic bronchitis, nervous indigestion.

DOGWOOD TREE BARK - Chronic diarrhea, malarial fevers.

E

ECHINACEA - (Angustifolia Root) - Blood cleanser, blood poisoning, acne, eczema, boils, peritonitis, infections, carbuncles, natural antibotic, gargle for sore throat, colds.

ELDERBERRY LEAF - Stimulant, carminative, headaches.

ELECAMPANE LEAF - Pneumonia, whopping cough, asthma, bronchitis, worms, diarrhea, upset stomach, cancer, worm expellent, fungicidal, sedative, antibacterial, lowers blood sugar.

EUCALYPTUS LEAF - Bronchitis, tuberculosis, nose/ throat inflammations, treat intestinal worms.

EVENING PRIMROSE HERB (Common) - Alleviate fatty acids, asthma, migraines, inflammations, diabetes, arthritis, alcoholism, premenstrual syndrome.

EYEBRIGHT HERB - Eye ailments, improves eyesight, cataracts, strengthens eyes, allergies, diabetes, digestion.

F

FENNEL SEED - Relieves gas, infant colic, diserectic, expectorant, kills bacteria, stimulates milk flow in new mother, carminative, laxative, removes hook worms.

FENUGREEK SEED - Sore throat, clear mucous from bronchial, bowels, fevers.

FEVERFEW HERB - Migraine headaches, pain, fevers, cramps, worms, colds, sedative, arthritis.

FIGWORT ROOT - Irregular menses, fevers, piles, tonic, restlessness, sleeplessness, cancer.

FIT ROOT - (Indian Pipe) - Bunions, warts, eyewash for sore eyes, pains, sedative, nervine, antispasmodic, restlessness, nervous irritability, bactericidal.

FLAX SEED - Skin and mouth cancers, cough, colds, lung, urinary ailments, laxative, fevers.

FRINGE TREE BARK - Diarrhea, ulcers in mouth and throat, fevers, skin inflammations.

G

GARLIC BULB - Increase appetite, high blood pressure, arteriosclerosis, natural antibiotic, yeast infections, parasites, gas, fever, contagious disease, cancer, diarrhea.

GENTIAN ROOT - Stimulate digestion, hepatitis, headaches, constipation, weak appetite.

GINKGO LEAF - Increase mental aculty, improve blood circulation, reduce clotting of blood, improve oxygen flow to brain, relieve dizziness, ringing in the ears, excellent for memory.

GOLDEN RAGWORT HERB - Irregular menses, leucorrhea, natural anti-pregnancies, childbirth complications, lung ailments, dysentery, difficult urination.

GOLDEN ROD Herb - Intestinal gas, fever, colds, promotes sweating.

GOLDEN SEAL ROOT - Blood purifier, ulcers, improves appetite, catarrh, neutralizes poisons, all stomach disorders, equalizes circulation, leucorrhea, diabetes, natural antibiotic.

GOTA KOLA HERB - Energy, endurance, aging, age spots, memory, vitality, mental fatigue, high blood pressure.

GROUND IVY HERB - Lung ailments, skin eruptions, cancer, asthma, kidney ailments, blood purifier.

GROUND PINE HERB - Fever, diarrhea, dysentery, rheumatism, erysipelas, gastric sedative, diurectic, aphrodisiac, styptic, external for herpes, eczema, dermatitis.

GUARANA SEED - Powerful stimulant, headaches, migraines, stamina, endurance, arthritis.

H

HAWTHORNE BERRIES - Energy, heart, insomnia, emotional stress, highblood pressure, menopause, rheumatism, arthritis, arteriosclerosis.

HEAL ALL HERB - Antibiotic, tumors, kidney ailments, circulation, diarrhea, hemorrhages, relieves gas,colic, throat irritations, gargle for sore throat.

HEMLOCK BARK - Kidney ailments, colds, fevers, diarrhea, coughs, stomach troubles, scurvy.

HERB ROBERT HERB - Tuberculosis, stomach, intestines, jaundice, kidney infections, stops bleeding, gargle for sore throat cancer.

HOREHOUND HERB - Respiratory passages, appetite stimulant, coughs, colds, mild sedative, coughs, bronchitis, sore throats, stomach, hepatitis, gall bladder, increases bile flow from liver.

HONEYSUCKLE BARK - Lowers cholesterol, antiviral, antibacterial, flu, tumors(especially breast cancer), bacterial dysentery, laryngitis, fevers, scabies.

HOPS FLOWER - Appetite, headaches, insomnia, nerves, morning sickness, obesity, parasites, water retention.

HORSETAIL GRASS HERB - Bleeding, diabetes, diuretic, mucous, liver, jaundice.

HUCKLEBERRY LEAF - Sore throat, diarrhea, parasites, diuretic, kidney stones, astringent, diabetes.

HYDRANGEA ROOT - Increase urine flow, tonic, laxative, kidney stones, unusual dreams.

HYSSOP HERB - Asthma, colds, coughs, all lung afflictions, phlegm in lungs, kids sore throat and quinsy, fever, increases blood circulation, reduces blood pressure, shortness of breath.

I

IRISH MOSS HERB - Weight loss, cough, cancer, thyroid, pneumonia, bad breath.

INDIAN TURNIP ROOT - Stomach gas, coughs, asthma, tuberculosis, increase urine flow, rheumatism.

J

JEWELWEED HERB - Poison ivy rash (cure and preventative), ringworm, eczema, sprains, insect bites, burns, warts.

JUNIPER BERRIES - Prostate, pancreas, allergies, arthritis, hayfever, blood builder, diabetes, hypoglycemia, water retention, kidneys, throat.


K

KAVA KAVA ROOT - Anti depressant, stress, relaxation, sleep aid, migraines, relieves anxiety, antipasmodic.

KELP PLANT - (Seaweed) - anemia, leg cramps, diabetes, eczema, hot flashes, morning sickness, pituitary gland, prostate, psoriasis, thyroid gland, goiters.

KUDZU ROOT - Alcoholism, dysentery, headaches, induces sweating, diarrhea, lowers blood pressure and blood sugar, gargle for sore throat, acute intestinal obstructions.

L

LADY SLIPPER ROOT - Headaches, jangling nerves, sedative, promotes sleep, allay pain.

LARKSPUR FLOWER - Destroys human parasites such as head lice, mites (their eggs) and itch mites, insecticidal.

LEATHERWOOD BARK - Laxative, toothaches, facial neuralgia, paralysis of tongue.

LAVENDER HERB - Fragrance, sedative, intestinal gas, antispasmodics, repels moths.

LICORICE ROOT - AddisonÕs disease, age spots, coughs, drug withdrawal, emphysema, endurance, female complaints, hypoglycemia, vitality, sex stimulant, longevity, menopause, tonic, throat.

LILY OF VALLEY ROOT - Valvular heart disease, fevers, diurectic, heart tonic, sedative, external to prevent scar tissue, epilepsy.

LIVERWORT HERB - Dizziness, coughs, reduce fever, liver, hemorrhage of lungs.

LOBELIA HERB - Smoked for asthma, bronchitis, sore throats, coughs, sweating, sedative, asthma, whooping cough, fevers, helps appease physical need for nicotine, helps to quit smoking.

M

MA HUANG HERB - Weight loss (excellent), allergies, asthma, diseases, inflammation, energy.

MAIDENHAIR FERN HERB - Coughs, colds, hoarseness, excellent for bitters, stimulant, mucous in throat,
loosen phlegm.

MALE FERN ROOT - Exceptional tapeworm medicine.

MALLOW ROOT - Digestive system stimulator, coughs, bronchitis, spleen, stomachaches, anti-inflammatory, diurectic.

MAPLE BARK - Colds, coughs, bronchitis, kidney infections, gonorrhea, blood cleanser, skin eruptions, spitting of blood.

MARIGOLD FLOWER - Nerves, brain, loss of memory, nervousness, mental fatigue, relieves inflammation, internal and external irritation, ulcers, stomach, cramps, colitis, diarrhea.

MARSHMALLOW ROOT - Mucous membranes, gargle for sore throat, excellent for skin erruptions, excellent skin soother.

MAYAPPLE ROOT - Regulator for bowels and liver, chronic liver disease, uterine diseases, laxatives, (fevers - jaundice, bilisus, intermittent). Strongest herb laxative.

MILK THISTLE HERB - Allay indigestion, liver, cirrhosis, hepatitis, restores liver function, any kind of poisoning or chemicals.

MISSOURI SNAKE ROOT - Kidney, bladder, gonorrhea, stimulates immune system.

MISTLETOE HERB - Epilepsy, fits, headaches, hypertension, used to stop bleeding after childbirth, lung ailments, paralysis, oral contraceptive, Do not use berries.

MOONSEED ROOT - Diurectic, laxative, tonic.

MOTHERWORT HERB - Promote menstruation, aid in childbirth, regulate menses, asthma, heart palpitations, sedative, insomnia, sciatica, spasms, fevers, antispasmodic.

MUGWORT LEAF - Diurectic, induces sweating, fever, checks menstrual irregularity, tonic to nerves, bronchitis, colds, colic, epilepsy, kidneys, lowers blood sugar.

MULLEIN LEAF - Asthma, croup, bronchitis, bleeding of lungs, hay fever, difficult breathing, diarrhea, pain killer, calms nerves, colds.

MYRRH GUM Bark - Excellent for pyorrhea, bronchial and lung diseases, cures halitosis (bad breath), ulcers, piles, hemorrhoids, gangrene, cough, asthma, tuberculosis, ulcerated throat.

O

OAT STRAW HERB - Arthritis, bed wetting, bladder, gout, rheumatism, bursitis, kidneys, nerves, lungs, liver, gallbladder.

ORANGE PEEL - Headaches, vitamin C deficiency.

OREGON GRAPE ROOT - Blood cleanser, mouth sores, fever blisters, cold sores, stomach.

P

PAPAYA LEAF - Allergies, digestion, diverticulitis, gas, hemorrhage, paralysis, stomach, worms.

PARSLEY LEAF - Prostate, spleen, thyroid, liver, kidneys, gallbladder, asthma, gallstones, cancer, allergies, pituitary gland, water retention.

PARTRIDGE BERRY Herb (Squaw Vine) - Pain, rheumatism, dysentery, reduce swelling of tissues, relieves gas and colic.

PASSION FLOWER Herb - Alcoholism, fever, headaches, high blood pressure, insomnia, nerves.

PAU DÕARCO BARK - Immune system enhancer.

PAW PAW BARK - Cancer, diuretic, laxative.

PEACH TREE LEAVES - Bladder, laxative, insomnia, morning sickness, nerves, vomiting, water retention.

PENNYROYAL HERB - Burning fevers, promote perspiration, gout, cold, phlegm in chest and lungs, headache, ulcers, intestinal pains, colic, griping, nausea, nervousness, hysteria.

PEPPERMINT HERB - Fevers, chills, colic, nausea, vomiting, diuretic, influenza, la grippe, stimulant, cleans and strengthens entire body, headaches, nerves.

PERIWINKLE HERB - Hemostatic, reduces blood pressure.

PINK ROOT - Worms.

PIPSESSIPUA WINTERGREEN HERB - Kidney, infections and disease, stones in bladder, arthritis.

PLAINTAIN LEAF - Coughs, diarrhea, antimicrobial, stimulates healing process, bloody urine.

PLAINTAIN ROOT - Diarrhea, bleeding, hemorrhoids, hemorrhage, kidneys, leucorrhea, tumors, ulcers, vaginal trouble.

PLEURISY ROOT - Excellent for breaking up colds, pleurisy, asthma, bronchial and pulmonary complaints, typhus, burning fevers, acute dysentery, rheumatic fever, scarlet fever, measles.

POKE BERRIES - Rub on (skin eruptions/ cancerous skin ulcers)and (Internal for cancer) arthritis.

POKE ROOT - Glands, especially thyroid gland, cancer, applied to skin will cure itching, scrofula, eczema, goiter.

PRICKLEY ASH BARK - Chronic rheumatism, kidneys, heart, lungs, nerves, stimulates pancreas and bile blow.

PSYLLIUM SEED - Colitis, colon, constipation, ulcers, diverticulitis, hemorrhoids, lubricates and heals intestinal tract.

PUMPKIN SEED - Worms, kidneys, bowels.

Q

QUASSIA CHIPS - Improve appetite, repellent of insects.

QUEEN ANNES LACE (Wild Carrot Root) - Expels intestinal gas, rich in vitamin A, night vision.

QUEEN OF MEADOW ROOT - Diabetes, kidneys, gravel, prostate, urination, water retention, uterus, vagina.

R

RATSBANE WlNTERGREEN HERB - Increase urine flow, arthritis, diarrhea, ulcers, skin eruption, nervous disorders, tonic.

RED CLOVER BLOSSOMS - Syphilis, blood purifier and cleanser, pellagra, leprosy, cancerous growths, cancer, stomach, various spasm, nerve soother, bronchial tubes.

RED OAK BARK - Chronic diarrhea, dysentery, bleeding, piles, prolapse, chronic mucous discharge, antiviral, antiseptic, anticancer. External for poison ivy and skin eruptions.

RED RASPBERRY LEAF - Morning sickness, childbirth, diabetes, diarrhea, mucous membranes, throat, bronchitis, coughs, dysentery, female organs.

RED ROOT - Diabetes, asthma, chronic bronchitis, sick headache, acute indigestion, nausea, piles, hemorrhoids, dysentery, whooping cough, tuberculosis, cancer.

ROSEMARY HERB - Calms nerves, insomnia, promotes restful sleep, sweetens disposition.

RUE HERB - Worms, nervous heart palpitations, gout, joints, nerves, menstruation, thrush, blood pressure, repels flies and insects.

S

SAGE HERB - Gargle for tonsillitis or ulcers in throat, quinsy stomach trouble, dyspepsia, gas in stomach/ bowels, expel worms, liver/kidney troubles, relieve headaches, hair tonic, fevers, dandruff, female trouble, lung problems.

SARSAPARILLA ROOT (Wild) - Rheumatism, gout, ringworm, scrofula, psoriasis, cold, fever, blood purifier, aphrodisiac, sex stimulant, female hormones.

SASSAFRAS TREE BARK - Blood purifier and cleanser, tonic for stomach and bones, relieves gas and colic, spasms (excellent).

SAW PALMETTO BERRIES - Asthma, throat trouble, colds, bronchitis, lagrippe, excessive mucous discharge of sinus/ nose, all diseases of reproductive organs, diabetes, excellent to regain strength, prostate gland (excellent).

SCOURING RUSH HERB - Bladder ailments, urinary incontinanence, urethritis, cystitis.

SENECA SNAKE ROOT - Bring up phlegm in cases of asthma and bronchitis.

SENNA LEAF - Worms, laxative, scurvy, diuretic, appetite stimulant, fever, (Do not take if you have gout, rheumatism or kidney ailments, or cancer).

SHEEP SORREL HERB - Cancer, diarrhea, excessive menstrual bleeding, inflammations, fevers, diuretic, antiseptic, appetite stimulant. Its the best anticancer herb of them all.

SHEPHERDS PURSE HERB - Internal hemorrhage, bleeding from lungs, profuse menstruation, kidney complaints, bleeding piles, hemorrhoids, fevers, excellent for diarrhea, hemastatic.

SKUNK CABBAGE ROOT - Tuberculosis, chronic catarrh, bronchial tubes, lungs, hay fever, pleurisy, epilepsy, nervous trouble, spasm.

SLIPPERY ELM BARK - Laxative, fever, diarrhea, respiratory infections, excellent for stomach and bowels.

SMARTWEED HERB - Hemostatic (stops bleeding), lowers blood pressure, diarrhea.

SOLOMON SEAL ROOT - Cancer, rheumatism, all female troubles, poison ivy wash, allays pain, neuralgia, excellent poultice for piles.

SPEARMINT HERB - Carminatives to relieve gas, stomachic, antiseptic, antispasmodic, diarrhea, colds, cramps, headaches, cancer, fevers, nausea.

SPICE BUSH BARK - Colds, fevers, worms, colic, gas, thyroid fevers.

SPIGNET ROOT - Childbirth easier, shortness labor, blood purifier, skin disease, pimples, coughs, colds, chest infections, back pain.

SPIRULINA PLANT - Abundant in vitamin B-12, amino acids, beta carotene, minerals, longevity, brain, weight loss, balances blood sugar, increases energy, glands.

SOAPWORT HERB - Diuretic, laxative, expectorant, gall disease. You can make soap out of this.

STAR GRASS ROOT - Excellent female tonic, painful menstruation, digestive trouble, colic, gas.

STAR GRUB ROOT - Uterine disorders, pain inside loins, poor appetite, depression, colic, intestinal worms, remedy vitamin C deficiency, increase urine flow, vomiting, saliva flow, natural steriod.

STEVIA HERB - Best natural sweetener in herb kingdom.

STILLINGIA ROOT - Blood purifier, syphilis, laxative, brings up phlegm.

STINGING NETTLE HERB - Eczema, excellent kidney troubles, expel phlegm from lungs and stomach, clean out urinary passages, excellent hair tonic, dropsy, expel gravel from bladder, increase urine flow, neuralgia, scrofula, backache.

ST. JOHNS WORT HERB - Anemia, bed wetting, coughs, diarrhea, gout, jaundice, menstruation, nerves, urination, lungs, cancer, aids, excellent anti-depressant, depression.

STONE ROOT - Treat bodily water accumulation, headaches, cramps, indigestion, hemorrhoids, respiratory diseases.

SUMAC BERRIES - Sore throat, coughs, diabetes, fevers, cleanser of system, mouth sores, bowel complaints, mouth wash, gargle for sore throat.

SUMAC LEAVES - Asthma, diarrhea, dysentery.

SUMAC TREE BARK - Skin ulcers, gonorrhea, diarrhea, infections of lymph glands.

SWEET WOODRUFF HERB - Tonic for liver disorders, laxative, antiarthritic.

T

TANSY HERB - Weak kidneys, worms, gargle for sore throat, suppressed menses, flatulence, jaundice, antipasmodic, antiseptic, leaves insecticidal.

THYME HERB - Fevers, headaches, asthma, whooping cough, diarrhea, nightmares (excellent).

TRUE BLUE SKULLCAP HERB - Excellent nerve tonic, neuralgia aches and pains, St. VitusÕ, shaking palsy, hydrophobia, epilepsy, splendid to suppress excessive sexual desire.

TURKEY RHUBARB ROOT - Contagious disease, colon, constipation, cystic, colitis, croup.

TWIN LEAF ROOT - Cramps, spasms, nervous excitability, diarrhea, diuretic for kidney stones, dropsy, urinary infections, gargle for sore throat.

TUMERIC SEED - Anti-oxidant, joint pain, arthritis, liver, stomach, gallblader, asthma.

U

UVA URSI HERB - Diabetes, dysentery, female problems, kidneys, leucorrhea, liver, menstruation, obesity, pancreas, prostate, spleen, uterus, vagina, hemorrhoids.

V

VALERIAN ROOT - Migraine headaches, nerves, pain, insomnia, heartburn, gas, hangovers, spasms, menstruation, paralysis, stomach, ulcers, parasites, smoking, contagious diseases, convulsions.

VIRGINIA SNAKE ROOT - Promotes sweating, fevers, stomach aches, indigestion, gargle for sore throat, laxative.

W

WAHOO BARK - Fevers, upset stomach, dropsy, lung ailments, constipation, liver congestion, heart, contains digitalis like compounds.

WATERCRESS HERB - Vitamins A and C, kidneys, heart, colds, asthma, tuberculosis, constipation, aphrodisiac.

WHEAT GRASS HERB - Antioxidant.

WHITE ASH BARK - Increase urine flow, increase perspiration, flu, colds.

WHITE OAK BARK - Hemorrhoids, hemorrhage, goiter, gallbladder, leucorrhea, jaundice, parasites, bladder, ulcers, urination, uterus, vagina, varicose veins.

WHITE PINE TREE BARK - Pine tar poulticed to draw out boils and absesses, rheumatism, broken bones, kidneys, lungs, emetic, colds, coughs, sore throats.

WHITE WILLOW BARK - Headaches, pain, fever, diarrhea, menstrual irregularity, natures aspirin.

WILD AMERICAN GINSENG Root - Sex stimulant, aphrodisiac, energy builder, longevity, male hormones, aging, endurance. Does more for system than any other herb.

WILD CHERRY BARK - Coughs, colds, measles, muscular soreness, fever, intestinal worms, indigestion, tuberculosis.

WILD GINGER ROOT - Colds, motion sickness, morning sickness, bronchitis, digestion, stomach and bowel gas, nausea, sinus.

WILD INDIGO ROOT - Cold tea to stop vomiting, laxative, gargle for sore throat, stimulate bile secretion, stimulates immune system.

WILD LETTUCE HERB - Nerve tonic, migraine headaches, pain, toothaches, sedative, increase urine flow, opium substitute.

WILD STRAWBERRY HERB - Stimulates appetite, stimulates blood cell formation, increases hemoglobin in blood, indigestion.

WILD YAM ROOT - Gas pains, ulcers, stomach, nausea, menstruation, morning sickness, pain, natural steroid, female hormones.

WITCH HAZEL BARK - Stops internal or external bleeding, piles, stops excessive menstruation, hemorrhages of lungs, stomach, uterus and bowels, diarrhea, circulation, gargle for throat problems, douche for leucorrhea whites.

WOOD BETONY HERB - Headaches, urinary bladder, pain, kidneys, heartburn, dizziness, gout, asthma, bronchitis, menstruation, varicose veins, parasites, tonsillitis, scabies (head lice).

WORMSEED HERB - Round worms, hook worms, dwarf tapeworms, intestinal amoeba, reduce gas.

WORMWOOD HERB - Parasites, gallbladder, gas, stomach, indigestion, heartburn, circulation, boils, bursitis, arthritis, diarrhea, fever, liver.

Y

YARROW HERB - Flu, fever, pleurisy, lungs, ear infection, diabetes, congestion, contagious disease.

YELLOW DOCK ROOT - Blood purifier, anemia, acne, boils, ear infection, liver, poison ivy and oak, tumors, psoriasis. Excellent for iron deficency.

YERBA MATE HERB - Bronchitis, colds, coughs, fever, headaches, asthma, laryngitis, rheumatism, tuberculosis, blood purifier.

YOHIMBE BARK - Aphrodisiac, sex stimulant.

YUCCA ROOT - Natural steroid, antitumor, arthritis, hair wash for baldness and dandruff.
Many herby video on this channel.
https://www.youtube.com/user/wisewomantradition/videos
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