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Old 13-01-2008, 05:07 PM   #41
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Finally, the brain has a biological clock, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, that maintains a 24 hour rhythm of activities, even if we are locked away in a cave with no time clues. This clock can be reset by light cycles, or by a variety of behavioral cues such as food availability. In addition, this clock can drive daytime wakefulness as it does in humans and other diurnal animals, or nighttime wakefulness as it does in bats and other nocturnal animals. But the suprachiasmatic nucleus itself is locked to the light-dark rhythm, always being maximally active during the light cycle (or presumed light cycle if one is in constant darkness). How does the brain maintain nocturnal vs. diurnal animals, and how does it adjust to behavioral cues? The answer turns out to be a series of relays from the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which ultimately contact the wake-sleep circuitry. However, the two relays between the suprachiasmatic nucleus and the wake-sleep system are more flexible. They can be reset by behavioral circumstances, such as food availability, and can even override the suprachiasmatic nucleus entirely if necessary.

The New Genetics
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Old 13-01-2008, 05:12 PM   #42
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Negative Length

--------------------------------------------------------------------------------

Does such a concept mean anything? I've heard negative mass discussed but not negative size. What are the implications of negative length?
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Old 13-01-2008, 05:31 PM   #43
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Physica B: Condensed Matter : Correlation of diffusion length and ...- [ Vertaal deze pagina ]The local values of diffusion length were determined from the dependence of collected current on beam energy. The DLTS data were found to correlate with the ...
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921452603006616 -

Physica B: Condensed Matter : Spin diffusion length and giant ...- [
]We applied giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect to measure spin diffusion length in a non-magnetic metal. The temperature dependence of the ...
linkinghub.elsevier.com/retrieve/pii/S0921452699025442 -

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A short overview is given of the giant magnetoresistance (GMR) effect and its device applications. As an example of present research topics, the optimization of the ferromagnetic-layer composition of spin valves for application in recording heads is discussed. The influence on output voltage and stability has been investigated in test structures and compared with material parameters that were experimentally obtained from unpatterned films. It is found that in practical applications a small addition of cobalt is advantageous, since, although the output voltage is decreased, it leads to an improvement in reproducibility, linearity, signal-to-noise ratio and dynamic range.
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length and time inside matter Text - Physics Forums Library- [[Archive]] [Archive] length and time inside matter Special & General Relativity.
http://www.physicsforums.com/archive.../t-128770.html
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Old 13-01-2008, 05:34 PM   #44
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Special and General relativity rely on the possibility of having clocks and propagating light rays for defining (locally) time and length. My question is about how to define such things inside matter. Inside a metal block or inside a neutron star, light will not propagate that far, or not at all. Maybe the electromagnetic wave can be made to propagate when going to higher frequencies, but again, one could imagine very dense materials in which this would not be possible. The same question about clocks : How should one imagine a clock sitting inside a dense material ? And who could be there to observe it ? So, it seems that all the nice thought experiments used in special relativity would not apply inside matter. Is this an indication that relativity in general is not strictly valid inside matter (since time and length can not adequately defined there) ?

There's something rather odd with your original question, and your subsequent responses.

If I put a "clock" in an opaque box where there's no "propagation" of light whatsoever, are you implying that one has problems in defining time and length?

Note that "light" in SR can almost be considered as nothing more than a euphimism for any electromagnetic interaction. There are EM interaction inside matter - that's who they stay together most of the time, especially in metals where the EM forces are responsible for holding them together in a regular lattice. So the absence of any visible light propagation is irrelevant in the presence of time and length in such a situation.

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Old 13-01-2008, 05:38 PM   #45
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Old 22-02-2008, 07:39 PM   #46
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Electron filmed for first time ever
http://www.atto.fysik.lth.se/video/emovie.avi

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Old 22-02-2008, 07:41 PM   #47
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Public release date: 22-Feb-2008

Contact: Kristina Lindgaerde
[email protected]
Swedish Research Council


Electron filmed for first time ever
Now it is possible to see a movie of an electron. The movie shows how an electron rides on a light wave after just having been pulled away from an atom. This is the first time an electron has ever been filmed, and the results are presented in the latest issue of Physical Review Letters.

Previously it has been impossible to photograph electrons since their extremely high velocities have produced blurry pictures. In order to capture these rapid events, extremely short flashes of light are necessary, but such flashes were not previously available. With the use of a newly developed technology for generating short pulses from intense laser light, so-called attosecond pulses, scientists at the Lund University Faculty of Engineering in Sweden have managed to capture the electron motion for the first time.

“It takes about 150 attoseconds for an electron to circle the nucleus of an atom. An attosecond is 10-18 seconds long, or, expressed in another way: an attosecond is related to a second as a second is related to the age of the universe,” says Johan Mauritsson, an assistant professor in atomic physics at the Faculty of Engineering, Lund University. He is one of seven researchers behind the study, which was directed by him and Professor Anne L’Huillier.

With the aid of another laser these scientists have moreover succeeded in guiding the motion of the electron so that they can capture a collision between an electron and an atom on film.

“We have long been promising the research community that we will be able to use attosecond pulses to film electron motion. Now that we have succeeded, we can study how electrons behave when they collide with various objects, for example. The images can function as corroboration of our theories,” explains Johan Mauritsson.

These scientists also hope to find out more about what happens with the rest of the atom when an inner electron leaves it, for instance how and when the other electrons fill in the gap that is created.

“What we are doing is pure basic research. If there happen to be future applications, they will have to be seen as a bonus,” adds Johan Mauritsson.

The length of the film corresponds to a single oscillation of the light, but the speed has then been ratcheted down considerably so that we can watch it. The filmed sequence shows the energy distribution of the electron and is therefore not a film in the usual sense.

Previously scientists have studied the movements of electrons using indirect methods, such as by metering their spectrum. With these methods it has only been possible to measure the result of an electron’s movement, whereas now we have the opportunity to monitor the entire event.

It has been possible to create attosecond pulses for a couple of years now, but not until now has anyone managed to use them to film electron movements, since the attosecond pulses themselves are too weak to take clear pictures.

“By taking several pictures of exactly the same moment in the process, it’s possible to create stronger, but still sharp, images. A precondition is for the process to be repeated in an identical manner, which is the case regarding the movement of an electron in a ray of light. We started with a so-called stroboscope. A stroboscope enables us to ‘freeze’ a periodic movement, like capturing a hummingbird flapping its wings. You then take several pictures when the wings are in the same position, such as at the top, and the picture will turn out clear, despite the rapid motion,” clarifies Johan Mauritsson.


###
The article appears in Physical Review Letters, vol. 100. Read the article "Coherent Electron Scattering Captured by an Attosecond Quantum Stroboscope" and see the movie at http://www.atto.fysik.lth.se/

A popular science description of the article can be found at: http://focus.aps.org/
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Old 22-02-2008, 07:51 PM   #48
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Attosecond Physics &
High-Order Harmonic Generation


Research Highlight
We demonstrate a quantum stroboscope based on a sequence of identical attosecond pulses that are used to release electrons into a strong infrared laser field exactly once per laser cycle. The resulting electron momentum distributions are recorded as a function of time delay between the IR laser and the attosecond pulse train using a velocity map imaging spectrometer.

>> Article in Physical Review Letters
>> Article in Physical Review Focus


Press release: English or Swedish
View video: avi or mov


Research Overview
In Lund, we are performing basic research in a very exciting field at the border between atomic and molecular physics and advanced optics, nonlinear optics and laser physics: high-order harmonic generation in gaseous media exposed to intense laser fields and its applications. The harmonic spectrum exhibits an extended "plateau" where consecutive (odd) harmonics have approximately the same intensity. If the harmonics are emitted in phase, i.e. phase-locked, the temporal structure of the radiation emitted from the medium consists of a “train” of attosecond pulses separated by half the laser period [Varjú et al.].


Evolution of ultrashort light pulses. In 2001, the "femtosecond barrier" was broken, by going into the extreme ultraviolet range and by using high-order harmonic generation in gases.

Generation of high-order harmonics in a small cell of rare gas (here argon). The laser creates a plasma which emits the white light.


Principle for the generation of attosecond pulses using high-order harmonic generation. A typical harmonic spectrum is indicated on the left. If the harmonics are synchronized, their beating leads to a train of attosecond pulses (on the right).


Generation and characterization of attosecond XUV pulses
We have built a robust and flexible setup for the generation, characterization and compression of attosecond pulses. In 2003, we were able to produce trains of 170 as pulses, the shortest pulses produced to date [López-Martens et al.]. Today, we operate one of the shortest in duration and most flexible attosecond pulse sources in the world. We use thin metallic films or alternatively broadband XUV mirrors, to filter out a broad spectral range (~30 eV) and to synchronize up to ten consecutive harmonics, thus achieving on target short, single-cycle, 170 as pulses.


Experimental setup for the generation, characterization and compression of attosecond pulses.

Compression of attosecond pulses down to 170 attoseconds (red line). This represents the shortest measured light pulse. The inset shows that these pulses are single-cycle.

Applications of attosecond XUV pulses
These pulses can now be used to probe ultrafast electronic processes with an unprecedented time scale resolution. Recently, we have used an attosecond pulse train to create temporally confined electron wavepackets and we have studied their interaction with a strong laser field [Johnsson et al.]. The energy and angular distribution of the electrons is found to strongly vary as a function of the delay between the infrared field and the attosecond pulses, i.e. on an attosecond time scale.


Attosecond electron dynamics. An attosecond pulse train creates temporally confined electron wavepackets which interact with a laser field. Depending on the attosecond timing between the laser cycle and their time of creation, the electrons acquire more or less extra energy from the field.

Attosecond pulses and pulse trains give us a tool to study how light interacts with matter at a detailed level never possible before! Attosecond science is in its birth stage, representing a great challenge. Not surprisingly, attosecond pulses are now the "hottest" topic of strong field laser physics and possible applications are raising equally great interest in the scientific community. The vision is that the generation of attosecond pulses will become a new tool for fundamental studies of electronic processes at the natural time scale, the attosecond time scale (one atomic unit is 24 attoseconds) and atomic dimensions. Thus atomic, molecular and even nuclear physics will be investigated on these atomic scales, bringing a revolution in our microscopic knowledge and understanding of matter.

Harmonic source development
By spectrally selecting one harmonic order, a relatively narrow bandwidth source of XUV radiation is obtained, with short pulse duration, high brightness and good coherence. This XUV light source is used for a growing number of applications ranging from atomic and molecular spectroscopy to solid-state and plasma physics. We develop the harmonic source for novel applications and in particular for use as a high-quality seed of other sources of XUV radiation, like soft X-ray lasers or X-ray free-electron lasers, as well as for (time-resolved) holographic imaging.
Seeding soft X-ray lasers or X-ray free electron lasers with high-order harmonics. Towards bright and coherent X-ray pulses.
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Old 22-02-2008, 07:55 PM   #49
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The Outer Solar System-Animated
Plot of the Outer Solar System

cfa-www.harvard.edu/iau/lists/OuterPlot
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Old 22-02-2008, 08:01 PM   #50
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http://www.atto.fysik.lth.se/video/emovie.mov

All-sky Map with
Constellations (10 mb)
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Old 22-02-2008, 08:10 PM   #51
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sos.noaa.gov/datasets/Atmosphere/

http://www3.niu.edu/acad/psych/Millis/History/2004/PsychologySong.htm

A Brief Overview of the History of Psychology

math/pythagoras
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Old 22-02-2008, 08:13 PM   #52
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Yup, thanks for the info, edit.
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Old 22-02-2008, 08:19 PM   #53
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We Didn't Start the Fire

Ancestral Human Skull Found in China

Kevin Holden Platt in Beijing, China
for National Geographic News

February 20, 2008
A human skull tentatively dating back 80,000 to 100,000 years may shed light on a murky chapter of evolutionary history, its discoverers say.
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Old 22-02-2008, 08:22 PM   #54
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Dolphines play with bubblerings
http://www.snabbstart.com/film/3c24cedd90
Quote:
Originally Posted by armoured_amazon View Post
Yup, thanks for the info, edit.
ur welcome

NewScientist.com
Giant ropes of dark matter found in new sky survey

19:38 21 February 2008
NewScientist.com news service
Stephen Battersby



Over time, matter pulls together into a web-like structure along a scaffolding of dark matter (Illustration: Center for Cosmological Physics/U Chicago)

Huge filaments of dark matter have been detected in a survey of thousands of distant galaxies. The discovery supports the idea that dark matter drove the formation of galaxies and larger cosmic structures and resolves a discrepancy in previous studies about how much dark matter the universe contains.



btw.. all... you are... elechtrons ..coming ..out of the breath of god

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Old 15-04-2008, 03:28 PM   #55
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Published: 2 hours ago, 06:42 EST, April 15, 2008 Toolbox


Old Cellulose Found in NM Salt Crystals
By MATT MYGATT, Associated Press Writer

This photo provided by Jack Griffith, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine, shows Waste Isolation Pilot Plant staff member Sam Dominguez using a core drill to extract salt crystal samples from a salt wall at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, N.M. in December 2006. Griffith and his team found cellulose dating back 253 million years _ along with some possible ancient DNA _ in salt crystals from the underground nuclear waste dump. The crystals were taken from newly mined areas 2,000 feet below WIPP's desert surface last fall and a couple of years ago, Griffith said Wednesday, April 9, 2008. Griffith said he thinks looking for cellulose in salt deposits is a good way to go searching for life on other planets. (AP pPhoto/Courtesy of Jack Griffith)
(AP) -- Cellulose dating back 253 million years - along with some possible ancient DNA - has been found in salt crystals from an underground nuclear waste dump in southern New Mexico.

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"We did see some ancient DNA in the salt, but not a lot, and we have to continue experiments to try to verify that it is ancient DNA," said Jack D. Griffith, a professor of microbiology and immunology at the University of North Carolina School of Medicine.

The cellulose - the same microscopic stuff in wood or cotton - was in water locked in tiny cubes of clear and reddish-brown salt crystals at the federal government's Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad.

The crystals were taken from newly mined areas 2,000 feet below WIPP's desert surface last fall and a couple of years ago, Griffith said last week.

"We found one in a wall that was a couple of feet across, almost looking like into a huge frozen block of ice. The others were found in crystal that is smaller and finer and in jumbles with sulfur or clay deposits," he said.

The research by Griffith and four co-authors was published in the April issue of the journal Astrobiology.

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Griffith said he thinks looking for cellulose in salt deposits is a good way to go searching for life on other planets because cellulose is tough.

He and his colleagues used a tiny drill - about the width of a cat's whisker - to bore into the water-bearing cubes to retrieve drops water as large as one from a standard eyedropper.

"These inclusions contain saturated salt water that is basically a time capsule that is a quarter-of-a-billion years old," Griffith said.

Evaporation cycles from a Permian sea created a 2,000-foot-thick bed of salt.

The water drops were placed in a centrifuge and the remaining pellets were examined with an electron microscope.

"We were thinking we might see bacteria or bacteria viruses or DNA," Griffith said.

"But there were all these mats of this fibrous stuff," which further tests and research found to be cellulose, he said.

The cellulose looks like a web of tangled angel hair pasta. The fibers are about twice the diameter of a DNA molecule.

The discovery of the cellulose, probably remnants of filamentous algae, is significant and exciting, said Karl Niklas, a professor at Cornell University's Department of Plant Biology.

"The cell walls were preserved, so they (Griffith's team) have native cellulose," Niklas said.

The ancient cellulose was not fossilized - a process in which biological material is replaced by minerals, making a rock.

Cellulose is "a fairly simple structure.
And it's probably a fairly simple step for the earliest life forms a couple of billion years ago to start stringing these things together one after another," Griffith said.

"Bacterial colonies could use it to synthesize mats. They could coat themselves with it for protection," he said.

"Not only is it (cellulose) extremely stable, but it's also by far the single most abundant molecule on the planet," Griffith said.

Plants, algae and bacteria generate about 100 gigatons of cellulose a year, he said.

"We're kind of living in a soup of this stuff," Griffith said.

Griffith and his students have talked about going into older salt beds - such as an almost 400 million-year-old deposit under Detroit - to look for cellulose.

"The joke has been that this is the first time students want to be sent to the salt mines," he said.

© 2008 The Associated Press. All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed.
http://www.physorg.com/news127460578.html


Bamburg Green Man larger image

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Old 19-04-2008, 12:33 AM   #56
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CERN users About us Science Research The LHC People
Quote:
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TimeGate19..
map23
map24

page44
Emptiness is Full

This amazing discovery announces that the "emptiness" of empty space is in fact not empty, but a great ocean of seething energy!

____
Fig.2 Illustration of Huygens' principle.
A Novel Hyperlanguage DNA Code (read with All-One Hadron, too)


Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered
Published: 20 hours ago,
July 25, 2007 - www.physorg.com
Itching for a better anti-itch remedy? Your wish may soon be granted now that scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified the first gene for the itch sensation in the central nervous system. The discovery could rapidly lead to new treatments directly targeting itchiness and providing relief for chronic and severe itching.

Published: 10:02 EST, July 20, 2007

Trapped, Imaged Single Atoms May Enable Powerful Quantum Computing
By Laura Mgrdichian

An image of one plane of the cubic atom array.
Bright spots are single atoms; the haze is from
atoms trapped in out-of-focus planes.


Quantum computers have the potential to vastly out-perform present-day “classical” computers – if scientists can identify and manipulate promising quantum bits, or “qubits,” the basic information-storing units of a quantum computer.

Recently, researchers from The Pennsylvania State University trapped and imaged a three-dimensional array of 250 neutral atoms – each a promising qubit. This work could one day form the base for an incredibly powerful quantum computer.

“Atoms are ideal quantum systems,” explains Penn State physicist David Weiss, the experiment's corresponding scientist, to PhysOrg.com. “We have shown that we can trap hundreds of isolated atoms in such a way that it should be possible to individually address them, making each of them a qubit. It may be a long road from here to a useful quantum computer, but we can already see quite far down that road.”

Weiss and his group, including postdoctoral researcher Karl Nelson and graduate student Xiao Li, who performed the work, say that a quantum computer consisting of even 50 qubits could perform simulations way beyond those of current computers. Prior to their work, however, fewer than ten atoms had been imaged simultaneously nor had scientists successfully used light to trap and image either single atoms or atom bunches into three-dimensional “optical lattices.”

The optical lattice this research group created results from three overlapping laser-beam pairs and traps cold neutral cesium atoms. The beams restrict the atoms tightly in all three directions and lock them into a cubic array, with equal spacing between each atom. This occurs due to the interference pattern produced by the crossed beams; that is, how the light waves add and cancel each other, resulting in a regular cubic grid of maxima (bright spots) and minima (dark spots). The atoms are trapped in the minima.


Weiss and his colleagues imaged the lattice plane by plane, taking photographs of each layer. The photos show that the light used to image the array is highly unlikely to cause atoms to hop around in the lattice, a requirement if this type of atom arrangement could be one day used in a quantum computer. The researchers also assert that the spacing between each atom should be large enough such that individual atoms can be manipulated. By combining this ability with the ability to repeatedly image the array without disrupting it, the scientists think they have the basic ingredients for workable qubits. Their method could be used to create optical lattices containing thousands of atoms.

However, warns Weiss, “I don't want to understate the technical challenge of building a large quantum computer with our approach, or any other approach.”

Citation: Karl D. Nelson, Xiao Li and David S. Weiss, “Imaging single atoms in a three-dimensional array.” Nature Physics advance online publication DOI:10.1038/nphys645

Copyright 2007 PhysOrg.com.
All rights reserved. This material may not be published, broadcast, rewritten or redistributed in whole or part without the express written permission of PhysOrg.com.

>
The Doorway of the 11:11 opens once and closes once
and only One may pass through...

» Next Article in Physics - Physics: Protein pulling -- Learning how proteins fold by pulling them apart
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Old 19-04-2008, 12:38 AM   #57
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E-PRIME, abolishing all forms of the verb "to be,"
it appears >>

Quote:
Originally Posted by krakhead View Post
I'd be very surprised if this hadn't been presented on this forum before. What do you think? Do you think it would help to reduce the number of arguments? I have seen a lot of IS-ness being presented on here, I find it disturbing and it appears, to me, to lead to more arguments.

IS this a better way of communicating?

TOWARD UNDERSTANDING E -PRIME

Robert Anton Wilson



E-PRIME, abolishing all forms of the verb "to be," has its roots in the field of general semantics, as presented by Alfred Korzybski in his 1933 book, Science and Sanity. Korzybski pointed out the pitfalls associated with, and produced by, two usages of "to be": identity and predication. His student D. David Bourland, Jr., observed that even linguistically sensitive people do not seem able to avoid identity and predication uses of "to be" if they continue to use the verb at all. Bourland pioneered in demonstrating that one can indeed write and speak without using any form of "to be," calling this subset of the English language "E-Prime." Many have urged the use of E-Prime in writing scientific and technical papers. Dr. Kellogg exemplifies a prime exponent of this activity. Dr. Albert Ellis has rewritten five of his books in E-Prime, in collaboration with Dr. Robert H. Moore, to improve their clarity and to reap the epistemological benefits of this language revision. Korzybski felt that all humans should receive training in general semantics from grade school on, as "semantic hygiene" against the most prevalent forms of logical error, emotional distortion, and "demonological thinking." E-Prime provides a straightforward training technique for acquiring such semantic hygiene.

To understand E-Prime, consider the human brain as a computer. (Note that I did not say the brain "is" a computer.) As the Prime Law of Computers tells us, GARBAGE IN, GARBAGE OUT (GIGO, for short). The wrong software guarantees wrong answers. Conversely, finding the right software can "miraculously" solve problems that previously appeared intractable.

It seems likely that the principal software used in the human brain consists of words, metaphors, disguised metaphors, and linguistic structures in general. The Sapir-Whorf-Korzybski Hypothesis, in anthropology, holds that a change in language can alter our perception of the cosmos. A revision of language structure, in particular, can alter the brain as dramatically as a psychedelic. In our metaphor, if we change the software, the computer operates in a new way.

Consider the following paired sets of propositions, in which Standard English alternates with English-Prime (E-Prime):

lA. The electron is a wave.
lB. The electron appears as a wave when measured with instrument-l.
2A. The electron is a particle.
2B. The electron appears as a particle when measured with instrument-2.
3A. John is lethargic and unhappy.
3B. John appears lethargic and unhappy in the office.
4A. John is bright and cheerful.
4B. John appears bright and cheerful on holiday at the beach.
5A. This is the knife the first man used to stab the second man.
5B. The first man appeared to stab the second man with what looked like a knife to me.
6A. The car involved in the hit-and-run accident was a blue Ford.
6B. In memory, I think I recall the car involved in the hit-and-run accident as a blue Ford.
7A. This is a fascist idea.
7B. This seems like a fascist idea to me.
8A. Beethoven is better than Mozart.
8B. In my present mixed state of musical education and ignorance, Beethoven seems better to me than Mozart.
9A. That is a sexist movie.
9B. That seems like a sexist movie to me.
10A. The fetus is a person.
10B. In my system of metaphysics, I classify the fetus as a person.

The "A"-type statements (Standard English) all implicitly or explicitly assume the medieval view called "Aristotelian essentialism" or "naive realism." In other words, they assume a world made up of block-like entities with indwelling "essences" or spooks- "ghosts in the machine." The "B"-type statements (E-Prime) recast these sentences into a form isomorphic to modern science by first abolishing the "is" of Aristotelian essence and then reformulating each observation in terms of signals received and interpreted by a body (or instrument) moving in space-time.

Relativity, quantum mechanics, large sections of general physics, perception psychology, sociology, linguistics, modern math, anthropology, ethology, and several other sciences make perfect sense when put into the software of E-Prime. Each of these sciences generates paradoxes, some bordering on "nonsense" or "gibberish," if you try to translate them back into the software of Standard English.

Concretely, "The electron is a wave" employs the Aristotelian "is" and thereby introduces us to the false-to-experience notion that we can know the indwelling "essence" of the electron. "The electron appears as a wave when measured by instrument-1" reports what actually occurred in space-time, namely that the electron when constrained by a certain instrument behaved in a certain way.

Similarly, "The electron is a particle" contains medieval Aristotelian software, but "The electron appears as a particle when measured by instrument-2" contains modern scientific software. Once again, the software determines whether we impose a medieval or modern grid upon our reality-tunnel.

Note that "the electron is a wave" and "the electron is a particle" contradict each other and begin the insidious process by which we move gradually from paradox to nonsense to total gibberish. On the other hand, the modern scientific statements "the electron appears as a wave when measured one way" and "the electron appears as a particle measured another way" do not contradict, but rather complement each other. (Bohr's Principle of Complementarity, which explained this and revolutionized physics, would have appeared obvious to all, and not just to a person of his genius, if physicists had written in E-Prime all along. . . .)

Looking at our next pair, "John is lethargic and unhappy" vs. "John is bright and cheerful,' we see again how medieval software creates metaphysical puzzles and totally imaginary contradictions. Operationalizing the statements, as physicists since Bohr have learned to operationalize, we find that the E-Prime translations do not contain any contradiction, and even give us a clue as to causes of John's changing moods. (Look back if you forgot the translations.)

"The first man stabbed the second man with a knife" lacks the overt "is" of identity but contains Aristotelian software nonetheless. The E-Prime translation not only operationalizes the data, but may fit the facts better-if the incident occurred in a psychology class, which often conduct this experiment. (The first man "stabs," or makes stabbing gestures at, the second man, with a banana, but many students, conditioned by Aristotelian software, nonetheless "see" a knife. You don't need to take drugs to hallucinate; improper language can fill your world with phantoms and spooks of many kinds.)

The reader may employ his or her own ingenuity in analyzing how "is-ness" creates false-to-facts reality-tunnels in the remaining examples, and how E-Prime brings us back to the scientific, the operational, the existential, the phenomenological--to what humans and their instruments actually do in space-time as they create observations, perceptions, thoughts, deductions, and General Theories.

I have found repeatedly that when baffled by a problem in science, in "philosophy," or in daily life, I gain immediate insight by writing down what I know about the enigma in strict E-Prime. Often, solutions appear immediately-just as happens when you throw out the "wrong" software and put the "right" software into your PC. In other cases, I at least get an insight into why the problem remains intractable and where and how future science might go about finding an answer. (This has contributed greatly to my ever-escalating agnosticism about the political, ideological, and religious issues that still generate the most passion on this primitive planet.)

When a proposition resists all efforts to recast it in a form consistent with what we now call E-Prime, many consider it "meaningless." Korzybski, Wittgenstein, the Logical Positivists, and (in his own way) Niels Bohr promoted this view. I happen to agree with that verdict (which condemns 99 percent of theology and 99.999999 percent of metaphysics to the category of Noise rather than Meaning)--but we must save that subject for another article. For now, it suffices to note that those who fervently believe such Aristotelian propositions as "A piece of bread, blessed by a priest, is a person (who died two thousand years ago)," "The flag is a living being," or "The fetus is a human being" do not, in general, appear to make sense by normal twentieth-century scientific standards.

Original web-site - also includes an addendum that I think would be useful to read as well.

Further reading

And, yes, I do see the problem with my quote from RAW in my sig!
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Old 27-04-2008, 05:18 PM   #58
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Pablo Neruda

I don't love you as if you were the salt-rose, topaz
or arrow of carnations that propagate fire:

I love you as certain dark things are loved,
secretly, between the shadow and the soul.

I love you as the plant that doesn't bloom and carries
hidden within itself the light of those flowers,

and thanks to your love, darkly in my body
lives the dense fragrance that rises from the earth.

I love you without knowing how, or when, or from where,
I love you simply, without problems or pride:
I love you in this way because I don't know any other way of loving

but this, in which there is no I or you,
so intimate that your hand upon my chest is my hand,
so intimate that when I fall asleep it is your eyes that close.


Linking low frequency hearing to the cochlea's curvature




The figure at the top shows how the base and apex radii of the cochlea were determined. The graph at the bottom illustrates the link between the radii ratio and the low frequency hearing limit of a number of species: ms1 and ms2 are two strains of mice; ra1 and ra2 are two species of rat; bd is the bottlenose dolphin; sl is the sea lion; sm is the squirrel monkey; ca is the cat; ch is the chinchilla; gb is the gerbil; gp is the guinea pig; h is the human; e is the elephant; cw is the cow. Courtesy of the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
Shape matters, even in hearing. Specifically, it is the shape of the cochlea — the snail-shell-shaped organ in the inner ear that converts sound waves into nerve impulses that the brain deciphers — which proves to be surprisingly important.

A study published this week in the Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences establishes a direct link between the cochlea's curvature and the low-frequency hearing limit of more than a dozen different mammals.

The relationship will be useful in conservation to estimate the impact that the noises of human activities are having on animals like Siberian tigers, polar bears and marine mammals that won't sit still for hearing tests. It also can provide new information about the hearing of extinct mammals, like mammoths and saber-toothed tigers, and, in so doing, may contribute new insights into how the sense of hearing evolved.

"It turns out that it is the curvature of the cochlea, not its size, that is highly correlated to the low-frequency hearing limit," says Daphne Manoussaki, assistant professor of mathematics at Vanderbilt University, who headed the new study with Richard S. Chadwick, a section chief at the National Institute on Deafness and Other Communication Disorders (one of the National Institutes of Health, or NIH).

Spiral-shaped cochleae are exclusive to mammals. Birds and reptiles generally have plate-like or slightly curved versions of this critical organ, limiting the span of octaves that they can hear. Animals with tightly coiled cochleae tend to have greater hearing ranges, but previous attempts to associate these auditory effects with the physical characteristics of the cochlea have proven unsatisfactory because they did not take a critical acoustic effect into account.

In 2006 Manoussaki and her NIH collaborators published a paper proposing that the helical shape of the cochlea enhances low-frequency sounds through an effect analogous to the well-known "whispering gallery effect" in which soft sounds that travel along curved walls in a large chamber remain loud enough that they can be heard clearly on the opposite side of the room.

When sound waves enter the ear, they strike the eardrum and cause it to vibrate. Tiny bones in the ear amplify and transmit these vibrations to the fluid in the cochlea, creating pressure waves that travel along a narrowing canal in the coiled tube-like organ. The canal is one of two main chambers that are created by an elastic membrane that runs the length of the cochlea. The mechanical properties of this "basilar" membrane vary from very stiff at the broad, outer end to increasingly flexible toward the inner end as the chambers narrow. The basilar membrane's graded properties cause the waves to grow and then die away. Different frequencies peak at different positions along the membrane.

Sensory cells are attached to the basilar membrane and have tufts of tiny hairs called stereocilia that stick up into adjacent structures in the canal. As the basilar membrane moves it tilts the sensory cells, causing the stereocilia to bend. The motion generates electric signals that travel along the auditory nerve to the brain. As a result, the sensory cells near the outer end of the cochlea detect high-pitched sounds, like the notes of a piccolo, while those at the inner end of the spiral detect lower-frequency sounds, like the booming of a bass drum.

This mechanical ordering of response from high to low frequencies works in the same fashion whether the cochlear tube is laid out straight or coiled in a spiral. But Manoussaki's calculations predicted that the spiral shape causes the energy in the low-frequency waves to accumulate against the outside edge of the chamber. This uneven energy distribution, in turn, causes the membrane to move more toward the outer wall of the chamber, enhancing the bending of the stereociliae. The enhancement is strongest at the apex of the spiral, where the lowest frequencies are detected. Manoussaki and her collaborators calculated that the increase in the sound pressure level can be as much as 20 decibels, equivalent to the difference between the aural ambience of a quiet restaurant and a busy street.

"The idea that the cochlea's curvature has a significant effect on hearing has been quite controversial for many years," says Darlene R. Ketten, a senior scientist at Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and assistant professor at the Harvard Medical School, who participated in the current study. "Curvature was often dismissed or, when examined, the theories were not entirely satisfactory. Now we have a theory that we have confirmed with a number of concrete examples using real ear shapes and hearing abilities."

Ketten provided Manoussaki and her collaborators with high-resolution CT scans of the cochleae of a number of different species of land and marine mammals. Together with her biophysicist colleagues, Manoussaki analyzed these shapes and found that low- frequency hearing limits of species ranging from mice to cats to cows to whales varied in step with the ratio of the radii of curvatures at their cochlea's base to that of its apex. This ratio varies from about two to nine: The larger it is the lower the frequencies that the animal can hear.

"This makes sense because the bigger the ratio, the tighter the spiral is wound and more of the sound wave energy in the low-frequency waves is forced against the cochlea's walls," Manoussaki says.

Animals like mice, which have a radii ratio of about two, can't hear much below 1000 hertz (Hz). Species like cows and elephants, which have a ratio of about nine, hear sounds as low as 20 Hz. The power of this approach is illustrated by the cat, guinea pig and sea lion. The cochlea of the cat is longer than that of the guinea pig, but the guinea pig has a ratio of 7.2 and can hear down to 47 Hz, while the cat, with a smaller ratio of 6.2, has a higher threshold of 55 Hz. Similarly, the sea lion has a basilar membrane three times as long as that of the guinea pig. But its radii ratio is 5.2, lower than either the cat or the guinea pig, and it cannot make out sounds below 180 Hz. (This limit is for the sea lion's hearing in air; under water it can hear down to 200 Hz.)

"What I like about this is that a macroscopic feature of the ear has such a major effect on our hearing," says Manoussaki. "As colleagues have pointed out, so much research today is done at the genetic and cellular level that you don't often see cases like this where simple geometry proves to be so important."

Other contributors to the research are Emilios K. Dimitriadis, National Institute of Biomedical Imaging and Bioengineering; Julie Arruda of Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution and Jennifer T. O'Malley of the Massachusetts Ear and Infirmary.

Source: Vanderbilt University
http://www.physorg.com/news128352212.html
Ravi Shankar - Raga Rangeela Pi-loo
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Old 27-04-2008, 05:34 PM   #59
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WORD REPETITIONS IN THE QUR'AN
Quote

from [link to www.harunyahya.com]



Apart from the miraculous characteristics of the Qur'an which we have looked into so far, it also contains what we can term "mathematical miracles." There are many examples of this fascinating Qur'anic aspect. One example of this is the number of repetitions of certain words in the Qur'an. Some related words are surprisingly repeated the same number of times. Below is a list of such words and the number of repetitions in the Qur'an.


The statement of "seven heavens" is repeated seven times. "The creation of the heavens (khalq as-samawat)" is also repeated seven times.

"Day (yawm)" is repeated 365 times in singular form, while its plural and dual forms "days (ayyam and yawmayn)" together are repeated 30 times. The number of repetitions of the word "month" (shahar) is 12.

The number of repetitions of the words "plant" and "tree" is the same: 26

The word "payment or reward" is repeated 117 times, while the expression "forgiveness" (mughfirah), which is one of the basic morals of the Qur'an, is repeated exactly twice that amount, 234 times.

When we count the word "Say," we find it appears 332 times. We arrive at the same figure when we count the phrase "they said."

The number of times the words, "world" (dunya) and "hereafter" (akhira) are repeated is also the same: 115

The word "satan" (shaitan) is used in the Qur'an 88 times, as is the word "angels" (malaika).

The word faith (iman) (without genitive) is repeated 25 times throughout the Qur'an as is also the word infidelity (kufr).

The words "paradise" and "hell" are each repeated 77 times.

The word "zakah" is repeated in the Qur'an 32 times and the number of repetitions of the word "blessing" (barakah) is also 32.

The expression "the righteous" (al-abraar) is used 6 times but "the wicked" (al-fujjaar) is used half as much, i.e., 3 times.

The number of times the words "Summer-hot" and "winter-cold" are repeated is the same: 5.

The words "wine" (khamr) and "intoxication" (saqara) are repeated in the Qur'an the same number of times: 6

The number of appearances of the words "mind" and "light" is the same: 49.

The words "tongue" and "sermon" are both repeated 25 times.

The words "benefit" and "corrupt" both appear 50 times.

"Reward" (ajr) and "action" (fail) are both repeated 107 times.

"Love" (al-mahabbah) and "obedience" (al-ta'ah) also appear the same number of times: 83

The words "refuge" (maseer) and "for ever" (abadan) appear the same number of times in the Qur'an: 28.

The words "disaster" (al-musibah) and "thanks" (al-shukr) appear the same number of times in the Qur'an: 75.

"Sun" (shams) and "light" (nur) both appear 33 times in the Qur'an.
In counting the word "light" only the simple forms of the word were included.

The number of appearances of "right guidance" (al-huda) and "mercy" (al-rahma) is the same: 79

The words "trouble" and "peace" are both repeated 13 times in the Qur'an.

The words "man" and "woman" are also employed equally: 23 times.Will they not ponder the Qur’an? If it had been from other than Allah, they would have found many inconsistencies in it.
(Qur’an, 4:82)


The number of times the words "man" and "woman" are repeated in the Qur'an, 23, is at the same time that of the chromosomes from the egg and sperm in the formation of the human embryo. The total number of human chromosomes is 46; 23 each from the mother and father.

"Treachery" (khiyanah) is repeated 16 times, while the number of repetitions of the word "foul" (khabith) is 16.

"Human being" is used 65 times: the sum of the number of references to the stages of man's creation is the same: i.e.

Human being 65

Soil (turab) 17

Drop of Sperm (nutfah) 12

Embryo ('alaq) 6

A half formed lump of flesh (mudghah) 3

Bone ('idham) 15

Flesh (lahm) 12

TOTAL 65


The word "salawat" appear five times in the Qur'an, and Allah has commanded man to perform the prayer (salat) five times a day.

The word "land" appears 13 times in the Qur'an and the word "sea" 32 times, giving a total of 45 references. If we divide that number by that of the number of references to the land we arrive at the figure 28.888888888889%. The number of total references to land and sea, 45, divided by the number of references to the sea in the Qur'an, 32, is 71.111111111111%. Extraordinarily, these figures represent the exact proportions of land and sea on the Earth today.238

Re: What is the greatest sin? god-like-productions...
Dat is wat universe is.
Quote:
Anonymous Coward
User ID: 421786
4/27/2008 9:51 AM Re: What is the greatest sin? Quote

sin=moon

Möbiusstrip [link to www.kubrussel.ac.be]
parametervergelijking:
x=(2-v*sin(u/2))*sin(u)
y=(2-v*sin(u/2))*cos(u)
z=v*cos(u/2)
[link to www.kubrussel.ac.be]
Quoting:
Kind of like what I have been saying that all prophecies about Satan are given in months and or moons.
Quoting: Little Star
curvature
[link to www.physorg.com]



[link to www.artoflegendindia.com]
[link to www.glaucus.org.uk]
[link to www.yogameditation.com]
[link to www.holyindia.net]

[link to www.freeprintablecoloringpages.net]
[link to www.cornucopia.org.uk]


[link to www.assateague.com]







http://www.kubrussel.ac.be/visumath/examplesnl.html

http://www.heartcoherence.com/anu-of...timateAtom.htm

Last edited by edit; 27-04-2008 at 05:39 PM.
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Old 23-05-2008, 08:14 PM   #60
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Blog: Russian Human Genome Project discovers Extraterrestrial
abilities to modify DNA through a "biological internet
"

by Mary Rodwell [Excerpted]

Some recent Russian DNA discoveries documented by Grazyna Fosar and Franz Bludorf in their book Vernetzte Intelligenz have been summarised by Baerbel. ‘The human DNA is a biological Internet’ with evidence that DNA can be ‘influenced and reprogrammed by words and frequencies.’ This suggests that ‘our DNA is not only responsible for the construction of our body, but also serves as data storage and communication.’ The Russian scientists and linguists have found that the genetic code ‘follows the same rules as all our human languages.’ In effect, human language did not appear coincidentally but is a reflection of our DNA.

The Russian researchers believe that ‘Living chromosomes function just like a holographic computer using endogenous DNA laser radiation.

Canadian - May 20, 2008


[COLOR="Navy"]Sun screen lotion threatens coral: study
www.physorg.com/news/
Published: 4 hours ago, 11:57 EST, May 23, 2008

Bleached coral off the Keppel Islands in Queensland, Australia. A study commissioned by the European Commission has found that sun screen lotions used by beach-going tourists are a major cause of coral bleaching.[/COLOR]

Quote:
Sun screen lotions used by beach-going tourists worldwide are a major cause of coral bleaching, according to a new study commissioned by the European Commission.

In experiments, the cream-based ultra-violet (UV) filters -- used to protect skin from the harmful effects of sun exposure -- caused bleaching of coral reefs even in small quantities, the study found.

Coral reefs are among the most biologically productive and diverse of ecosystems, and directly sustain half a billion people. But some 60 percent of these reef systems are threatened by a deadly combination of climate change, industrial pollution and excess UV radiation.


The new study, published in US journal Environmental Health Perspectives, has now added sun screens to the list of damaging agents, and estimates that up to 10 per cent of the world's reefs are at risk of sunscreen-induced coral bleaching.

Chemical compounds in sunscreen and other personal skin care products have been detected near both sea and freshwater tourist areas. Previous research has shown that these chemicals can accumulate in aquatic animals, and biodegrade into toxic by-products.


Researchers led by Roberto Danovaro at the University of Pisa in Italy added controlled amounts of three brands of sunscreen to seawater surrounding coral reefs in Mexico, Indonesia, Thailand and Egypt.

Quote:
Even small doses provoked large discharges of coral mucous -- a clear sign of environmental stress -- within 18 to 48 hours. Within 96 hours complete bleaching of corals had occurred.

Virus levels in seawater surrounding coral branches increased to 15 times the level found in control samples, suggesting that sunscreens might stimulate latent viral infections, the study found.

Pesticides, hydrocarbons and other contaminants have also been found to induce algae or coral to release viruses, hastening the bleaching process.

According to the World Trade Organisation, around 10 per cent of tourism takes place in tropical areas, with 78 million tourists visiting coral reefs each year.

An estimated 4,000 to 6,000 tonnes of sunscreen are released annually in reef areas, with 25 per cent of the sunscreen ingredients on skin released into water over the course of a 20 minute submersion.

Sunscreens are made of around 20 compounds acting as UV filters and preservatives. Seven were tested for the study, including parabens, cinnamates, benzophenones and camphor derivatives.

© 2008 AFP
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