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Old 23-07-2007, 02:44 AM   #21
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Solar Power Breakthrough: Solar Dyes Could Be Put In Windows, Clothing


Researchers from the Nanomaterials Research Centre at Massey University in New Zealand have developed synthetic dyes that can be used to generate electricity at one tenth of the cost of current silicon-based solar panels. These photosynthesis-like compounds work in low-light conditions and can be cheaply incorporated into window-panes and building materials, thereby turning them into generators of electricity.

Dr Wayne Campbell and researchers in the center have developed a range of coloured dyes for use in dye-sensitized solar cells. The synthetic dyes are made from simple organic compounds closely related to those found in nature. The green dye Dr Campbell is synthetic chlorophyll derived from the light-harvesting pigment plants use for photosynthesis. Other dyes being tested in the cells are based on hemoglobin, the compound that give blood its color.

Dr Campbell says that unlike the silicon-based solar cells currently on the market, the 10x10cm green demonstration cells generate enough electricity to run a small fan in low-light conditions – making them ideal for cloudy climates. The dyes can also be incorporated into tinted windows that trap to generate electricity.

He says the green solar cells are more environmentally friendly than silicon-based cells as they are made from titanium dioxide – a plentiful, renewable and non-toxic white mineral obtained from New Zealand’s black sand. Titanium dioxide is already used in consumer products such as toothpaste, white paints and cosmetics.

“The refining of pure silicon, although a very abundant mineral, is energy-hungry and very expensive. And whereas silicon cells need direct sunlight to operate efficiently, these cells will work efficiently in low diffuse light conditions,” Dr Campbell says.


Re:

Time for a Revolution...PERIOD!

you say you want a revolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world
You tell me that it's evolution
Well, you know
We all want to change the world
But when you talk about destruction
Don't you know that you can count me out
Don't you know it's gonna be all right



i dont' personally feel this way, but it is a nice song

malu says.
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Old 23-07-2007, 11:12 AM   #22
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Physicists get ultra-sharp glimpse of electrons
Published: 22 hours ago, 13:13 EST, physorg.com, July 20, 2007

In this image showing the energy levels of electrons in a two-dimensional system, the electrons can be thought of as a sea, filling all the lowest places available and with a surface at sea level. In the picture, the dark line across the center is the sea level. Bright lines show where the energy levels are. The distance of the lines from the sea level shows how large their energy is, with lines below the center showing states that are normally filled (underwater) and lines above the center showing states that are normally empty (up in the air). Tracing out the energy levels as the number of electrons in the system is changed, from left to right in the plot, scientists can learn how electrons behave together in large groups. Graphic courtesy / Ashoori Group Lab


MIT physicists have developed a spectroscopy technique that allows researchers to inspect the world of electrons confined to a two-dimensional plane more clearly than ever before.


Two-dimensional electron systems, in which electrons are walled in from above and below but are free to move in a plane as if they were placed on a sheet of paper, are rarely observed in the natural world. However, they can be created in a laboratory and used, for example, in high-frequency amplifiers found in cell phones.

The new spectroscopy technique ....

The spectroscopy experiments were performed inside a semiconducting crystal cooled to 0.1 degrees above absolute zero.

Until now, the primary method for performing this kind of spectroscopy relied on photoemission. The new method has an energy resolution that is 1,000 times finer than the best photoemission measurements.

Physicists have also traditionally used "transport" techniques that measure electrical currents flowing in response to applied voltages to learn about 2D electron energy levels, but that technique only offers a partial look at what electrons are doing.

"Similar to creating small ripples on the surface of a sea, transport techniques only tell us about what is happening very close to the water's surface," said Dial. "Pictures made with this high-resolution spectroscopy provide, in essence, one of the first glimpses of the entire ocean in these systems and show what a beautiful and interesting world exists beneath the surface."


Source: MIT

Work and Energy
Energy Conservation on an Incline

Quote:
Consider an ordinary lab cart loaded with bricks and accelerating down an inclined plane. How could work and energy be utilized to analyze the motion of the loaded cart? Would the total mechanical energy of the cart be altered in the process of rolling down the incline? Or would the total mechanical energy of the cart merely be conserved?

Of course the answers to these questions begin by determining whether or not there are any external forces doing work upon the loaded cart. According to the work-energy theorem, if external forces do work upon the cart, the total mechanical energy of the cart is not conserved; the initial amount of mechanical energy is not the same as the final amount of mechanical energy. On the other hand, if external forces do not do work upon the loaded cart, then the total mechanical energy is conserved; that is, mechanical energy is merely transformed from the form of potential energy to the form of kinetic energy while the total amount of the two forms remains unchanged.

In the case of the cart rolling down the incline, there are three external forces (the normal force, the force of friction and air resistance) and one internal force (the force of gravity). The normal force does not do work upon the cart because it acts in a direction perpendicular to the direction of motion. In such instances, the angle between F and d is 90 degrees and the work done by the force is 0 Joules (Work = F*d*cosineTheta). The force of friction does not do work upon the cart because it acts upon the wheels of the cart and actually does not serve to displace either the cart nor the wheels. The friction force only serves to help the wheels turn as the cart rolls down the hill. Finally, the force of air resistance does do work upon the cart; air resistance does negative work upon the cart since it acts in a direction opposite the direction of the cart's motion. Sometimes referred to as a dissipative force, air resistance contributes to a loss in the total amount of mechanical energy possessed by the cart. Subsequently, it would be expected that there would be a small amount of energy loss as the cart rolls down the hill from an elevated position to a position just above the ground.

Due to the difficulty in measuring air resistance forces and due to the small amount of existing Fair in situations in which a streamlined object moves at relatively small speeds, the effect of air resistance is often neglected. If air resistance is neglected, then it would be expected that the total mechanical energy of the cart would be conserved. The animation below depicts this phenomenon (in the absence of air resistance).


As the cart rolls down the hill from its elevated position, its mechanical energy is transformed from potential energy to kinetic energy. At a height just above the ground, the majority of energy is in the form of kinetic energy. This is to say, energy due to vertical position has been transformed into energy due to motion. In fact, if air resistance can be neglected, then the amount of potential energy loss equals the amount of kinetic energy gained. Calculations can be performed to illustrate that the potential energy lost by the 3.0-kg cart in the above animation is equal to the kinetic energy gained. Assume that the height of the cart changes from 0.40 meters to 0.05 meters and the speed changes from 0 m/s to 2.62 m/s.

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Old 23-07-2007, 11:33 AM   #23
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Lesson 1: Basic Terminology and Concepts
Kinetic Energy

Kinetic energy is the energy of motion.



where m = mass of object

v = speed of object


Kinetic energy is a scalar quantity; it does not have a direction. it does not have a direction. Unlike velocity, acceleration, force, and momentum, the kinetic energy of an object is completely described by magnitude alone. Like work and potential energy, the standard metric units of measurement for kinetic energy is the Joule. As might be implied by the above equation, 1 Joule is equivalent to 1 kg*(m/s)^2.

Check Your Understanding



http://www.mrao.cam.ac.uk/~srd24/emission/index.html
Massless emission from a Schwarzschild black hole. Top: Scalar. Bottom: spinor. The l = s mode is dominant.



Effect of particle mass on emission spectrum.


Massless neutrino emission spectrum from a rotating black hole.
Note the enhancement and then suppression of the j=1/2 power as a increases.
Quote:
In the endothermic mode the sucked-out energy must go somewhere, so it is vented out at some other chosen spot on the earth. These endothermic plumes have been photographed by satellite.



"The exhaust in the left picture is about 150 miles long, and is nearly horizontal (about 1.5 degrees above the horizontal). It is entirely consistent with the continuous exhaust from a "dumping transfer" scalar EM howitzer in the continuous exothermic mode. (The primary howitzer, of course, was activated in the endothermic mode.)"
Bearden More Plumes






<<< Scalar Wars
The Brave New World of Scalar Electromagnetics
by Bill Morgan
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Old 26-07-2007, 02:28 PM   #24
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Some Immediate Implications

The solutions to the energy crisis and the "oil problem" are in hand. These oil wars are unnecessary. There is endless energy available freely from the domain of time.

"We note that all mind operations are time-like, i.e., they are comprised as scalar EM photon functions and scalar EM wave functions. Thus the mind is a very special kind of electromagnetic system, existing in the time domain..." Bearden

Cosmology_
_Cosmology

_______________www.astronomy.com
Space-time singularity - revealed the mistake
A little mistake origins the space-time singularity in the general relativity theory of Einstein. Simple demonstration. It regards only limit conditions but offers extraordinarily consequences for cosmology and quantistic effects
Quote:
giovedì 14 giugno 2007

Since the first proposed solutions of the formulation of the Einstein general relativity theory, the singularities on the space-time that were discovered, were considered due to an excessive simplification of the models adopted. Further on, due also to their persistence for more complicated models and some exceptional experimental confirmations of the theory, those singularities have been accepted and besides considered the most sensational results of the theory itself.

Here below it is shown how those singularities arise from a little mistake due to an inappropriate extension of the special relativity results to limit conditions.

The General Relativity base hypothesis

The base hypothesis in the develop of the general relativity theory is that, whenever the coordinates system is properly chosen, the special relativity equations remain still valid for infinitesimal four-dimensional regions of space-time. At this purpose one need to choose the acceleration of the local coordinate system in such a way he doesn’t see any gravitational field; that is possible for an infinitesimally small region only.


However the reference to the extension of the spatial and temporal regions introduces an incongruence, as these extensions are relatives and depend from the motion conditions of the observer. One could think that if a spatial and temporal region is infinitesimal for one observer it should be infinitesimal for all the other too. But it’s not true, because a very small region for one observer can be big and even infinite for another one.


Mathematically the base hypothesis of the general relativity can be expressed saying that the space-time interval between two events, as below defined, remain constant for any local observer for which does not exist any gravitational field.


(1) ds2 = dx12 + dx22 + dx32 - dt2 = dl2 - dt2


A free falling observer with a caliper to measure length and a clock, evaluates the distance between two events as dl and dt. Another observer moving fast with respect to the first, and in the same portion of space and at the same time will evaluate the distance between the same two events as dl’ and dt’, much bigger and leaning to infinite with the increase of the relative velocity.
In a flat and infinite space the space-time distance shall be the same, but in presence of a gravitational field and velocity approaching c shall be different, and therefore the equation (1) is not valid for all the observers.

With the introduction of the imaginary time dx4 so that

dx42 = - dt2


Minkowski has made the invariant theory for the continuum four-dimensional formally similar to the theory of the invariant for the Euclidean three-dimensional space.


However the fact that x4 is imaginary causes a great difference with respect to the three-dimensional space. Two points (i.e. two events in the space-time) very closed each other, can have the space and time coordinates very far and at limits infinitively far.
This depends on their motion conditions.All the points on a real plan that are at the same distance from the origin of any reference system, are placed on a circle of radius equal to the distance itself. The value of each coordinate remains always less or at limit equal to the distance considered. On the contrary on an imaginary plane dl / idt all the points at the same distance from the origin lay on a hyperbole.


Of course the distance does not vary, by definition, but if you rotate the reference system, the respective coordinates can become very high and also infinitive.In case of extreme velocity and gravitational fields, it's not possible to define the infinitesimal zones where the special relativity remains still valid. Two spatial-temporal events infinitesimally closed, can be, under extreme conditions, finite and also infinitively extended.In those conditions one cannot consider still valid the special relativity theory, being so possible only for infinitesimal zones.


From the mathematical point of view, the mistake is on the following passage:

In order to express the equation (1) referred to a general coordinates system X1, X2, X3, X4, not local but that cover a finite zone of space of which for example we want to describe the gravitational effect of the bodies inside it, we need to linearize the relations between the local and the general reference systems as follows:



dxv = Ss avs dXs (Ss summatory base s)

and therefore the equation (1) can be expressed with respect to the general coordinate system as:

ds² = Svs gvs dXv dXs




The parameters gxx , that depend on X1, X2,X3,X4 describe the gravitational field in the whole finite zone of the general observer.



However the linearization of the relation between the two coordinate systems is valid only for minimal variation of the coordinates dxv, and not for finite or above all infinite variation as happens in the limit cases considered above.


The space-time singularity as consequence


The singularities in the space-time found inside the models based on the general relativity theory derive from this incongruity.
For a free falling system in a gravitational field, without rotations and at very high speed, the special theory of relativity cannot be applied. The energy associated to the motion is less and above all is not infinite for velocity approaching the light speed.
Let’s think to the difference existing between a system traveling at the speed of light in a flat and infinite space, and a system that is reaching the same velocity at the entrance of a black hole.
In the first case, due to the length contraction the observer is at the same time present in the whole infinite space (and therefore has an infinite energy). Not in the second case; the observer is simply on the border of a black hole and it takes to him a finite time to reach it. It’s not at the same time present everywhere (according to his time of course) in an infinite space. He has therefore a finite energy, becoming smaller and smaller as the diameter of the black hole decreases.
The mistake with respect to the predictions of the general relativity, that is very insignificant for even very massive bodies but far from the condition 2MG/R=1, shows a basic difference with respect to the so called gravitational collapse.


Let’s consider a very massive body in a static condition for which the parameter 2MG/R is just a little more than 1. The general relativity theory overestimates the gravitational potential in the proximity of the surface of the body that would lean to infinite as 2MG/R approaches to 1.


A mass m << M on the surface of M would undergo a gravitational interaction whose potential energy is given by:

Ep = mc²/( Sqrt(1-V²/c²)-1)



The potential energy is therefore less and does not tend to infinite for V -> c. It would tend to infinite only for M-> infinite.
The pressure in the centre of the body is more than the one foreseen by the Newtonian gravity, but does not sort out in a gravitational collapse.
Expressed in different way, the small black holes cannot exist, but only the big ones and without singularities inside.



Which upshots?


This little mistake could seem to regard only a very limited case and not have real consequences on the behavior of the matter. But it’s not true. It involves a big modification in the concept o mass itself, as well as with regards many cosmological occurrences.

The mass of a body is the parameter that characterizes its interaction with the space-time regarding the gravitational viewpoint as well as the inertial one. Such interaction is not however immediate as it needs to propagate at the finite velocity of light.
And this must be true also regarding the inertial aspect. Hence the mass cannot be consider as a scalar entity equal to the ratio from the applied force and the consequent acceleration, but must be represented in a more complex way. The special relativity describes the behavior of a motion in a steady state and in flat space big enough to have the transient completed, actually as more extended as higher is the velocity involved.

This aspect shall be shown in a forthcoming article where shall be demonstrated that taking into account this aspect of the inertial interaction of a body with the space-time one can give a physical account of the quantistic behavior of the matter and the so much searched connection between the two theories.

For the time being, as a demonstration of the potentiality this little mistake can have, we shall report only the following considerations regarding some cosmological aspects.


The space at the border of a gravitational system applies an expansive action as bigger as 2MG/R approaches the value 1, with all the cosmological aspects this can originate.
Common matter can scatter from a missed gravitational collapse. Let’s consider a gravitational system with the value 2MG/R close to 1. As said before a small black hole cannot exist, but only a big one. Such a system must be of a very important mass and with internal pressure that determines very condensed state of the matter (like neutrons or quarks density). When the mass increases again also the dimension R of the system increases proportionally. The density inside becomes consequently lower and lower until these condensed states of the matter can decay into common matter. This could be the case of galaxies and clusters.
Also regarding the formation of the solar system many possibilities come out. The most accredited theory regarding the formation of our solar system from the rests of a supernova explosion shows some difficulties:
A disk or lens shape of the system is does not conform to an origin by aggregation. Besides some left portion of the supernova core should still exist not so far from us.
The mass is nearly all made of hydrogen and helium in the proportion actually identical to the primordial one.
The sun represents more than the 98% of the total mass of the system, and in spite of this has only the 2% of the total angular moment. Actually it should spin much faster if deriving from the aggregation of supernova rest.
A neutron star with the mass of our sun has a ratio 2MG/R = close to 0,5. As the mass increases the general relativity theory foreseen the gravitational collapse for a mass starting from 1.4 times the sun mass (the rotation is very important at this regard)
In absence of the collapse he mass can be much higher. From two to four times the solar mass the density decreases and the neutron core can decay in proton and electrons and create a normal matter with a big delivery of gravitational energy. The outside layer of the star (mainly made of iron) shall be sprayed around on the rotation plan end it will start to concentrate in planets. The inside core shall become for the most part hydrogen and helium and in a well defined portion. The spinning speed will decrease of about 2000 times the original speed due to the expansion.


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Emptiness is Full

This amazing discovery announces that the "emptiness" of empty space is in fact not empty, but a great ocean of seething energy!

____
Fig.2 Illustration of Huygens' principle.
A Novel Hyperlanguage DNA Code (read with All-One Hadron, too)


Scratch no more: Gene for itch sensation discovered
Published: 20 hours ago,
July 25, 2007 - www.physorg.com
Itching for a better anti-itch remedy? Your wish may soon be granted now that scientists at Washington University School of Medicine in St. Louis have identified the first gene for the itch sensation in the central nervous system. The discovery could rapidly lead to new treatments directly targeting itchiness and providing relief for chronic and severe itching.

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Old 27-07-2007, 06:40 PM   #25
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edit, you are the most intelligent person on this forum with regards to this stuff. if you were a chick i'd marry ya, lol here check this out

http://www.phys.uu.nl/~huygens/cosmotheoros_en.htm

Cosmotheoros (1698)

During the last years of his life, Christiaan Huygens worked on a "philosophical treatise", addressed to his brother Constantijn, which contained his speculations on the construction of the universe and the habitability of the planets as deduced from his own observations and those of other astronomers.

Although he first planned to write this work in French, he later decided to publish it in Latin instead. Christiaan Huygens finished his manuscript in January 1695 and wrote to Constantijn that he had also found a publisher. On 4 March he wrote to Constantijn that the first page had already been printed but that the printer had not progressed any further. However, Christiaan's health was rapidly deteriorating and on 8 July he passed away. In his last will, drawn up on 23 March, he requested Constantijn to see to it that his book was published.

Unfortunately, Constantijn's duties as secretary to the stadholder-king William III often necessitated his presence in London and the printing of the book progressed slowly. Constantijn too passed away (on 12 November 1697) before it was finished and the last stages of the printing were overseen by the Leiden professor of mathematics and physics Burchard de Volder.

Shortly after the Latin edition of the Cosmotheoros was published by the The Hague publisher Adriaan Moetjens, translations appeared in English (1698) and in Dutch (1699). In the following years, translations also appeared in French (1702), German (1703), Russian (1717) and in Swedish (1774).

This online edition is based on the English translation printed in 1698 by the London publisher Timothy Childe. The identity of the translator is unknown.

The spelling of this edition has been followed and has not been altered to suit modern taste or conventions. The pagination in this edition is given in red numerals between square brackets.

The following table of contents is largely based on the rubrics printed in the margins of the text::

Title Page
To the Reader
The Publisher to the Reader

Book 1
Some have already talk'd of the Inhabitants of the Planets, but went no farther
The Objections of ignorant Cavillers prevented
These Conjectures do not contradict the holy Scriptures
This Enquiry not overcurious
Conjectures not useless, because not certain
These Studies useful to Religion
Copernicus's System explain'd
Arguments for the truth of it
The Proportion of the Magnitude of the Planets, in respect of one another, and the Sun
The Lamellæ more convenient than Micrometers
The Earth justly liken'd to the Planets, and the Planets to it
Arguments from their Similitude of no small weight
The Planets are solid, and not without Gravity
Have Animals and Plants
Not to be imagin'd too unlike ours
Planets have Water
But not just like ours
Plants grow and are nourish'd there as they are here
The same true of their Animals
Great variety of Animals in this Earth
And no less in the Planets
The same in Plants
Rational Animals in the Planets
Vices of Men no hindrance to their being the Glory of the Planet they inhabit
Reason not different from what 'tis here
They have Senses
Sight
Hearing
A Medium to convey Sound to the Ear
Touch
Smell and Tast
Their Senses not very different from ours
They have Pleasure arising from the Senses
All the Planets have Fire
The bigness of their Creatures not rightly guest at by the bigness of the Planets
In the Planets are many sorts of rational Creatures as well as here
Men chiefly differ from Beasts in the study of Nature
They have Astronomy
And all its subservient Arts
Geometry and Arithmetick
And Writing
And Opticks
These Sciences not contrary to Nature
They have Hands
And Feet
That they are upright
It follows not therefore that they have the same shape with us
A rational Soul may inhabit another Shape than ours
The Planetarians not less than we
They live in Society
They enjoy the pleasures of Society
They have Houses to secure 'em from Weather
They have Navigation, and all Arts subservient
As Geometry
They have Musick
The Advantages we reap from Herbs and Animals
And from Metals
From the discoveries of our Age
The Planets have, tho not these same, yet as useful Inventions

Book 2
Kircher’s Journey in Ecstacy examin’d
The System of the Planets in Mercury
In Venus
In Mars
Jupiter and Saturn the most eminent of the Planets both for bigness and attendants
The proportion of the Diameter of Jupiter, and of the Orbs of his Satellites, to the Orbit of the Moon round the Earth
The periods of Jupiter’s Moons
And Saturn’s
This proportion true according to all modern Observations
The apparent magnitude of the Sun in Jupiter, and a way of finding what light they there enjoy
And in Saturn
In Jupiter their days are 5 hours
Always the same length
They see the fixt Stars just as we do
The appearances of the Ring in Saturn
Very little to be said of the Moon
The Guards of Jupiter and Saturn are of the same nature with our Moon
The Moon hath Mountains
But no Sea, nor Rivers, nor Clouds, nor Air and Water
The Conjecture of its Plants and Animals very dubious
Jupiter's and Saturn's Moons turn always the same side to them
The Astronomy of the Inhabitants of the Moon
This may be applied to the Moons about Jupiter and Saturn
The immense distance between the Sun and Planets illustrated
No ground for Conjecture in the Sun
The Faculæ in the Sun not easily seen
By reason of its Heat no Inhabitants like ours can live in the Sun
The fix'd Stars so many Suns
They are not all in the same Sphere
The Stars have Planets about them like our Sun
A way of making a probable guess at the distance of the Stars
Every Sun has a vortex round it, very different from those of Cartes

The text of the Latin edition of 1698 is also available with a French translation and commentary in the online edition of the Oeuvres Complètes [vol. 21, pp. 653-842].
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Old 27-07-2007, 07:00 PM   #26
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edit, you are the most intelligent person on this forum with regards to this stuff. if you were a chick i'd marry ya, lol here check this out...

Thank you & in any case In Mars
Quote:
In Mars

But Mars, as I said before, has some Parts of him darker than other some. By the constant Returns of which his Nights and Days have bin found to be of about the same length with ours. But the Inhabitants have no perceivable difference between Summer and Winter, the Axis of that Planet having very little or no inclination to his Orbit, as has bin discover’d by the Motion of his Spots. Our Earth must appear to them almost as Venus doth to us, and by the help of a Telescope will be found to have its Wane, Increase, and Full, like the Moon: and never to remove from the Sun above 48 Degrees, by whose discovery they see it, as well as Mercury and Venus, sometimes pass. They as seldom see Venus as we do Mercury. I am apt to believe, that the Land in Mars is of a blacker hue than that of Jupiter or the Moon, which is the reason of his appearing of a Copper Colour, and his [112] reflecting a weaker Light than is proportionable to his distance from the Sun. His Body, as I observ’d before, tho farther from the Sun, is less than Venus. Nor has he any Moon to wait upon him, and in that, as well as Mercury and Venus, he must acknowlege himself our inferiour. His Light and Heat is twice, and sometimes three times less than ours, to which I suppose the Constitution of his Inhabitants is answerable.
http://www.phys.uu.nl/~huygens/cosmotheoros_en.htm

Cosmotheoros (1698)



The text of the Latin edition of 1698 is also available with a French translation and commentary in the online edition of the Oeuvres Complètes [vol. 21, pp. 653-842].
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Old 27-07-2007, 07:10 PM   #27
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dude/sis, you are too cryptic for me, over me head, its wonderful, but challenging. men are from mars, women from venus? you are a shrinks dream, lol only joking. its nice to be in awe of something, humbled, as i rarely am, nice 1.
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Old 17-10-2007, 04:20 PM   #28
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Default Irish Atlant..

Irish company claims wave power success

A prototype wave energy converter has begun harnessing electricity from Atlantic waves off the west coast of Ireland, the Wavebob company said on Tuesday.

Link (Physorg News Published:October 16, 2007)



"This is a giant leap forward for renewable energy production in Ireland," said Wavebob chief executive Andrew Parish.

"As an island in the middle of the energetic Atlantic Ocean, Ireland can be to wave-energy what Saudi Arabia is to oil.

"The more we exploit this unlimited natural resource, the better it will be, not just for the global environment, but also for the Irish consumer's pocket," he said.

The quarter-scale prototype device involved in the trials is not connected to the national grid.

At full scale, each Wavebob device will be capable of producing in excess of a megawatt -- enough electricity for 1,000 homes.

Part of the strategy of Ireland's Energy Minister, Eamon Ryan, a member of the Green Party, is to have 500 megawatts of ocean energy installed by 2020.

Wavebob has invested more than 4.0 million euros (5.7 million dollars) in research and development over the past six years.

The company's partners include Chevron, Georgia Tech Research Institute, University College Cork and National University of Ireland, Maynooth.

© 2007 AFP
» Next Article in Technology - Energy: Mirror technology propels 2007 U-M Solar Car team
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Old 09-01-2008, 09:34 PM   #29
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Published: 3 hours ago, 13:54 EST, January 09, 2008

physorg.com/new

Integral discovers the galaxy’s antimatter cloud is lopsided



The left-hand panel shows the glow of 511 keV gamma rays coming from the annihilation of electrons by their antimatter counterparts, the positrons. The map shows the entire sky, with the galactic centre at the middle. The emission can be seen extending towards the right-hand side of the map. The right-hand panel shows the distribution of hard low mass X-ray binary stars. This stellar population has a distribution that matches the extent of the 511 keV map. Credits: ESA/ Integral/ MPE (G. Weidenspointner et al.)

The shape of the mysterious cloud of antimatter in the central regions of the Milky Way has been revealed by ESA’s orbiting gamma-ray observatory Integral. The unexpectedly lopsided shape is a new clue to the origin of the antimatter.

The observations have significantly decreased the chances that the antimatter is coming from the annihilation or decay of astronomical dark matter.

Georg Weidenspointner at the Max Planck Institute for Extraterrestrial Physics and an international team of astronomers made the discovery using four-years-worth of data from Integral. The cloud shows up because of the gamma rays it emits when individual particles of antimatter, in this case positrons, encounter electrons, their normal matter counterpart, and annihilate one another.

One signature of positron-electron annihilation is gamma rays carrying 511 thousand electron-volts (keV) of energy. There has been a vigorous debate about the origin of these positrons ever since the discovery of the 511 keV emission from the centre of the galaxy by gamma-ray detectors flown on balloons during the 1970s.

Some astronomers have suggested that exploding stars could produce the positrons. This is because radioactive nuclear elements are formed in the giant outbursts of energy, and some of these decay by releasing positrons. However, it is unclear whether these positrons can escape from the stellar debris in sufficient quantity to explain the size of the observed cloud.

Other astronomers wondered whether more exotic processes were at work. From earlier results using much less data, the positron cloud seemed to be spherical and centred on the centre of the galaxy. Such a shape and position corresponds to the expected distribution of dark matter in the centre of our galaxy, so it was suggested that dark matter was annihilating or decaying into pairs of electrons and positrons, which then annihilated to produce the gamma rays.
The trouble with this idea, however, was that the dark matter particles needed to be much less massive than most theories were predicting.

The new results give astronomers a valuable new clue and point away from dark matter as the origin of the antimatter. Beyond the galactic centre, the cloud is not entirely spherical. Instead it is lopsided with twice as much on one side of the galactic centre as the other. Such a distribution is highly unusual because gas in the inner region of the galaxy is relatively evenly distributed.

Equally importantly, Integral found evidence that a population of binary stars is also significantly off-centre, corresponding in extent to the cloud of antimatter. That powerfully suggests these objects, known as hard (because they emit at high energies) low mass X-ray binaries, are responsible for a major amount of antimatter.

A low mass X-ray binary (LMXB) is a celestial system in which a relatively normal star is being eaten alive by a nearby stellar corpse, either a neutron star or a black hole. The gravitational field of the stellar corpse is so strong that it rips gas from the normal star. As this gas spirals down towards that object, it is heated so much that positron-electron pairs can be spontaneously generated in the intense radiation field, although the 511 keV emission is probably too weak to be detected from individual LMXBs by Integral.

“Simple estimates suggest that about half and possibly all of the antimatter is coming from the X-ray binaries,” says Weidenspointner. The other half could be coming from a similar process around the galaxy’s central black hole and the various exploding stars there. He points out that the lop-sided distribution of hard LMXBs is unexpected, as stars are distributed more or less evenly around the galaxy. More investigations are needed to determine whether the observed distribution is real.

Integral is currently the only mission that can see both the 511 keV radiation and the hard LMXBs. Weidenspointner and colleagues will be watching keenly to see whether it discovers more LMXBs and, if so, where they are located.

“The link between LMXBs and the antimatter is not yet proven but it is a consistent story,” says Weidenspointner. It has real astrophysical importance because it decreases the need for dark matter at the centre of our galaxy.

‘An asymmetric distribution of positrons in the galactic disk revealed by gamma rays’ by Georg Weidenspointner et al. is being published today, 10 January, in the journal Nature.

Source: ESA
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Old 09-01-2008, 09:34 PM   #30
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Ramana Maharshi: "Language is only a medium for communicating one's thoughts to another. It is called in only after thoughts arise; other thoughts arise after the 'I'-thought rises; the 'I'-thought is the root of all conversation. When one remains without thinking one understands another by means of
the universal language of silence
."
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Old 09-01-2008, 11:08 PM   #31
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Quote:
SPIRE, the Spectral and Photometric Imaging Receiver, is a submillimetre camera and spectrometer for the European Space Agency’s Herschel Space Observatory. It comprises a three-band imaging photometer operating at 250, 360 and 520 mm, and an imaging Fourier Transform Spectrometer (FTS) covering 200-670 mm. The detectors are arrays of feedhorn-coupled NTD spider-web bolometers cooled to 0.3 K. The photometer field of view of is 4 x 8 arcmin, observed simultaneously in the three spectral bands. The FTS has an approximately circular field of view with a diameter of 2.6 arcmin., and employs a dual-beam configuration with broad-band intensity beam dividers to provide high efficiency and separated output and input ports. The spectral resolution can be adjusted between 0.04 and 2 cm-1 (resolving power of 20-1000 at 250 mm). The flight instrument is currently undergoing integration and test. The design of SPIRE is described, and the expected scientific performance is summarised, based on modelling and flight instrument test results.
Keywords: Herschel, Far Infrared, Submillimetre, Instrumentation

Herschel Far Infrared
SubmillimetreInstrumentation




ORBIT:
Lissajous orbit about the second Lagrange point of the Earth-Sun system (L2)



Lagrange point

Study the formation of galaxies in the early universe and their subsequent evolution
Investigate the creation of stars and their interaction with the interstellar medium
Observe the chemical composition of the atmospheres and surfaces of comets, planets and satellites
Examine the molecular chemistry of the universe



SPIRE


http://www.astro.cf.ac.uk/groups/ins...ts/?page=spire

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Old 09-01-2008, 11:25 PM   #32
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Originally Posted by edit View Post

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Old 09-01-2008, 11:39 PM   #33
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How Many of You Are Experiencing These Symptoms Of Ascension?
-Kat Mama
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Old 10-01-2008, 05:33 AM   #34
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Hi Edit, Yup! bang on with the Joy Yaxk'n ascension writings!! been there, done that!! still get dizzy, but not as often. The weepies have gone and I think I'm cruising into No. 7.
Thanks for that!!

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Old 10-01-2008, 01:56 PM   #35
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: )

Quantum leap in technology to unravel 'cosmic web' of universe

Scientists believe that a quantum leap in computing power and the development of powerful new telescopes will soon unravel the "cosmic web," a theory by which the universe is bound by invisible threads of "dark matter."

Full story »


_Integral discovers the galaxy’s antimatter cloud is lopsided, Physics / Physics
The shape of the mysterious cloud of antimatter in the central regions of the Milky Way has been revealed by ESA’s orbiting gamma-ray observatory Integral. The unexpectedly lopsided shape is a new clue to ...


Ancestors of Milky Way-Type Galaxies Found, Analyzed
National Geographic News, January 9, 2008___
but...
Hey what's that LOOP?
"You Are HERE"

______
Hercules is one of about a dozen constellations that..

.. moved out, too...
see there >>

..........The bottom of the... "Complexes of Galaxies"

see ^andromeda^
......
& yes !

we learned from that clay & !


hear here..


& see : M
we, too, are
moving out
of that...
Milky Way
now see
Motions


: )

Last edited by edit; 10-01-2008 at 06:02 PM. Reason: the mysterious cloud of antimatter
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Old 11-01-2008, 01:53 AM   #36
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Solar system sails sideways through galaxy
We're pitched at angle and not oriented parallel to plane of Milky Way
By Ker Than
Staff Writer


updated 12:04 p.m. ET May 15, 2007



This image shows the locations of Voyagers 1 and 2. Voyager 1 is traveling a lot and has crossed into the heliosheath, the region where interstellar gas and solar wind start to mix.
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Old 13-01-2008, 03:16 PM   #37
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The Right Woman RSS
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www.godlikeproductions The Right Woman
Quote

When I was 14, I hoped that one day I would have a girlfriend.

When I was 16 I got a girlfriend, but there was no passion, so I decided I needed a passionate girl with a zest for life.

In college I dated a passionate girl, but she was too emotional. Everything was an emergency; she was a drama queen, cried all the time and threatened suicide. So I decided I needed a girl with stability.

When I was 25 I found a very stable girl but she was boring. She was totally predictable and never got excited about anything. Life became so dull that I decided that I needed a girl with some excitement.

When I was 28 I found an exciting girl, but I couldn't keep up with her. She rushed from one thing to another, never settling on anything. She did mad impetuous things and made me miserable as often as happy. She was great fun initially and very energetic, but directionless. So I decided to find a girl with some real ambition.

When I turned 31, I found a smart ambitious girl with her feet planted firmly on the ground and married her. She was so ambitious that she divorced me and took everything I owned.

I am older and wiser now, and am looking for a girl with big tits.


SubarcticBeef
User ID: 221410
1/13/2008 11:08 AM
Re: The Right Woman Quote



Anonymous Coward
User ID: 308393
1/13/2008 11:12 AM Re: The Right Woman Quote



http://www.godlikeproductions.com/fo...sage488109/pg1
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Old 13-01-2008, 04:39 PM   #39
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http://news.bbc.co.uk/2/hi/science/nature/7179256.stm
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Old 13-01-2008, 04:49 PM   #40
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12. How dreams are produced
When REM sleep begins, all the areas that were turned off in NREM sleep gear up except one; the logical, reasoning portion of the prefrontal cortex.
So, effectively, your brain is activated save the portion that controls logic and reason.

13. How dreams are produced
This is why our dreams seem so real but appear to be a hallucinatory world, much like that of a waking schizophrenic.
In fact, brain imaging studies have shown that the functional anatomy of dreaming is almost identical to that of a schizophrenic psychosis, except that for dreamers, the visuospatial system is highly charged while the audioverbal system is highly charged in schizophrenics (i.e. hearing voices).
Solms and Turnbull’s The Brain and the Inner World, pg 213

14. How dreams are produced
While dreaming, most importantly, the limbic system, responsible for the brain’s long term emotional center is highly active during REM sleep…effectively driving the boat of your dream (stimulated 15% above waking levels).
The amygdala, a structure in the brain responsible for the “fight or flight” response, is part of the limbic system that is highly active during sleep.
The amygdala is also an important structure in memory, particularly long term emotional memory.

15. How dreams are produced
With the emotional memory center of your brain driving the boat and the logic and reason part of your brain not even a passenger, it is no wonder dreams will frequently have an emotionally charged, hallucinatory, even psychotic nature to them.
While dreaming, thoughts are linked through emotion, not logic.

16. How dreams are produced
The visual cortex is shut down but the visual association area is active above waking levels, which is the area of the brain that is involved in creating mental images and recognizing faces.
This is why dreams are so richly visual, but if someone pries open your eyelids and shines a light in your eyes, you won’t see it.

17. How dreams are produced
Development of visual imagination are a prerequisite for vivid dreaming.
Studies looking at children’s dreams showed that children younger than age 5 typically consist of brief, bland static images (animals, eating, sleeping, or daytime activities).
Between 5 and 8 years of age, dreams become more complex but it is not to around age 11 where dreams take on the characteristic complex plot lines like that of adults.
David Folkes. Taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pp 31-38.

18. How dreams are produced
Not until the age of 7 can children form visual imagery in waking consciousness, which means they don’t have the capacity to do the same while dreaming.
As children develop greater visuospatial cognitive capacity and imagination and a clearer understanding of “self,” their capacity to dream develops as well.

19. How dreams are produced
“With the emergence of active self-representation, of autobiographical memory, and of a sensed self that lends continuity to experience, the human person emerges. We dream because we have achieved consciousness.” David Folkes. Taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pp 31-38.

20. How dreams are produced
Throughout sleep, the area of the brain that is responsible for putting memories in sequential order and to temporarily store on-going events (short term memory) is turned off.
Also, the chemicals involved in memory formation (NE and Serotonin) are lacking and therefore we typically don’t remember our dreams unless we wake up during or right after a dream. J. Allan Hobson (taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pg 20.)

21. How dreams are produced
Dr. Allen Braun has theorized that dreams are imprinted in our brain which is why we sometimes will see something in our waking day which reminds us of a fragment of a dream from the previous night that we have no true recollection of.
Taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pg 52.

22. How dreams are produced
Brain structures involved in long-term memory formation and retrieval are more active than when we are awake (i.e. your kindergarten teacher riding next to you on the way to the football game).


23. How dreams are produced
So, the structures that we rely on in our brain for our waking construct of reality are only partially turned on during dreaming sleep, with the rational, logical part of our brain turned off.
The chemicals which help us to focus attention and stay on track are in short supply.
Additionally, we rely upon internal input (i.e. our brain), rather than external input (i.e. our senses…sight, smell, etc) for our mental construct during dreaming.

24. How dreams are produced
It is important to remember though that dreams are like thoughts; from whence they originate, no one knows….

25. Why we dream
No one knows for sure:
Evolutionary Theories
Memory and Learning Consolidation Theories
Brain development & neural networking
Mood regulation theories
Maintaining and redefining self

26. Why we dream
One theory suggests that dreaming has evolved as a time to rehearse out behaviors that are essential to survival during waking hours.
Most frequent drama reported during dreaming, across all cultures (including small tribal societies) is being pursued by someone or something. Tore Nielson; Taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pg 68.

27. Why we dream
That dreams, at least in part, are actually genetically encoded survival-related data inherited from lower species.
A “virtual reality” testing ground to simulate threatening scenarios in a safe place.
Hence, REM-sleep paralysis evolved.
-Antii Revonsuo; Taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pg 71.

28. Why we dream
Infants are in REM sleep about 50% of the time.
What is likely happening is that REM sleep is actually help development of neural circuitry that will help pass along this genetically encoded information.

29. Why we dream
Memories are formed by activating specific, interconnected brain cells (neurons) that tie together a memory. When a memory is replayed, it reactivates the firing pattern of those same neurons and causes an anatomical change in which the connections grow stronger the more they are replayed….transforming short term memories to long-term ones.

30. Why we dream
Memory consolidation during dreaming evolved as the brains of mammals evolved to higher cognitive functioning with increased ability to plan and decision-make.
Allowed integration of lessons learned while awake without requiring larger brain matter to facilitate the processing of the information (i.e. enormous prefrontal cortex)
Jonathan Winson; Taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pg 68.

31. Why we dream
Crick and Mitcheson propose the idea of “reverse learning”, a memory reorganizing, where extraneous information makes its way into dream material on its way out of the memory stores….
Francis Crick and Graeme Mitchison. The Function of Dream Sleep.

32. Why we dream
As we sleep, our brains are working hard to save the experiences that we will carry around with us for the remainder of our lives by replaying variations of the event…while less important events receive little attention, thus paving the way for forgetting. Daniel Schacter

33. Why we dream
Rosalind Cartwright theorizes that dreaming plays a part in mood regulation, helping us process negative emotions so that we wake up in a better mood than when we went to sleep.
Studies have showed that 2/3 of emotions in dreams are negative.
By playing out negative emotions during dreaming, we are working through, resolving, and integrating these emotions so that we are better equipped to deal with the source of our conflict in our waking lives.

34. Why we dream
Support for this theory was found in the difference of dreams in a study of people going through marital breakups. Those who were able to recover and get on with their lives had significantly different dreams than those who remained mired in depression.
Rosalind Cartwright. Taken from The Mind at Night. Rock, A. pg 102.
Text of PowerPoint slides used by Dr. Leibowitz at February 2, 2005 A.W.A.K.E. meeting.
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