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Old 09-02-2015, 10:44 PM   #336
lightgiver
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Arrow Timur


A Timurid era illustration of Emir Timur..
Quote:
Timur was born in Transoxiana, near the City of Kesh (an area now better known as Shahrisabz, "the green city"), some 80 kilometres (50 mi) south of Samarkand in modern-day Uzbekistan, part of what was then the Chagatai Khanate.. His father, Taraqai, was a minor noble belonging to the Barlas tribe.. The Barlas were originally a Mongol tribe that became Turkified..According to Gérard Chaliand, Timur was a Muslim but he saw himself as Genghis Khan's heir.. Though not a Chinggisid or a descendent of Genghis Khan, he clearly sought to invoke the legacy of Genghis Khan's conquests during his lifetime..Later Timurid dynastic histories claim that he was born on 8 April 1336, but most sources from his lifetime give ages that are consistent with a birthdate in the late 1320s.. Historian Beatrice Forbes Manz suspects the 1336 date was an invention designed to tie Timur to the legacy of Abu Sa'id Bahadur Khan, the last ruler of the Ilkhanate descended from Hülegü, who died in that year..At the age of eight or nine, Timur and his mother and brothers were carried as prisoners to Samarkand by an invading Mongol army...


Timur defeating the Mamluk Sultan Nasir-ad-Din Faraj of Egypt...

In 1400 Timur invaded Christian Armenia and Georgia.. Of the surviving population, more than 60,000 of the local people were captured as slaves, and many districts were depopulated..Then Timur turned his attention to Syria, sacking Aleppo and Damascus..The city's inhabitants were massacred, except for the artisans, who were deported to Samarkand..He invaded Baghdad in June 1401.. After the capture of the city, 20,000 of its citizens were massacred.. Timur ordered that every soldier should return with at least two severed human heads to show him.. (Many warriors were so scared they killed prisoners captured earlier in the campaign just to ensure they had heads to present to Timur)..After the Ankara victory, Timur's army ravaged Western Anatolia, with Muslim writers complaining that the Timurid army acted more like a horde of savages than that of a civilized conqueror.. But Timur did take the city of Smyrna, a stronghold of the Christian Knights Hospitalers, thus he referred to himself as ghazi or "Warrior of Islam"..He ruled over an empire that, in modern times, extends from southeastern Turkey, Syria, Iraq, and Iran, through Central Asia encompassing part of Kazakhstan, Afghanistan, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Georgia, Turkmenistan, Uzbekistan, Kyrgyzstan, Pakistan, and even approaches Kashgar in China...

The conquests of Timur are claimed to have caused the deaths of up to 17 million people, an assertion impossible to verify..Of Timur's 4 sons, two (Jahangir and Umar Shaykh) predeceased him..Markham, in his introduction to the narrative of Clavijo's embassy, states that his body "was embalmed with musk and rose water, wrapped in linen, laid in an ebony coffin and sent to Samarkand, where it was buried." His tomb, the Gur-e Amir, still stands in Samarkand, though it has been heavily restored in recent years..By 1368 the new Chinese Ming Dynasty had driven the Mongols out of China.. The first Ming Emperor Hongwu and his son Yongle demanded and received, homage from many Central Asian states as the political heirs to the former House of Kublai..Timur preferred to fight his battles in the spring.. However, he died en route during an uncharacteristic winter campaign against the ruling Chinese Ming Dynasty.. It was one of the bitterest winters on record.. His troops are recorded as having to dig through 5 feet of ice to reach drinking water..Just before his death, Timur designated his grandson Pir Muhammad ibn Jahangir as his successor.. However, his other descendants did not abide by this wish, and spent the next 15 years engaged in violent infighting..Timur had numerous epistolary and diplomatic exchanges with various European states, especially Spain and France..Timur's legacy is a mixed one.. While Central Asia blossomed under his reign, other places such as Baghdad, Damascus, Delhi and other Arab, Georgian, Persian, and Indian cities were sacked and destroyed and their populations massacred.. He was responsible for the effective destruction of the Christian Church in much of Asia.. Thus, while Timur still retains a positive image in Muslim Central Asia, he is vilified by many in Arabia, Persia, and India, where some of his greatest atrocities were carried out..

It is alleged that Timur's tomb was inscribed with the words, "When I rise from the dead, the world shall tremble".. It is also said that when Gerasimov exhumed the body, an additional inscription inside the casket was found reading, "Who ever opens my tomb, shall unleash an invader more terrible than I"..In any case, the same day Gerasimov begun the exhumation, Adolf Hitler launched Operation Barbarossa, the largest military invasion of all time, upon the USSR..Timur was re-buried with full Islamic ritual in November 1942 just before the Soviet victory at the Battle of Stalingrad...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Timur
http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...9&postcount=65Anything in life worth doing is worth overdoing.. Moderation is for cowards..There ain't nothing I can't do.. No sky too high, no sea too rough, no muff too tough...http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=447

Last edited by lightgiver; 09-02-2015 at 10:48 PM.
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