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Old 01-02-2015, 08:08 PM   #333
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Lightbulb Umar

The Hijrah of Mohammed and other earlier Muslim migrations...
Umar was born in Mecca to the Banu Adi clan, which was responsible for arbitration among the tribes.. His father was Khattab ibn Nufayl and his mother was Hantama bint Hisham, from the tribe of Banu Makhzum.. He is said to have belonged to a middle-class family.. In his youth he used to tend to his father's camels in the plains near Mecca.. His merchant father was famed for his intelligence among his tribe.. Umar himself said: "My father, Al-Khattab was a ruthless man.. He used to make me work hard; if I didn't work he used to beat me and he used to work me to exhaustion"..According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Umar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling..

In 610 Muhammad started preaching the message of Islam.. Like many others in Mecca, Umar opposed Islam and he even threatened to kill Muhammad.. He resolved to defend the traditional polytheistic religion of Arabia. He was adamant and cruel in opposing Muhammad and very prominent in persecuting Muslims.. He recommended Muhammad's death.. He firmly believed in the unity of the Quraish and saw the new faith of Islam as a cause of division and discord..Due to persecution, Muhammad ordered some of his followers to migrate to Abyssinia.. As a small group of Muslims migrated Umar became worried about the future unity of the Quraish and decided to have Muhammad assassinated..Umar converted to Islam in 616, one year after the Migration to Abyssinia. The story was recounted in Ibn Ishaq's Sīrah.. On his way to murder Muhammad, Umar met his best friend Na'eem bin Abdullah who had secretly converted to Islam but had not told Umar.. When Umar informed him that he had set out to kill Muhammad, Na'eem feared the worst..

When Basra was established during Umar's rule, he started building canals for conveying drinking water and for irrigation.. Al-Tabari reports that 'Utba ibn Ghazwan built the first canal from the Tigris River to the site of Basra when the city was in the planning stage.. After the city was built, Umar appointed Abu Musa Ashaari as its first governor.. Abu Musa Ashaari governed during the period 17-29/638 – 650.. He began building two important canals linking Basra with the Tigris River.. .These were al-Ubulla River and the Ma'qil River. The two canals were the basis for the agricultural development for the whole Basra region and used for drinking water.. Umar also devised the policy of cultivating barren lands by assigning such lands to those who undertook to cultivate them.. This policy continued during the Umayyad period and it resulted in the cultivation of large areas of barren lands through the construction of irrigation canals by the state and by individuals..Abu Ubaidah died in 639 due to plague, which also cost the lives of 25,000 Muslims in Syria...

The Migration to Abyssinia ( الهجرة إلى الحبشة‎ al-hijraʾilā al-hābsḥa) or the First Hijrah ( هِجْرَة‎ hijrah, or hijrat) was an episode in in the early history of Islam when, according to Islamic tradition, two groups, totalling more than a hundred persons, of the Prophet Mohammed's first followers (the Sahabah) fled from the persecution of the ruling Quraysh tribe of Mecca..They sought refuge in the Aksumite Empire, modern-day Ethiopia (formerly referred to as Abyssinia, a name derived from the Arabic Al-Habash), for nearly 15 years, from 7 BH (615 CE) to AH 7 (628/629).. The Aksumite monarch of the time, known in Arabic as Ashama ibn Abjar (who historians generally associate with the historical and contemporary monarch Armah), was a Christian who was considered to be "well-known for being a just and God-fearing man"..Some sources suggest that the Muslims emphasised their veneration of Jesus and reverence for the Virgin Mary while downplaying the more distinct practices of Islam, such that they could have been perceived as an obscure Arabian Christian group by the Aksumite court, as opposed to followers of a distinct religion..The lineage of Abu Bakr joined that of Muhammad in the 8th degree in their common ancestor Murrah ibn Ka'b... a few guys came from these wealthy families, but it was full of crooks anyway.. The more expensive a school is, the more crooks it has...

Last edited by lightgiver; 01-02-2015 at 08:48 PM.
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