View Single Post
Old 01-07-2014, 05:47 PM   #9
lightgiver
Senior Member
 
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: Inactive
Posts: 36,483
Likes: 235 (188 Posts)
Lightbulb Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus



Quote:
MRSA is a bacterium responsible for several difficult-to-treat infections in humans.. It is also called oxacillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (ORSA). MRSA is any strain of Staphylococcus aureus that has developed, through the process of natural selection, resistance to beta-lactam antibiotics, which include the penicillins (methicillin, dicloxacillin, nafcillin, oxacillin, etc.) and the cephalosporins.. Strains unable to resist these antibiotics are classified as methicillin-sensitive Staphylococcus aureus, or MSSA. The evolution of such resistance does not cause the organism to be more intrinsically virulent than strains of Staphylococcus aureus that have no antibiotic resistance, but resistance does make MRSA infection more difficult to treat with standard types of antibiotics and thus more dangerous..S. aureus most commonly colonizes the anterior nares (the nostrils).. The rest of the respiratory tract, open wounds, intravenous catheters, and the urinary tract are also potential sites for infection.. Healthy individuals may carry MRSA asymptomatically for periods ranging from a few weeks to many years. Patients with compromised immune systems are at a significantly greater risk of symptomatic secondary infection..In most patients, MRSA can be detected by swabbing the nostrils and isolating the bacteria found inside. Combined with extra sanitary measures for those in contact with infected patients, screening patients admitted to hospitals has been found to be effective in minimizing the spread of MRSA in hospitals in the United States, Denmark, Finland, and the Netherlands...

MRSA (1318191) may progress substantially within = 24–48 hours of initial topical symptoms..After 72 hours, MRSA can take hold in human tissues and eventually become resistant to treatment.. The initial presentation of MRSA is small red bumps that resemble pimples, spider bites, or boils; they may be accompanied by fever and, occasionally, rashes. Within a few days, the bumps become larger and more painful; they eventually open into deep, pus-filled boils.. About 75 percent of community-associated (CA-) MRSA infections are localized to skin and soft tissue and usually can be treated effectively.. Some CA-MRSA strains display enhanced virulence, spreading more rapidly and causing illness much more severe than traditional healthcare-associated (HA-) MRSA infections, and they can affect vital organs and lead to widespread infection (sepsis), toxic shock syndrome, and necrotizing ("flesh-eating") pneumonia. This is thought to be due to toxins carried by CA-MRSA strains, such as PVL and PSM, though PVL was recently found not to be a factor in a study by the National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases (NIAID) at the National Institutes of Health. (NIH) It is not known why some healthy people develop CA-MRSA skin infections that are treatable while others infected with the same strain develop severe infections or dye...

Some of the populations at risk:

. People with weak immune systems
. Diabetics
.Intravenous drug users
.Users of quinolone antibiotics
.Young children
.The elderly
.College students living in dormitories..
.Woman with frequent UTIs or kidney infections due to infections in the bladder-People staying or working in a health care facility for an extended period of time..
.People who spend time in coastal waters where MRSA is present, such as some beaches in Florida and the west coast of the United States-People who spend time in confined spaces with other people, including occupants of homeless shelters and warming centers, prison inmates, military recruits in basic training, and individuals who spend considerable time in changerooms or gyms..Veterinarians, livestock handlers, and pet owners..

Alcohol has been proven to be an effective surface sanitizer against MRSA. Quaternary ammonium can be used in conjunction with alcohol to extend the longevity of the sanitizing action..The prevention of nosocomial infections involves routine and terminal cleaning. Non-flammable Alcohol Vapor in Carbon Dioxide systems (NAV-CO2) do not corrode metals or plastics used in medical environments and do not contribute to antibacterial resistance..In healthcare environments, MRSA can survive on surfaces and fabrics, including privacy curtains or garments worn by care providers. Complete surface sanitation is necessary to eliminate MRSA in areas where patients are recovering from invasive procedures. Testing patients for MRSA upon admission, isolating MRSA-positive patients, decolonization of MRSA-positive patients, and terminal cleaning of patients' rooms and all other clinical areas they occupy is the current best practice protocol for nosocomial MRSA..Studies published from 2004-2007 reported hydrogen peroxide vapor could be used to decontaminate busy hospital rooms, despite taking significantly longer than traditional cleaning. One study noted rapid recontamination by MRSA following the hydrogen peroxide application..Also tested, in 2006, was a new type of surface cleaner, incorporating accelerated hydrogen peroxide, which was pronounced "a potential candidate" for use against the targeted microorganisms..Care should be taken when trying to drain boils, as disruption of surrounding tissue can lead to larger infections, or even infection of the blood stream (often with fatal consequences)..In the hospital setting toilet seats are a common vector for infection, and wiping seats clean before and/or after use can help to prevent the spread of MRSA. Door handles, faucets, light switches (with care!), etc. can be disinfected regularly with disinfectant wipes..Studies suggest that allicin, a compound found in garlic, may prove to be effective in the treatment of MRSA..It has been reported that maggot therapy to clean out necrotic tissue of MRSA infection has been successful. Studies in diabetic patients reported significantly shorter treatment times than those achieved with standard treatments..Cannabinoids (components of Cannabis sativa), including cannabidiol (CBD), cannabinol (CBN), cannabichromene (CBC), tetrahydrocannabinol (THC) and cannabigerol (CBG), show activity against a variety of MRSA strains..Oakin, an Oak extract, has been shown to start killing MRSA immediately and reaches 99.2% at 6 hours, sustaining that kill rate for 48 hours (max time tested)..A June 2008 report, centered on a survey by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, concluded that very
poor hygiene habits remain the principal barrier to significant reductions in the spread of MRSA..
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tea_tree_oil
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Methici...ococcus_aureus
http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=492We take Pete's car, we drive over to Mum's, we go in, take care of Philip - "I'm so sorry, Philip" - then we grab Mum, we go over to Liz's place, hole up, have a cup of tea and wait for this whole thing to blow over..If we hole up, I wanna be somewhere familiar, I wanna know where the exits are, and I wanna be allowed to smoke... http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=856

Last edited by lightgiver; 01-07-2014 at 05:50 PM.
lightgiver is offline   Reply With Quote