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Old 13-09-2009, 05:49 PM   #348
mikesingh
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Quote:
Originally Posted by majorion View Post
One thing is for sure, there are far more gravitational anomalies or MASCONS spread out on the far side. Which would confirm John's theory about the farside definitely having an atmosphere and being a completely different habitat than the near.

I hate to say it, but John Lear was right about everything!
Beware! This is going to be long! From my earlier thread on ATS....

The Big NASA-Military Cover-up On Gravity And Atmosphere On The Moon!



A spectacular picture of the moon taken by the Clementine 1 spacecraft.
The haze effect is caused by dust in the lunar atmosphere.
Courtesy: The livingmoon


Two photographs of the Moon taken by the Lick observatory a few days apart. The first is pretty clear, but the second seems to be obscured by clouds and haze. This points to an atmosphere on the Moon…..




LICKOBSA Lick Observatory, 1946 January 17d 07h 51m UT
Pics courtesy: Thelivingmoon



“...Apollo 8 ... now presently 33,681 [nautical] miles [62,377 km] from the Moon and moving in a Moon related velocity [of] 3,989 feet per second [1,216 m/s]. For the first time, a crew is literally out of this world. At 55 hours, 42 minutes into the mission, this is Apollo Control, Houston."

While I’m a firm believer that we did go to the Moon after all, it wasn’t the Apollo program that was the first to put man on the Moon. Some aspects of the program, probably much of it, were staged and the remainder hidden from the public. It perhaps was a top secret military program that did it. After a little research, I chanced upon an extremely interesting book written by William Brian titled, Moongate: The Suppressed Findings Of The U.S. Space Program. It exposes the greatest cover-up ever perpetrated. The author has compiled evidence from official government publications, NASA photographs and movies, news articles, and books by authorities in various fields.

I checked out various other sources especially the aspect of gravity and the likelihood of an atmosphere on the Moon, this is what turned up.

Quote:
(In the book) Many aspects of the space program are mathematically and conceptually analyzed to verify the cover-up from a scientific standpoint. Moongate is written for the layman and scientist alike, with mathematical calculations included in the
appendices.

Although absolute certainty cannot be given about the details of the cover-up, the evidence demonstrates that either the contentions are true, or portions of the Apollo Moon landings were staged. It seems probable that the landings really occurred; however, the true circumstances surrounding the Apollo missions and related discoveries were carefully suppressed from the public.
William L. Brian II
It is apparent that the military was and is in constant control of the entire NASA space program and much of the NASA-related information is highly classified. The public was only given enough information to convince most that men had landed on the Moon. The majority of details and discoveries regarding the project were carefully suppressed.

I will only touch upon two main aspects concerning gravity and the atmosphere on the Moon. The calculations in the book prove beyond doubt that the gravity on the Moon is not one-sixth, but two-thirds that of Earth! Can the Moon therefore have an atmosphere? Yes it can and does, and needless to say, the implications are mind boggling!


Gravity On The Moon

Orthodox science has always contended that the Moon is a completely airless world. The primary reason has been that the Moon's weak one-sixth gravity would be unable to hold much of an atmosphere. But does it have just one-sixth the gravity of the Earth?

Quote:
The fundamental law defined by Isaac Newton in 1666 concerning gravity will be shown to be incorrect when applied to planetary bodies. Consequently, the first attempts to explore the Moon with space probes produced unexpected results.
Evidence from the early space probes that Lunar gravitational gradient calculations were possibly flawed:

• The United States and the Soviet Union started to send probes to the Moon in the late fifties. Most of these initial probes met with failure due to a miscalculation of the lunar gravitational gradient.

• The American Ranger space probes were designed to hard land on the Moon. Ranger 3, launched on January 26, 1962, missed its target completely and went into solar orbit. Ranger 4 hit the Moon but did not send back any useful information. Ranger 5 missed the moon by 450 miles and the whole program was put on hold for two years.

• Luna 5, launched on May 9, 1964, crashed at full speed on the Moon, when it was intended to make a soft landing. Luna 6 utterly missed the Moon. Luna 7 crashed on the Moon when it's retro rockets fired too soon, which is a significant detail in relation to where one assumes the Moon's center of gravity to be located in relation to the surface. Miscalculation of the moon's gravitational gradient cannot therefore be ruled out as a reason for the too early start time of Luna 7's landing rocket motor.

• Luna 8 also crashed on the Moon, but Luna 9 was successful, and became the first spacecraft to soft land on the Moon.

Quote:
Lunar probes from both the United States and the Soviet Union were more successful after this. This cannot most likely be attributed to some sudden advance in the quality of the hardware or telemetry methods of both space programs, whereas it is much more likely to be a result of recalculation of the lunar gravitational gradient.
Newton could not determine accurately the Moon's mass to predict the Moon's force of attraction on other objects. Its mass was later calculated to be about 1/82 of the Earth's. In turn, the Moon's derived mass and the Earth's predicted mass were used to calculate the Moon's surface gravity which came out to be one-sixth of Earth's. Since the Moon is a much smaller body than Earth, it did not seem unreasonable to scientists that it should have a correspondingly smaller surface gravity.

The Neutral Point

This is a ‘point’ where a spacecraft enters the zone of the Moon's gravity. It is the region in space where the Earth's force of attraction equals the Moon's. The average distance to the Moon is approx 239,000 miles, hence based upon Newton's Universal Law Of Gravitation, it places the neutral point about 23,900 miles from the Moon's center. A number of scientists have calculated this as the neutral point using Newton's Gravitation Law and the Moon's mass expressed as 1/83 of the Earth's mass, though some variations were a result of the calculations based on the Earth-Moon distance as well as their masses.


The conventional position of the neutral point between the Earth and
the Moon, as given in the book ‘Principles of Astronautics’, written in 1965, by
Fellow of the British Interplanetary Society, M. Vertregt.
Courtesy: Moongate


In any case, the range of neutral point distances to the Moon's center is between 22,078 and 25,193 miles with the assumption that the Moon has one-sixth of Earth's surface gravity. But do note that these neutral point distances are based upon Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation.

Quote:
Most of the writers who referenced them were probably unaware of space program findings regarding the neutral point's real location.
Moongate
That said, let’s see where exactly the neutral point should be.

The Neutral Point Discrepency

Quote:
In reference to Apollo 11, Time magazine gave the following neutral point
information in the July 25, 1969 issue: At a point 43,495 miles from the moon, lunar gravity exerted a force equal to the gravity of the earth, then some 200,000 miles distant.
Was this an error by Time Magazine? Let’s corroborate this a little further.

In the 1969 edition of History of Rocketry & Space Travel by Wernher von Braun and Frederick I. Ordway III, the following statement is made concerning Apollo 11:

Quote:
The approach to the Moon was so precise that the midcourse correction scheduled for 8:26 a.m. (EDT) on the 19th was canceled. At a distance of 43,495 miles from the Moon, Apollo 11 passed the so-called "neutral" point, beyond which the Lunar gravitational field dominated that of Earth.

Consequently, the spacecraft, which had been gradually losing speed on its long coast away from Earth, now began to accelerate. Note that the precision of the flight was so great that the mid-course correction was not needed. In addition, the neutral point distance is given to the nearest mile and agrees exactly with the value given previously by Time magazine.
Let’s now take a reputable source, the Encyclopedia Britannica that stated the following in the 1973 printing within the topic, "Space Exploration":

Quote:
The Apollo 11 spacecraft had been in Earth orbit at 118.5 mi. altitude, traveling at 17,427 mph. By firing the rocket motor at the exact moment when the spacecraft was precisely aligned along the proper trajectory, the velocity was increased to 24,200 mph. Because the Earth's gravitational pull continued to act upon the spacecraft during its two and three-quarters day (64 hr.) journey toward the Moon, the spacecraft velocity, with respect to the Earth, dwindled to 2,040 mph at a distance of 39,000 mi. from the Moon.

At this point lunar gravitational attraction became greater than the Earth's and the spacecraft commenced accelerating as it swung toward and around the far side of the Moon, reaching a speed of 5,225 mph. By firing the spacecraft rocket propulsion system the velocity was reduced to 3,680 mph and the spacecraft entered an elliptical orbit about the Moon. Here the distance is 39,000 miles which is still close to the values given by Time magazine and von Braun!
Here’s more corroboration:

Quote:
In We Reach the Moon, Wilford indicated that the spacecraft entered the lunar sphere of gravitational influence about 38,900 miles from the Moon.

In Footprints on the Moon written in 1969 by the Writers and Editors of the Associated Press, the neutral point is described as follows: Friday, Day Three of the mission, found Apollo 11 at the apex of that long gravitational hill between earth and the moon. At 1:12 p.m. EDT, the nose-to-nose spaceships passed the milestone where the moon's gravity becomes the more important influence. The astronauts were 214,000
miles from earth, only 38,000 miles from their rendezvous with the moon.
The Moon's surface gravity can be calculated with the new figures shown above using the standard inverse-square law technique, where the only aspect of Newton's Law of Gravitation seems valid. Since the Earth's pull equals the Moon's pull at the neutral point, the inverse-square law results in the Moon's surface gravity to be 64 percent of the Earth's surface gravity, not the one-sixth value predicted by Newton's Law of Universal Gravitation!

Quote:
The publicized period and velocity values are not supportive of a 43,495-mile neutral point distance from the Moon. They support the old neutral point distances and the Moon's weak one-sixth gravity. Therefore, official information is inconsistent and contradictory, indicating a cover-up. The question is why the real neutral point distance leaked out. Did some of the NASA people try to sabotage the cover-up?
Implications

Now if the Moon’s gravity was 2/3rd and NOT 1/6th the Earth’s, then the additional fuel requirements for a landing on the Moon and lift off under the high lunar gravity become horrendous:

• Firstly, the ascent stage would have to weigh 7.2 times the empty weight, or 34,560 pounds.
• Secondly, the fuel required to soft-land the fully loaded ascent stage would increase the Lunar Module's total weight to approximately 250,000 pounds.

Therefore, the LM would be nearly as large as the Titan 2 rocket which weighed 330,000 pounds and was 103 feet tall! But the LM supposedly weighed only 33,200 pounds!

Therefore it would be safe to conclude that if men really landed on the Moon in high lunar gravity conditions, it was not done with rockets! Was there something more than meets the eye here? Was it advanced technology researched by us or reverse engineering of alien technology? And if the Moon has 1/3rd Earth’s gravity, then it is more than likely that it has an atmosphere too! And if it has, it throws the window wide open! Is it therefore a cover-up by the NASA-Military combine?

And what of the astronauts performing on the Moon having a high gravity? Their display of jumping ability wouldn't even come close to anticipated results. Let’s check out some vids to substantiate this.

Evidence Of Gravity On The Moon

Were there any extraordinary feats performed by the astronauts on the Moon having a gravity of just 1/6th that of Earth’s? No. Well, there should have been considering that a 180-pound man would weigh a mere 30 pounds on the Moon!

If an astronaut were to jump vertically in one-sixth gravity with the same effort expended on Earth, the initial velocity would be greater than on Earth. Therefore, the astronaut would reach more than six times higher. Here we see astronauts jump just about one foot, whereas they should have attained a height of at least six feet! There’s not even one pic that shows this! Have a look at this now….


Running

As shown: Slo mo?


Double speed: Actual?


The jump


Now here’s how high the astronaut should have reached on the jump due to 1/6th gravity. Check out the yellow arrows I’ve marked in the frame grab.



The Moon Buggy

Observe the bouncing around of the buggy and the dust trail. Most uncharacteristic of a low gravity Moon environment! Though the commentator insists the vid was taken on Earth, I feel it was taken on the Moon with an atmosphere and 2/3rd Earth’s gravity! Check out the dust trail. With 1/6th gravity, the dust plumes should have gone some 60 feet high and floated off behind for a considerable distance, but they’re less than 10 feet high and hit the surface almost immediately! And dust ‘waves’ produced in the wake of the buggy can only be produced in an environment having an atmosphere!


Notice the height of the dust plume.

Check out the vid here….


An Atmosphere For The Moon

• The Moon buggy had inflatable tires which would have exploded if pre-inflated if there was no atmosphere on the Moon! They had their tires inflated with nitrogen.


This pic shows the Lunar Rover on the Moon, and there on the
rear wheel can be seen the tire valve for inflation!
Courtesy: Apollo Reality


• It would have been impossible to have a water cooled space suit on the Moon, when outside temperature was already at boiling point of water, there would be no where for the heat to dissipate. But water cooled suits are a viable proposition in an environment where atmosphere is present!

The Puzzle of the Immense Clouds of Water Vapor on the Dry Moon

The few lunar excursions indicated that the moon was a very dry world. One lunar expert said that it was "a million times as dry as the Gobi Desert." The early Apollo missions did not find even the slightest trace of water. But after Apollo 15, NASA experts were stunned when a cloud of water vapor more than 100 square miles in size was detected on the moon's surface.

Embarrassed NASA scientists suggested that two tiny tanks, abandoned on the moon by U.S. astronauts, had somehow ruptured. Huh? Could they have produced a cloud of such magnitude? Nor would the astronauts' urine, which had been dumped into the lunar skies, be an answer.

The water vapor appears to have come from the moon's interior, according to NASA. Mists, clouds and surface changes have allegedly been seen on the moon over the years by astronomers. For instance, six astronomers in the last century have claimed to have seen a mist which obscured details in the floor of the crater Plato. According to many conventional scientists and NASA, clouds on the moon are extremely odd, as the moon's supposed 1/6th gravity could not hold an atmosphere or have any clouds on it at all.

But now you know!!

So why is NASA hiding the facts and not wanting to divulge the truth? The Moon and Mars may have had a civilization (Mars perhaps still does) and disclosing this to the public could result in horrific consequences. And for another, the secret military space program could be using back engineered alien technology to shuttle to and from the Moon as a matter of course. After all, there are exotic resources like titanium and Helium 3/4 that are there for the taking.

NASA says it will be back on the Moon by 2020, a good 50 years after the last Moon shot. They’re right. As a purely civilian space program, it’s going to take them more than a decade to achieve the technological know-how of the Military space program which has probably been making use of back engineered alien technology to shuttle between Earth and its nearest neighbor as a matter of course! Was the Military-NASA space collaboration terminated after Apollo 17?

Parting Shot!

And here we see an Apollo 17 astronaut making emergency repairs on the buggy’s fender with duct tape (How he did that with his gloves on is debatable!).


Ok. So far, so good. Now check out the pic where the repair has been done. There are foot marks near the fender, BUT WHAT HAPPENED TO THE BUGGY’S TIRE MARKS? How did it get there? Was the buggy placed there by a crane? This has nothing to do with gravity or an atmosphere, but shows the hidden side of what NASA did or did not do.


Courtesy: ApolloReality

And then what about the MASCONS (Mass Concentrations of gravity)?

Quote:
The gravity field of the moon has been investigated since 1966 when the Russian Luna 10 was placed in orbit around the moon and provided dynamical proof that the oblateness of the moon's gravitational potential was larger than the shape predicted from hydrostatic equilibrium. Soon thereafter, Muller and Sjogren differentiated the Doppler residuals from Lunar Orbiter (LO)-V to produce a nearside gravity map that displayed sizable positive gravity anomalies within the large circular mare basins. These positive anomalies, located in nearside equatorial regions with low topography, showed areas with mass concentrations (or "mascons") in the lunar interior.
Gravity Anomaly detected by using 4-way Doppler observation data from the RSTAR (OKINA) (RSAT)-New finding in study on the Origin of Dichotomy for the Moon

Quote:
JAXA announced a new finding of a gravity anomaly for both the near side and far side of the Moon by using 4-way Doppler observation data from the RSTAR (OKINA) with the main orbiter, the KAGUYA.

Until now, the gravity anomaly of the far side of the Moon has not been understood well. The gravity anomaly, which was obscure before, has been clearly revealed through observations by the Kaguya mission. For instance, the gravity anomaly of a basin on the far side is found to be characterized by a negative anomaly in a ring like the Apollo basin. On the other hand, the gravity anomaly of the basin on the near side is uniformly positive over the region such as with the Mare Serenitatis. Thus, the clear difference in gravity anomaly on the near side and the far side has been newly discovered and this fact brings a different story about the structure of the underground and the history of the evolution of the far side and near side of the Moon.

The latest observation data by the Kaguya will play a key role to promote the study of the origin and the evolution of the Moon. In addition, highly accurate lunar gravity distribution data will be useful for future lunar explorers.
And then we have LCROSS that lost more than half of its propellant trying to stabilize its orbit due to gravitational anomalies on the Moon. And what of Chandrayaan-1 which had to be lifted from a 100km to 200km orbit? Because the Lunar gravity (and probably the MASCONS) was playing havoc with its stability.

Now let's see what happened during the Apollo 16 PFS-2 experiment:

Quote:
Near the end of the mission of Apollo 16, on April 24, 1972, just before returning back home to Earth, the three astronauts released one last scientific experiment: a small "subsatellite" called PFS-2 to orbit the Moon about every 2 hours.

The intention? Joining an earlier sub-satellite PFS-1, released by Apollo 15 astronauts eight months earlier, PFS-2 was to measure charged particles and magnetic fields all around the Moon as the Moon orbited Earth. The low orbits of both sub-satellites were to be similar ellipses, ranging from 55 to 76 miles (89 to 122 km) above the lunar surface.

Instead, something bizarre happened.

The orbit of PFS-2 rapidly changed shape and distance from the Moon. In 2-1/2 weeks the satellite was swooping to within a hair-raising 6 miles (10 km) of the lunar surface at closest approach. As the orbit kept changing, PFS-2 backed off again, until it seemed to be a safe 30 miles away. But not for long: inexorably, the sub-satellite’s orbit carried it back toward the Moon. And on May 29, 1972—only 35 days and 425 orbits after its release—PFS-2 crashed.
”It was Saturday December 9 (1972), and we were in the Moon’s firm hold, about 38,000 miles out and drawing closer by the moment.”
Eugene Cernan “The Last Man On the Moon,” Copyright 1999 Eugene Cernan and Don Davis.


Cheers!


http://www.exopolitics.org.uk/index2...d=71&Itemid=84
http://www.thelivingmoon.com/47john_...ral_Point.html
http://www.thelivingmoon.com/43ancie...tmosphere.html
http://home1.gte.net/poofalow/moon11.htm
http://www.allbusiness.com/defense-a...6231012-1.html
http://www.keelynet.com/unclass/luna.htm
http://apolloreality2.bravehost.com/
http://www.jaxa.jp/press/2008/04/20080416_kaguya_e.html
http://lunar.arc.nasa.gov/printerrea...s/dopp-ge.html
http://science.nasa.gov/headlines/y2...v_loworbit.htm[/quote]

Last edited by mikesingh; 14-09-2009 at 03:40 AM.
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