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Old 20-11-2009, 07:50 PM   #44
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Documentations and Inputs from Professor Zhaomei Zeng on the selection of the 84 (42‐pairs of
urban‐rural) stations used in the 1990 GRL and 1990 Nature papers
Prepared by
Wei‐Chyung Wang, SUNY‐Albany

Background: Because the station history for 49 out of the 84 (42‐pairs of urban‐rural) stations used in
the 1990 GRL and 1990 Nature papers were not included in the 1991 DOE data report, charge of “fabrication and/or misrepresentation” was raised about the statement of “few, if any, changes…In location” made in the two papers. In 14 February 2008, the Inquiry Committee expressed need for “documentations and inputs from the Respondent’s coauthor……necessary to allow for any clear determination” on the charge.

Actions: After receiving the Inquiry Committee report on 18 February 2008, I immediately communicated with Professor Zhaomei Zeng (the co‐author of both 1990 GRL paper and 1991 DOE data report), who made the statement. Currently, although retired from the Institute of Atmospheric Physics (IAP)/Chinese Academy of Sciences, she continues conducting research at IAP. Inputs: Professor Zeng sent me a description (in Chinese) of the criteria for station selection with a Table marked with the status of station moves for each station of the 84‐stations. Her input is attached below as an Appendix. Key points are noted here:
• Out of the 4,000 stations, 60‐ and 205‐ station networks were selected based on the “station
history” considering the following factors: data length; number of site moves; data gaps; spatial
representation, etc. While the station history was included in the 1991 DOE report for the 60‐
station network, they were not included in the 205‐station network (published in 1993 DOE
report which Professor Zeng is also a co‐author) due partly to its not being a requirement under
the US‐China agreement, and partly to the huge effort coupled with inadequate resources
(manpower and hardware) to digitize them.
• The 84‐stations are a subset of the 60‐ and 205‐stations datasets with 35‐stations from the 60‐
station dataset, and 49‐stations from the 205‐station dataset. Note that while the station
history of the 35‐stations was used by Professor Zeng in compiling the number of station moves
in the Table included in the Appendix, the 49‐stations (most rural stations) are based on her
recollection (together with checking against the present‐day station location), simply because
the original station history manuscripts (archived at IAP) and her detailed notes were no longer
available due to several office moves over the almost 19‐years time span.
• Below is a summary using Professor Zeng’s inputs for easy apprehension:
# of Station moves
# of Stations
(total 35‐stations)
# of stations
(total 49‐stations)
No 8 17
1 15 13
2 8 11
3 3 0
4 1 0
No longer remember ‐‐‐ 8
Conclusions: From the inputs provided by Professor Zeng, it is quite clear that she (1) had access to
the station history when compiling the 60‐ and 205‐stations datasets, and (2) used the criteria of “few, if
any, changes in…location” to select the 84‐stations used in the 1990 GRL and 1990 Nature papers. The
charge of “fabrication and/or misrepresentation” is false.
Other Relevant Notes:
On 18 February 2008, Professor Jones (Lead author of the 1990 Nature paper) sent me a manuscript,
“Urbanization effects in large‐scale temperature records, with an emphasis on China” which was
recently submitted to J. Geophysical Research for publication. In the paper, The most relevant finding is
that comparing the 42‐rural station data used in the 1990 GRL and Nature papers with those adjusted
for homogeneity of a 728‐station network yield very much the same results, implying that the station
moves, if any, really did not matter when a representative set of stations (here 42‐stations) was used.
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