View Single Post
Old 02-07-2014, 07:11 PM   #12
Senior Member
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: Inactive
Posts: 36,483
Likes: 237 (190 Posts)
Lightbulb OTher Half

Enriched uranium was first manufactured in the early 1940s when the United States and Britain began their nuclear weapons programs.. Later in the decade, France and the Soviet Union began their nuclear weapons and nuclear power programs.. It was at this time that depleted uranium was first stored as an unusable waste product (uranium hexafluoride).. There was some hope that the enrichment process would be improved and fissionable isotopes of U-235 could, at some future date, be extracted from the depleted uranium. This re-enrichment recovery of the residual uranium-235 contained in the depleted uranium is no longer a matter of the future: it has been practiced for several years.. Also, it is possible to design civilian power-generating reactors using unenriched fuel, but only about 10% of those ever built (such as the CANDU reactor) utilize that technology. Both nuclear weapons production and naval reactors require fuel containing concentrated U-235..In the 1970s, the Pentagon reported that the Soviet military had developed armor plating for Warsaw Pact tanks that NATO ammunition could not penetrate. The Pentagon began searching for material to make denser armor-piercing projectiles.. After testing various metals, ordnance researchers settled on depleted uranium..The US and NATO militaries used DU penetrator rounds in the 1991 Gulf War, the Bosnia war, bombing of Serbia, and the 2003 invasion of Iraq..While clearing a decades-old Hawaii firing range in 2005, workers found depleted uranium fins from training rounds from the formerly classified Davy Crockett recoilless gun tactical battlefield nuclear delivery system from the 1960s and 1970s.. These training rounds had been forgotten because they were used in a highly classified program and had been fired before DU had become an item of interest,more than 20 years before the Gulf War...

Natural uranium metal contains about 0.71% U-235, 99.28% U-238, and about 0.0054% U-234.. In order to produce enriched uranium, the process of isotope separation removes a substantial portion of the U-235 for use in nuclear power, weapons, or other uses. The remainder, depleted uranium, contains only 0.2% to 0.4% U-235. Because natural uranium begins with such a low percentage of U-235, enrichment produces large quantities of depleted uranium. For example, producing 1 kg of 5% enriched uranium requires 11.8 kg of natural uranium, and leaves about 10.8 kg of depleted uranium with only 0.3% U-235 remaining..Some depleted uranium produced is stored as uranium hexafluoride, a crystalline solid, (D)UF6, in steel cylinders in open air storage yards close to enrichment plants. Each cylinder holds up to 12.7 tonnes (or 14 short tons) of UF6. In the U.S. 560,000 tonnes of depleted UF6 had accumulated by 1993. In 2008, 686,500 tonnes in 57,122 storage cylinders were located near Portsmouth, Ohio and Paducah, Kentucky..There have been several accidents involving uranium hexafluoride in the United States, including one in which 32 workers were exposed to a cloud of UF6 and its reaction products. 1 person died, and while a few workers with higher exposure experienced short-term kidney damage (e.g., protein in the urine), none of them showed lasting damage from the exposure to uranium..Depleted uranium is used as a tamper in fission bombs..Another use of depleted uranium is in kinetic energy penetrators,anti-armor rounds such as the 120 mm sabot rounds fired from the British Challenger 1, Challenger 2, M1A1 and M1A2 Abrams..Depleted uranium has a very high density and is primarily used as shielding material for other radioactive material, and as ballast. Examples include sailboat keels, as counterweights and as shielding in industrial radiography cameras..Consumer product uses have included incorporation into dental porcelain, used for false teeth to simulate the fluorescence of natural teeth, and uranium-bearing reagents used in chemistry laboratories (e.g. uranyl acetate, used in analytical chemistry and as a stain in electron microscopy)..Normal functioning of the kidney, brain, liver, heart, and numerous other systems can be affected by uranium exposure because, in addition to being weakly radioactive, uranium is a toxic metal, although less toxic than other heavy metals such as arsenic and mercury.. It is weakly radioactive but is 'persistently' so because of its long half-life...

When a DU penetrator reaches the interior of an armored vehicle it catches fire, often igniting ammunition and fuel, killing the crew and possibly causing the vehicle to explode. DU is used by the U.S. Army in 120 mm or 105 mm cannons employed on the M1 Abrams tank. The Russian military has used DU ammunition in tank main gun ammunition since the late 1970s, mostly for the 115 mm guns in the T-62 tank and the 125 mm guns in the T-64, T-72, T-80, and T-90 tanks...Depleted uranium is very dense; at 19,050 kg/m³, it is 1.67 times as dense as lead, only slightly less dense than Tungsten and Gold, and 84% as dense as osmium or iridium, which are the densest known substances under standard (i.e., Earth-surface) pressures.. Consequently a DU projectile of given mass has a smaller diameter than an equivalent lead projectile, with less aerodynamic drag and deeper penetration due to a higher pressure at point of impact..It is thought that between 17 and 20 countries have weapons incorporating depleted uranium in their arsenals..Some states and the International Coalition to Ban Uranium Weapons, a coalition of more than 155 non-governmental organizations, have asked for a ban on the production and military use of depleted uranium weapons.. DU projectile ordnance is often inherently incendiary because of its pyrophoric property..A pyrophoric substance (from Greek πυροφόρος, pyrophoros, "fire-bearing")
ignites spontaneously in air at or below 55°C (130°F)...

Horseshoe kidney, also known as ren arcuatus (in Latin), renal fusion or super kidney, is a congenital disorder affecting about 1 in 500 people..Edwards syndrome (also known as Trisomy 18(T18)) is a chromosomal disorder caused by the presence of all, or part of, an extra 18th chromosome..Trisomy 18 (47,XX,+18) is caused by a meiotic nondisjunction event.. With nondisjunction, a gamete (i.e., a sperm or egg cell) is produced with an extra copy of chromosome 18; the gamete thus has 24 chromosomes.. When combined with a normal gamete from the other parent, the embryo has 47 chromosomes, with 3 copies of chromosome 18..Abram is a masculine given name of Hebrew origin, meaning exalted father.. In the Bible it was the original name of the person later known as Abraham, the patriarch..Abram was called by G to leave his father Terah's house and native land of Mesopotamia in return for a new land, family, and inheritance in Canaan, the promised land. Threats to the covenant arose – difficulties in producing an heir, the threat of bondage in Egypt, of lack of fear of G – but all were overcome and the covenant was established.. After the death and burial of his wife, Sarah, in the grave that he purchased in Hebron, Abraham arranged for the marriage of Isaac to a woman from his own people....Abraham later married a woman called Keturah and had 6 more sons, before he died at the recorded age of 175 and was buried by his sons, Isaac and Ishmael..Terah, the 10th in descent from Noah, begat 3 sons, Abram (later called Abraham), Nahor and Haran. Haran begat Lot (who was thus Abram's nephew), and dyed in his native city, Ur of the Chaldees...,_Greater_Manchester the10th of June, a month short of his 33rd year, Alexander's great heart finally gave out..Within hours we were fighting like Jackals for his corpse.. The wars of the world had begun..40 years, off and on, they endured, until we divided his empire in 4 parts..I think Alexander would have been disappointed in us...

Last edited by lightgiver; 02-07-2014 at 07:14 PM.
lightgiver is offline   Reply With Quote