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Old 11-06-2015, 05:33 PM   #51
lightgiver
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Join Date: Apr 2008
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Arrow Caduceus Files


Berdychiv Coat of arms..

The U.S. Army Medical Corps Branch Plaque..

Flag of Vancouver Island..
Quote:
Berdychiv (Ukrainian: Бердичів, Polish: Berdycz√≥w, Russian: Берди́чев, Yiddish: בערדיטשעוו,) is a historic city in the Zhytomyr Oblast (province) of northern Ukraine..In 1430, Grand Duke of Lithuania Vitautas (великий князь литовський Вітовт) granted the rights over the area to Kalinik, the procurator (намісник) of Putyvl and Zvenigorod, and it is believed that his servant named Berdich founded a khutor (remote settlement) there. However the etymology of the name Berdychiv is not known..The banking industry was moved from Berdychiv to Odessa (a major port city) after 1850, and the town became impoverished again in a short period of time..

According to the census of 1789, the Jews constituted 75% of Berdychiv's population (1,951 out of 2,640, of whom 246 were liquor-dealers, 452 houseowners, 134 merchants, 188 artisans, 150 clerks and 56 idlers). In 1797, Prince Radziwill granted seven Jewish families the monopoly privilege of the cloth trade in the town.. Jews were a major driving force of the town's commerce in the first half of the 19th century, founding a number of trading companies (some traded internationally), banking establishments, and serving as agents of the neighboring estates of Polish nobility (szlachta)..In the 1920s, Yiddish language was officially recognized and in 1924, the first in Ukraine official law court to conduct its affairs in Yiddish was established in the city, but in the 1930s, the use of Yiddish was curtailed and all Jewish cultural activities were suspended before World War II.. A witness to a mass killing of the Jews in Berdychiv stated, "They had to wear their festivity-dresses.. Then, their clothes and valuables were taken.. The pits were dug and filled in by war prisoners who were executed shortly after...

The caduceus ( from Greek κηρύκειον kērukeion "herald's staff" ) is the staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology. The same staff was also borne by heralds in general, for example by Iris, the messenger of Hera.. It is a short staff entwined by two serpents, sometimes surmounted by wings..By extension of its association with Mercury and Hermes, the caduceus is also a recognized symbol of commerce and negotiation, two realms in which balanced exchange and reciprocity are recognized as ideals..The caduceus is often used incorrectly as a symbol of healthcare organizations and medical practice (especially in North America), due to confusion with the traditional medical symbol, the rod of Asclepius, which has only one snake and is never depicted with wings..It is relatively common, especially in the United States, to find the caduceus, with its two snakes and wings, used as a symbol of medicine...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berdychiv
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Colony_of_Vancouver_Island
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Last edited by lightgiver; 11-06-2015 at 06:00 PM.
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