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Old 28-06-2014, 03:08 PM   #3
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Posttraumatic stress disorder is classified as an anxiety disorder in the DSM iV; the characteristic symptoms are not present before exposure to the violently traumatic event. In the typical case, the individual with PTSD persistently avoids all thoughts and emotions, and discussion of the stressor event and may experience amnesia for it. However, the event is commonly relived by the individual through intrusive, recurrent recollections, flashbacks, and nightmares..The characteristic symptoms are considered acute if lasting less than 3 months, and chronic if persisting 3 months or more, and with delayed onset if the symptoms first occur after 6 months or some years later. PTSD is distinct from the briefer acute stress disorder, and can cause clinical impairment in significant areas of functioning..Persons considered at risk include combat military personnel, victims of natural disasters, concentration camp survivors, and victims of violent crime.. Individuals not infrequently experience "survivor's guilt" for remaining alive while others died. Causes of the symptoms of PTSD are the experiencing or witnessing of a stressor event involving death, serious injury or such threat to the self or others in a situation in which the individual felt intense fear, horror, or phowerlessness.. Persons employed in occupations that expose them to violence (such as soldiers) or disasters (such as emergency service workers) are also at risk..Children or adults may develop PTSD symptoms by experiencing bullying or Mobbing.. in the context of human beings means bullying of an individual by a group in any context, such as a family, friends, peers, school, workplace, neighbourhood, community, or online...

There is evidence that susceptibility to PTSD is hereditary. Approximately 30% of the variance in PTSD is caused from genetics alone. For twin pairs exposed to combat in Vietnam, having a monozygotic (identical) twin with PTSD was associated with an increased risk of the co-twin's having PTSD compared to twins that were dizygotic (non-identical twins).. There is also evidence that those with a genetically smaller hippocampus are more likely to develop PTSD following a traumatic event.. Research has also found that PTSD shares many genetic influences common to other psychiatric disorders. Panic and generalized anxiety disorders and PTSD share 60% of the same genetic variance. Alcohol, nicotine, and drug dependence share greater than 40% genetic similarities..Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) is the major inhibitory neurotransmitter in the brain.. A recent study reported significant interactions between 3 polymorphisms in the GABA alpha-2 receptor gene and the severity of childhood trauma in predicting PTSD in adults. A study found those with a specific genotype for G-protein signaling 2 (RGS2), a protein that decreases G protein-coupled receptor signaling, and high environmental stress exposure as adults and a diagnosis of lifetime PTSD. This was particularly prevalent in adults with prior trauma exposure and low social support..PTSD is a psychiatric disorder that requires an environmental event that individuals may have varied responses to so gene-environment studies tend to be the most indicative of their effect on the probability of PTSD then studies of the main effect of the gene. Recent studies have demonstrated the interaction between PFBP5 and childhood
environment to predict the severity of PTSD...

The platoon was originally a firing unit rather than an organisation. The system was said to have been invented by Gustavus Adolphus of Sweden in 1618.. In the French Army in the 1670s, a battalion was divided into 18 platoons who were grouped into 3 "firings"; each platoon in the firing either actually firing or reloading.. The system was used in the British, Austrian, Russian and Dutch..When it occurs as emotional abuse in the workplace, such as "ganging up" by co-workers, subordinates or superiors, to force someone out of the workplace through rumor, innuendo, intimidation, humiliation, discrediting, and isolation, it is also referred to as malicious, nonsexual, nonracial, general harassment..The Disasters of War (Spanish: Los Desastres de la Guerra) are a series of 82 prints created between 1810 and 1820 by the Spanish painter and printmaker Francisco Goya (1746–1828). Although Goya did not make known his intention when creating the plates, art historians view them as a visual protest against the violence of the 1808 Dos de Mayo Uprising, the subsequent Peninsular War of 1808–14 and the setbacks to the liberal cause following the restoration of the Bourbon monarchy in 1814. During the conflicts between Napoleon's French Empire and Spain, Goya retained his position as first court painter to the Spanish crown and continued to produce portraits of the Spanish and French rulers.. Although deeply affected by the WaR, he Kept private his thoughts on the art he produced in response to the conflict and its aftermath... superpowers often behave like 2 heavily armed blind men feeling their way around a room, each believing himself in mortal peril from the other, whom he assumes to have perfect vision.. Each side should know that frequently uncertainty, compromise, and incoherence are the essence of policymaking.. Yet each tends to ascribe to the other a consistency, foresight, and coherence that its own experience belies.. Of course, over time, even 2 armed blind men can do enormous damage to each other...

Last edited by lightgiver; 28-06-2014 at 03:10 PM.
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