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Old 23-06-2014, 09:45 AM   #485
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Eleanor of Aquitaine (French: Aliénor/Éléonore; 1122 or 1124 – 1 April 1204) was one of the wealthiest and most powerful women in western Europe during the High Middle Ages, a member of the Ramnulfid dynasty of rulers in southwestern France.. She became Duchess of Aquitaine in her own right while she was still a child, then later Queen consort of France (1137–1152) and of England (1154–1189). She was the patron of literary figures such as Wace, Benoît de Sainte-Maure, and Bernart de Ventadorn..Eleanor's succession to the duchy of Aquitaine in 1137 made her the most eligible bride in Europe..3 months after she became duchess, she married King Louis VII of France, son of her guardian, King Louis VI. As Queen of France, she participated in the unsuccessful 2nd Crusade. Soon after, Eleanor sought an annulment of her marriagebut her request was rejected by Pope Eugene III.. However, after the birth of her second daughter Alix, Louis agreed to an annulment in consideration of her failure to bear a son after 15 years of marriage.. The marriage was annulled on 11 March 1152 on the grounds of consanguinity within the 4th degree.. Their daughters were declared legitimate and custody was awarded to Louis, while Eleanor's lands were restored to her..As soon as the annulment was granted, Eleanor became engaged to Henry, Duke of Normandy, who became King Henry II of England in 1154.. Henry was her 3rd cousin (cousin of the 3rd degree), and nine years younger. The couple married on 18 May 1152 (Whit Sunday), eight weeks after the annulment of Eleanor's first marriage, in a cathedral in Poitiers, France.. Over the next 13 years, she bore Henry 8 children:5 sons, three of whom would become kings; and 3 daughters. However, Henry and Eleanor eventually became estranged. Henry imprisoned her in 1173 for supporting her son Henry's revolt against her husband, and she was not released until 1189 when Henry died (on 6 July), and their son ascended the English throne as Richard I..Now queen dowager, Eleanor acted as regent while Richard went on the 3rd Crusade where he was captured and held prisoner. Eleanor lived well into the reign of her youngest son John. By the time of her death, she had outlived all her children except for King John and Queen Eleanor of Castile.

Eleanor of England (Spanish: Leonor de Inglaterra; 13 October 1162 – 31 October 1214) was Queen of Castile and Toledo as wife of Alfonso VIII of Castile..She was the 6th child and 2nd daughter of Henry II of England and Eleanor of Aquitaine and received her first name as a namesake of her mother..She was born in the castle at Domfront, Normandy, and was baptised by Henry of Marcy. Her half-siblings were Marie and Alix of France, and her full siblings were Henry the Young King, Matilda, Richard the Lionheart, Geoffrey, Joan and John...When she was 14 years old, before 17 September 1177, Eleanor was married to King Alfonso VIII of Castile in Burgos.. The marriage had been arranged some years earlier; the couple were betrothed in 1170 but, because of Eleanor’s youth at that time, the wedding was delayed.. The purpose of the marriage was to secure Aquitaine’s Pyrenean border. It is often repeated that the duchy of Gascony was her dowry, but there is no historical foundation for that claim. It is highly unlikely that Henry II would have parted with so significant a portion of his domains. At most, Gascony may have been pledged as security for the full payment of his daughter’s dowry.. Decades later, her great-grandson Alfonso X of Castile would claim the duchy on the grounds that her dowry had never been fully paid..A queen dowager, dowager queen or queen mother (compare: princess dowager, dowager princess, or princess mother) is a title or status generally held by the widow of a king. In the case of the widow of an emperor, the title of empress dowager is used.. Its full meaning is clear from the 2 words from which it is composed:QUeen indicates someone who served as queen consort (i.e. wife of a king), while dowager indicates a woman who holds the title from her deceased husband. (A queen who rules in her own right and not due to marriage to a king is a queen regnant.) Currently there are 3 queens dowager, Fabiola of Belgium, Noor of Jordan and Halaevalu Mataʻaho ʻAhomeʻe of Tonga. Queen Ratna of Nepal was queen dowager and queen mother until the abolition of the Nepalese Monarchy in 2008..The Nepalese royal massacre occurred on 1 June 2001, at a house in the grounds of the Narayanhity Royal Palace, then the residence of the Nepalese monarchy. It is believed that the heir to the throne, Prince Dipendra, killed nine members of his family and himself.. The dead included King Birendra of Nepal and Queen Aishwarya..On 11 June 2001, a Hindu katto ceremony was held to exorcise or banish the spirit of the dead King from Nepal.. A brahmin Durga Prasad Sapkota, dressed as Birendra to symbolise the late King, rode an elephant out of Kathmandu and into symbolic exile, taking many of the actual belongings of the King with him...Many Nepalese people are skeptical of the official report that the then Crown Prince Dipendra carried out the murder.. King Birendra and his son Dipendra were very popular and well respected by the Nepalese population. Subsequently, Pushpa Kamal Dahal Prachanda, the chairman of the Nepalese Maoist Party, in a public gathering claimed that the massacre was planned by the Indian intelligence agency RAW or the American CIA..They told me that you had gone totally insane, and that your methods were unsound... was sent on a classified mission, mistress..Be extremely subtle, even to the point of formlessness.. Be extremely mysterious, even to the point of soundlessness..Of all those in the army close to the commander none is more intimate than the secret agent; of all rewards none more liberal than those given to secret agents; of all matters none is more confidential than those relating to secret operations..I expected someone like you..You're an errand boy, sent by grocery clerks, to collect a bill..When I was home after my first tour..Now the Reason the enlightened prince and the Wise General conquer...

Last edited by lightgiver; 23-06-2014 at 09:47 AM.
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