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Old 03-12-2017, 03:11 PM   #85
st jimmy
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I’ve found an interesting literature review by a professor and 3 students on 70 “placebo-controlled” trials of antidepressants with 18,526 patients. They tried to determine the quantity of suicidal, homicidal and akhatisia effects.
Gøtzsche et al - “Suicidality and aggression during antidepressant treatment: systematic review and meta-analyses based on clinical study reports” (2016): http://www.bmj.com/content/352/bmj.i65
(archived here: http://archive.is/QveS4)

They got sort of caught up in a web of manipulated (pseudo)science, and the evidence on manipulation of these “scientific” trials is arguably more interesting than the result that “in children and adolescents the risk of suicidality and aggression doubled”.

Anybody that knows how the pharmaceutical industry works and its control over the “scientific” trials can’t be surprised that a pre-trial was done to carefully select the psychiatric victims that could be expected to improve on the drugs, but worsen on placebo. Some people probably won’t believe how easy it is to manipulate “scientific” studies...

Step 1 - ask a random group of depressed psychiatric victims to participate in a “scientific” trial.
Step 2 – stop giving them psychiatric drugs (in an unreported pre-trial).
Step 3 – exclude the psychiatric victims from the study that improve without drugs.
That is what they did in 86% of the “scientific” trials...:
Quote:
Sixty trials (86%) had a placebo lead-in period (4 to 14 days, median 7 days) and all of them excluded from randomisation those who improved while receiving placebo, as judged by their Hamilton scores or similar. Rarely was there any information about the numbers excluded.
See the following excerpts that shows that deaths and suicide attempts in the group on drugs, were simply mislabelled:
Quote:
Four deaths were misreported by the company, in all cases favouring the active drug.
One death in a participant receiving paroxetine (trial 31) was called a post-study event, taking place 21 days after the patient had admitted to taking the last dose, but this was on day 63 out of the 84 days of randomised treatment. Moreover, the patient had detectable paroxetine in the blood at the time of death.

A patient receiving venlafaxine (trial 69) attempted suicide by strangulation without forewarning and died five days later in hospital. Although the suicide attempt occurred on day 21 out of the 56 days of randomised treatment, the death was called a post-study event as it occurred in hospital and treatment had been discontinued because of the suicide attempt.

Conversely, a patient receiving placebo (trial 62) died on day 404, 26 days after the randomised phase ended, but the death was not listed as a post-study event as the patient had allegedly taken treatment until the previous day.
Finally, a death in a participant receiving venlafaxine (trial 70) that occurred three months after treatment was only noted in the patient narratives and nowhere else in the clinical study report.
(…)
Of the remaining 62 suicide attempts (in 59 patients), 40 occurred in 39 patients receiving the study drug, 20 in 18 patients receiving placebo, and two in two patients receiving imipramine. Four of these events were only listed in the individual patient listings and three others only noted in adverse events tables (no further information was available as there was no narrative).

Twenty seven events were coded as emotional lability or worsening depression, although in patient narratives or individual patient listings they were clearly suicide attempts. Conversely, several cases of suicidal ideation were called suicide attempts in the adverse events tables.
One suicide attempt (intentional overdose with paracetamol (acetaminophen)) in a patient receiving fluoxetine was described as “elevated liver enzymes” in the adverse events tables, in contrast with the narrative (see supplementary data C).
Children suffered more from adverse effects from the drugs than adults:
Quote:
Aggressive behaviour occurred more often in the drug group compared with placebo group (odds ratio 1.93, 95% confidence interval 1.26 to 2.95). The odds ratio for adults was 1.09 (0.55 to 2.14) and for children and adolescents was 2.79 (1.62 to 4.81, figure 4?).
(…)

Fig 4 Aggressive behaviour in patients receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) compared with placebo
(…)
We found that the risk of aggressive behaviour was doubled with use of antidepressants (all ages), which was a statistically significant result, but when we restricted our analysis to adults, there was no such effect. However, we did find a doubling of risk for children and adolescents, which is consistent with the increased incidence in hostility noted by the MHRA.16 We found that akathisia was much under-reported.

Akathisia occurred more often in participants receiving drugs than receiving placebo, both in children and adolescents and in adults, but the difference was not significant (all ages, odds ratio 2.04, 95% confidence interval 0.93 to 4.48).
We also found similar results in a systematic review of trials in healthy adult volunteers that included data from 10 published trials and two unpublished trials (clinical study reports obtained from EMA). Compared with placebo (n=226), antidepressants (n=318) were associated with an increased rate of activation or other precursor events for aggression and suicidality (odds ratio 1.81, 95% confidence interval 1.05 to 3.12).37
(…)

Fig 5 Akathisia in participants receiving selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs) or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors (SNRIs) compared with placebo
Earlier in this thread I wrote:
Quote:
Originally Posted by st jimmy View Post
Here´s some scientific looking evidence to proof that psychiatric drugs cause violence. The following report shows that from 484 evaluable drugs, 31 cause violence, these 31 drugs accounted for 1527 out of 1937 cases of violence (79%): Varenicline (place 1), Fluoxetine (Prozac, place 2), Paroxetine (3), Amphetamines, Mefloquine, Atomoxetine, Triazolam, Fluvoxamine, Venlafaxine, Desvenlafaxine, Montelukast, Sertraline, Zolpidem, Escitalopram, Sodium oxybate, Citalopram, Aripiprazole, Oxycodone, Bupropion, Ziprasidone, Methylphenidate (Ritalin), Mirtazapine, Gabapentin, Levetiracetam, Diazepam, Alprazolam, Duloxetine, Clonazepam, Interferon alfa, Risperidone (Risperdal), Quetiapine (place 31).
See Moore et al, Prescription Drugs Associated with Reports of Violence Towards Others (2010): http://journals.plos.org/plosone/art...l.pone.0015337
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