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Old 22-12-2016, 07:41 AM   #16
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Antediluvian Flying Creatures

The large flying creatures of the past would also
have had difficulties in our present-day gravity.

In the antediluvian world, 350-pound flying
creatures soared in skies which no longer permit
flying creatures above 30 pounds or so. Modern
birds of prey, like the Argentinian teratorn,
weighing 170 to 200 pounds, with 30-foot
wingspans, also flew. Within recorded history,

Central Asians have been trying to breed hunting
eagles for size and strength, and have not gotten
them beyond 25 pounds or thereabouts. Even at
that weight they are able to take off only with the
greatest difficulty.

Something was vastly different in the pre-flood

Nothing much larger than 30 pounds or so flies
anymore, and those creatures, albatrosses and a
few of the largest condors and eagles, are
marginal. Albatrosses, notably, are called "goonie
birds" by sailors because of the extreme difficulty
they experience taking off and landing, their
landings being badly controlled crashes, and this
despite long wings made for maximum lift.

In remote times, the felt effect of the force of
gravity on Earth must have been much less for
such giant creatures to be able to fly. No flying
creature has since re-evolved into anything of
such size, and the one or two birds that have
retained this size have forfeited flight, their wings
becoming vestigial.

Adrian Desmond, in his book The Hot-Blooded
Dinosaurs, has a good deal to say about some of
the problems the Pteranodon faced at just 40-
to-50 pounds. Scientists once thought this
pterosaur was the largest creature that ever flew.
The bird's great size and negligible weight must
have made for a rather fragile creature.
"It is easy to imagine that the paper-thin
tubular bones supporting the gigantic
wings would have made landing
dangerous," writes Desmond.

"How could the creature have alighted
without shattering all of its bones? How
could it have taken off in the first place? It
was obviously unable to flap 12-foot wings
strung between straw-thin tubes. Many
larger birds have to achieve a certain speed
by running and flapping before they can
take off and others have to produce a wing
beat speed approaching hovering in order
to rise.

To achieve hovering with a 23-foot
wingspread, Pteranodon would have
required 220 pounds of flight muscles as
efficient as those in humming birds. But it
had reduced its musculature to about 8
pounds, so it is inconceivable that
Pteranodon could have taken off actively."

Since the Pteranodon could not flap its wings, the
only flying it could ever do, Desmond concludes,
was as a glider.
It was, he says,
"the most advanced glider the animal
kingdom has produced."10
Desmond notes a fairly reasonably modus
operandi for the Pteranodon.

Not only did the bird have a throat pouch like a
pelican but its remains were found with fish
fossils, which seems to suggest a pelican-like
existence, soaring over the waves and snapping
up fish without landing.

If so, then the Pteranodon should have been
practically immune from the great extinctions of
past ages. Large animals would have the greatest
difficulty getting to high ground and other safe
havens at times of floods and other global
catastrophes. But high places safe from flooding
were always there, oceans were always there, and
fish were always there.

The Pteranodon's way of life should have been
impervious to all mishap.
There is one other problem. The Pteranodon was
not the largest bird.

The giant Teratorn finds of Argentina were not
known when Desmond's book was written. News
of this bird's existence first appeared in the
1980s. The Terotorn was a 160-to-200 pound
eagle with a 27-foot wingspan, a modern bird
whose existence involved, among other things,
flapping wings and aerial maneuvers.
But how so? How could it even have flown?
How large can an animal be and still fly?

"With each increase in size, and therefore
also weight," writes Desmond, "a flying
animal needs a concomitant increase in
power (to beat the wings in a flapper and to
hold and maneuver them in a glider), but
power is supplied by muscles which
themselves add still more weight to the

The larger a flyer becomes the
disproportionately weightier it grows by the
addition of its own power supply. There
comes a point when the weight is just too
great to permit the machine to remain
airborne. Calculations bearing on size and
power suggested that the maximum weight
that a flying vertebrate can attain is about
50 pounds..."

It is for this reason that scientists believed
Pteranodon and its slightly larger but lesser
known Jordanian ally Titanopteryx were the
largest flying animals of all time.

The experience from our present world coincides
well with this and, in fact, don't go quite that
high. The biggest flying creatures which we
actually see are albatrosses, geese, and the like,
at 30 to 35 pounds.

The Pteranodon's reign as the largest flying
creature of all time actually fell in the early 1970s
when Douglas Lawson of the University of
California found partial skeletons of three ultra-
large pterosaurs in Big Bend National Park in
Texas. This discovery forced scientists to rethink
their ideas on the maximum size permissible in
flying vertebrates.

The immense size of the Big Bend pterosaurs may
be gauged by noting that the humerus or upper
arm bones of these creatures is fully twice the
length of Pteranodon's. Lawson estimated the
wingspan for this living glider at over fifty feet.
The Big Bend pterosaurs were not fishers. Their
remains were found in rocks that were formed
some 250 miles inland and nowhere near any lake
deposits. This led Lawson to suggest that these
birds were carrion feeders, gorging themselves on
rotting mounds of dismembered dinosaur flesh.
But this hypothesis raised numerous questions in
author Desmond's mind.

"How they could have taken to the air after
gorging themselves is something of a
puzzle," he wonders.

"Wings of such an extraordinary size could
not have been flapped when the animal
was grounded. Since the pterosaurs were
unable to run in order to launch themselves
they must have taken off vertically.

Pigeons are only able to take-off vertically
by reclining their bodies and clapping the
wings in front of them; as flappers, the
Texas pterosaurs would have needed very
tall stilt-like legs to raise the body enough
to allow the 24-foot wings to clear the

The main objection, however, still rests in
the lack of adequate musculature for such
an operation."12

The only solution seems to be that they lifted
passively off the ground by the wind. But this
situation, notes Desmond, would leave these
ungainly Brobdignagian pterosaurs vulnerable to
attack when grounded.

While Desmond mentions a number of ancillary
problems here, any of which would throw doubt
on the pterosaur's ability to exist as mentioned,
he neglects the biggest question of all: the
calculations that say 50 pounds are the
maximum weight have not been shown to be in
error; we have simply discovered larger creatures.
Much larger.

This is what is called a dilemma.

Those who had estimated a large wingspan for
the Big Bend bird were immediately attacked by
aeronautical engineers.

"Such dimensions broke all the rules of
flight engineering," wrote Colorado
paleontologist Robert T. Bakker , in The
Dinosaur Heresies, "a creature that large
would have broken its arm bones if it tried
to fly..."13

Subsequently, the proponents of a large
wingspan were forced to back off somewhat,
since the complete wing bones had not been

But Bakker believes these pterosaurs really did
have wingspans of over 60 feet and that they
simply flew despite our not comprehending how.
The problem is ours, he says, and he proposes no

So much for the idea of anything re-evolving into
the sizes of the flying creatures of the
antediluvian world. What about the possibility of
man breeding something like a Teratorn? Could
man actively breed even a 50-pound eagle?

Berkuts are the biggest of eagles.
And Atlanta, an eagle that Sam Barnes, one of
England's top falconers in the 1970s, brought
back to Wales from Kirghiz, Russia, is, at 26
pounds in flying trim, as large as they ever get.14

These eagles have been bred specifically for size
and ferocity for many centuries. They are the
most prized of all possessions amongst nomads,
and are the imperial hunting bird of the Turko-
Mongol peoples.

The only reason Barnes was allowed to bring her
back is that Atlanta had a disease for which no
cure was available in Kirghiz and was near to
death. A Berkut of Atlanta's size, Barnes was told,
would normally be worth more than a dozen of
the most beautiful women in Kirghiz.

Elephants are simply too heavy to run in our
world. The best they can manage is a kind of a
fast walk. Mammoths were as big and bigger than
the largest elephants, however, and Pleistocene
art clearly shows them galloping.

The killing powers of a big eagle are out of
proportion to its size. Berkuts are normally flown
at wolves, deer, and other large prey. Barnes
witnessed Atlanta killing a deer in Kirghiz, and
was told that she had killed a black wolf a season
earlier. Mongols and other nomads raise sheep
and goats, and obviously have no love for wolves.

A wolf might be little more than a day at the
office for Atlanta with her 11-inch talons,
however, a wolf is a big deal for an average-sized
Berkut at 15-to-20 pounds. Obviously, there
would be an advantage to having the birds be
bigger, i.e. to having the average Berkut weigh
25 pounds, and for a large one to weigh 40-to-50
pounds. It has never been done, however, despite
all the efforts and funds poured into the
enterprise since the days of Genghis Khan.

The breeding of Berkuts has continued apace
from that day to this, but the Berkuts have still
not gotten any bigger than 25 pounds or so.15

It is worth recalling here the difficulty which
increasingly larger birds experience in getting
airborne from flat ground. Atlanta was powerful
enough in flight, but she was not easily able to
take off from flat ground. This could spell disaster
in the wild. A bird of prey will often land with
prey, and if take-off from flat ground to avoid
trouble is not possible, the bird's life becomes

A bird bigger than Atlanta with her 10-foot
wingspan, like a Teratorn with a 27-foot wingspan
and weighing 170 pounds, would simply not

Assorted Other Evidence

There are other categories of evidence, derived
from a careful analysis of antediluvian predators,
to show that gravitational conditions in the
distant past were not the same as they are today.
It is well known, for example, that elephant-sized
animals cannot sustain falls, and that elephants
spend their entire lives avoiding them.

For an elephant, the slightest tumble can break
bones and/or destroy enough tissue to prove
fatal. Predators, however, live by tackling and
tumbling with prey. One might think that this
consideration would preclude the existence of any
predator too large to sustain falls. Weight
estimates for the tyrannosaurs, however, include
specimens heavier than any elephant.

That appears to be a contradiction.

Moreover, elephants are simply too heavy to run
in our world. As is well known, they manage a
kind of a fast walk. They cannot jump, and
anything resembling a gully stops them cold.

Mammoths were as big and bigger than the
largest elephants, however, and Pleistocene art
clearly shows them galloping.

Finally, there is the Utahraptor. Recently found in
Utah, this creature is a 20-foot, 1,500-pound
version of a Velociraptor.16

The creature apparently ran on the balls of its two
hind feet, on two toes in fact, the third toe
carrying a 12-inch claw for disemboweling prey.

This suggests a very active lifestyle. Very few
predators appear to be built for attacking prey
notably larger than themselves; the Utahraptor
appears to be such a case.

In our world, of course, 1,500-pound toe dancers
do not exist. The only example we have of a
1,500-pound land predator is the Kodiak bear,
the lumbering gait and mannerisms of which are
familiar to us all.

And so, over and over again, this same kind of
dilemma-things which cannot happen in our
world having been the norm in the antediluvian

An Explanation Ventured

The laws of physics do not change, nor does the
gravitational constant, as far as we know.

But something was obviously massively different
in the world in which these creatures existed, and
that difference probably involved a change in
perceived gravity. This solution derives from the
continuing research of neo-catastrophists, that is,
followers of the late Immanuel Velikovsky, and
is known as the "Saturn Myth" theory.17

The basic requirement for an attenuated
perception of gravity involves the Earth being in a
very close orbit around a smaller and much cooler
stellar body (or binary body) than our present
Sun. One pole would always be pointed directly at
this nearby small star or binary system. The
intense gravitational attraction would pull the

Earth into an egg shape rather than its present
spherical shape, so that the planet's center of
gravity would be off center towards the small

This would generate the torque necessary to
counteract the natural gyroscopic force and keep
the Earth's pole pointed in the same direction as
it revolved around the star.

The consequences of this intense gravitational
pull would be dramatic. It would allow, first of all,
for gigantic animals like the dinosaurs (just as any
change in gravity to the present situation would
likely cause their demise). It would also tend to
draw all of the Earth's land mass into a single
supercontinent (Pangea).

Why else, after all, should the Earth's continental
masses have amassed in one place?

And finally, with the Earth's pole pointed straight
at this star or binary system, there would be no
seasons. All literature of the distant past points
out that the seasons did not appear until after the

The state of the present solar system indicates
that this previous system was eventually
captured by a larger star, our present Sun.
But the pieces of this old system have not
vanished. The influential small star or binary
system of the past remains, though its reign of
power has ended. The star or stars are Jupiter
and Saturn, the next largest objects to the Sun in
our present system.

It is instructive that the ancients worshiped
Jupiter and Saturn as the two chieftain gods in all
of the antique religious systems.

If the present solar system was present in the
distant past, one would expect primitive peoples
to have worshiped the most visible of the astral

the Sun
the Moon

There is no conceivable reason they would
worship as gods two planets which most people
cannot even find in the night sky - unless, of
course, these bodies occupied a far more
prominent place in the heavens than they do
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