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Old 24-03-2015, 02:33 PM   #201
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Arrow Metic

In ancient Greece, the term metic (Greek métoikos: from metá, indicating change, and oîkos "dwelling") referred to a resident alien, one who did not have citizen rights in his or her Greek city-state (polis) of residence..The Bible makes numerous references to a class of people known as "gerim" (גרים) ("ger" גר in singular), a class of people of different origin living permanently in the country of others..They had clearly demarcated rights, and the Hebrews are sternly and repeatedly enjoined to treat them fairly and keep in mind that that they themselves were in the same situation when living in Egypt. ("וְגֵר לֹא תוֹנֶה וְלֹא תִלְחָצֶנּוּ כִּי גֵרִים הֱיִיתֶם בְּאֶרֶץ מִצְרָיִם." Book of Exodus 22, 20)..Also etymologically they are similar to the Greek metics, "ger" being derived from the Hebrew root for "to dwell", i.e. they were "the dwellers [among us]"...

I believe in philosophy - Agora, Rachel Weisz ..

Metics held lower social status primarily due to cultural rather than economic restraints.. Some were poor artisans and ex-slaves, while others were some of the wealthiest inhabitants of the city.. As citizenship was a matter of inheritance and not place of birth, a metic could be either an immigrant or the descendant of one.. Regardless of how many generations of the family had lived in the city, metics did not become citizens unless the city chose to bestow citizenship on them as a gift.. This was rarely done.. From a cultural viewpoint such a resident could be completely "local" and indistinguishable from citizens.. They had no role in the political community but might be completely integrated into the social and economic life of the city.. In the urbane scene that opens Plato's Republic—the dialogue takes place in a metic household—the status of the speakers as citizen or metic is never mentioned...

Metics typically shared the burdens of citizenship without any of its privileges.. Like citizens, they had to perform military service and, if wealthy enough, were subject to the special tax contributions (eisphora) and tax services ("liturgies", for example, paying for a warship or funding a tragic chorus) contributed by wealthy Athenians.. Citizenship at Athens brought eligibility for numerous state payments such as jury and assembly pay, which could be significant to working people. During emergencies the city could distribute rations to citizens.. None of these rights were available to metics.. They were not permitted to own real estate in Attica, whether farm or house, unless granted a special exemption.. Neither could they contract with the state to work the silver mines, since the wealth beneath the earth was felt to belong to the political community.. Further, they had to pay a metic poll tax, the metoikon, of twelve drachmas a year for men and six for women, as well a special tax (xenikon telos) if they wanted to set up a stall in the market place (agora)..

The term agoraphobia denotes a phobic condition in which the sufferer becomes anxious in environments that are unfamiliar—for instance, places where he or she perceives that they have little control.. Such anxiety may be triggered by wide open spaces, by crowds, or by some public situations, and the psychological term derives from the agora as a large and open gathering place..Meanwhile, social unrest begins challenging the Roman rule of the city as Pagans and Christians come into conflict.. When the Christians start defiling the statues of the pagan gods, the pagans, including Orestes and Hypatia's father, ambush the Christians to squash their rising influence. However, in the ensuing battle, the pagans unexpectedly find themselves outnumbered by a large Christian mob..

Soc. And when we had given to each one that single employment and particular art which was suited to his nature, we spoke of those who were intended to be our warriors, and said that they were to be guardians of the city against attacks from within as well as from without, and to have no other employment; they were to be merciful in judging their subjects, of whom they were by nature friends, but fierce to their enemies, when they came across them in battle..

Tim. Exactly..

Soc. We said, if I am not mistaken, that the guardians should be gifted with a temperament in a high degree both passionate and philosophical; and that then they would be as they ought to be, gentle to their friends and fierce with their enemies...

Tim. Certainly..

Soc. And what did we say of their education?. Were they not to be trained in gymnastic, and music, and all other sorts of knowledge which were proper for them?..

Tim. Very true..

Soc. And being thus trained they were not to consider gold or silver or anything else to be their own private property; they were to be like hired troops, receiving pay for keeping guard from those who were protected by them-the pay was to be no more than would suffice for men of simple life; and they were to spend in common, and to live together in the continual practice of virtue, which was to be their sole pursuit...

Tim. That was also said...

The history of modern meteorology in Ireland dates back to 8 October 1860, when the first weather observations were transmitted from Valentia Observatory on Valentia Island in County Kerry to the British Meteorological Office... majority of us here..have accepted Christ.. Why not the rest of you?. It's only a matter of time and you know it.. Really?. It is just a matter of time?... As far as I am aware, your God has not yet proved himself to be more just or more merciful than his predecessors..Is it really just a matter of time before I accept your faith?...

Last edited by lightgiver; 24-03-2015 at 02:38 PM.
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