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Old 02-12-2014, 05:58 PM   #26
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A grape is a fruiting berry of the deciduous woody vines of the botanical genus Vitis. Grapes can be eaten raw or they can be used for making wine, jam, juice, jelly, grape seed extract, raisins, vinegar, and grape seed oil. Grapes are a non-climacteric type of fruit, generally occurring in clusters..The cultivation of the domesticated grape began 6,000–8,000 years ago in the Near East.. The earliest archeological evidence for a dominant position of wine-making in human culture dates from 8,000 years ago in Georgia..The full, official name of the country is "Georgia", as specified in the Georgian constitution.. "Georgia" is an exonym, used in the West since the medieval period. It is presumably derived from the Persian designation of the Georgians, gurğ, ğurğ, borrowed around the time of the First Crusade, ultimately derived from the Middle Persian vark├óna, meaning "land of wolves"..The name was etymologized as referring to St. George, explicitly so by the end of the 12th century by Jacques de Vitry, due to the Georgians' special reverence for that saint..The Georgian Kingdom reached its zenith in the 12th to early 13th centuries.. This period has been widely termed as Georgia's Golden Age or Georgian Renaissance during the reigns of David the Builder and Queen Tamar...

თამარს ვაქებდეთ მეფესა სისხლისა ცრემლ-დათხეული,
ვთქვენი ქებანი ვისნი მე არ-ავად გამორჩეული.
მელნად ვიხმარე გიშრის ტბა და კალმად მე ნა რხეული,
ვინცა ისმინოს, დაესვას ლახვარი გულსა ხეული...

David Soslan (Georgian: დავით სოსლანი) (died 1207) was an Alan prince and second husband of Queen Tamar, whom he married in c. 1189. He is chiefly known for his military exploits during Georgia’s wars against its Muslim neighbours..Georgian title ვეფხისტყაოსანი (vepkhistqaosani) literally means "one with a skin of vepkhi".. The identity of the animal that it refers to is not certain and it can be a tiger, panther or leopard...

Ancient Georgian States of Colchis and Iberia, IV-III centuries B.C.

After the Russian Revolution of 1917, Georgia declared independence on May 26, 1918, in the midst of the Russian Civil War. The parliamentary election was won by the Menshevik Georgian Social-Democratic Party. Its leader, Noe Zhordania, became prime minister..Joseph Stalin, an ethnic Georgian, was prominent among the Bolsheviks, who came to power in the Russian Empire after the October Revolution in 1917.. Stalin was to rise to the highest position in the Soviet state..From 1941 to 1945, during World War II, almost 700,000 Georgians fought in the Red Army against Nazi Germany.. There were also a few who fought on the German side. About 350,000 Georgians died in the battlefields of the Eastern Front..Simmering disputes within two regions of Georgia, Abkhazia and South Ossetia, between local separatists and the majority Georgian populations, erupted into widespread inter-ethnic violence and wars..Roughly 230,000 to 250,000 Georgians were massacred or expelled from Abkhazia by Abkhaz separatists and North Caucasian volunteers (including Chechens) in 1992–1993.. Around 23,000 Georgians fled South Ossetia as well, and many Ossetian families were forced to abandon their homes in the Borjomi region and moved to Russia..Following the Rose Revolution, a series of reforms were launched to strengthen the country's military and economic capabilities..Through mediation by President of France Nicolas Sarkozy (17th Arrondissement of Paris), the parties reached a ceasefire agreement on 12 August..Georgia contributed nearly 1000 soldiers to the NATO-led International Security Assistance Force in Afghanistan, making it the highest troop contributor per-capita to the mission..As of September 2011, Georgia has suffered 10 deaths and 38 injuries..Human rights in Georgia are guaranteed by the country's constitution.

Vitis riparia, a wild vine of North America, is sometimes used for winemaking and for jam.. It is native to the entire Eastern U.S. and north to Quebec..Approximately 71% of world grape production is used for wine, 27% as fresh fruit, and 2% as dried fruit.. While almost all of them belong to the same species, Vitis vinifera, table and wine grapes have significant differences, brought about through selective breeding..Seedless cultivars now make up the overwhelming majority of table grape plantings.[citation needed] Because grapevines are vegetatively propagated by cuttings, the lack of seeds does not present a problem for reproduction.. It is an issue for breeders, who must either use a seeded variety as the female parent or rescue embryos early in development using tissue culture techniques..Grape juice is obtained from crushing and blending grapes into a liquid. The juice is often sold in stores or fermented and made into wine, brandy or vinegar.. In the wine industry, grape juice that contains 7–23% of pulp, skins, stems and seeds is often referred to as "must"..The consumption of grapes and raisins presents a potential health threat to dogs...

In the book, Koestler advances the thesis that AshKeNazi Jews are not descended from the historical Israelites of antiquity, but from Khazars, a Turkic people originating in and populating an empire north of and between the Black Sea and Caspian Sea.. Koestler's hypothesis is that the Khazars – who converted to Judaism in the 8th century – migrated westwards into current Eastern Europe (primarily Ukraine, Poland, Belarus, Lithuania, Hungary and Germany) in the 12th and 13th centuries when the Khazar Empire was collapsing..Sand began his work by looking for research studies about forcible exile of Jews from the area now bordered by modern Israel, and its surrounding regions. He was astonished that he could find no such literature, he says, given that the expulsion of Jews from the region is viewed as a constitutive event in Jewish history.. The conclusion he came to from his subsequent investigation is that the expulsion simply didn't happen, that no one exiled the Jewish people from the region, and that the Diaspora is essentially a modern invention... to me John.. How many other white apes have you seen?. You're like me, not them.. You have another family, far away, one you have never seen.Have a look at the wall.. It comes all around the estate to keep them out - and keep us in..This is not the world John.. Just the edge of it...

Last edited by lightgiver; 02-12-2014 at 06:00 PM.
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