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Old 12-10-2014, 10:57 PM   #205
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Arrow Pro-Pagan - Due 2

Propaganda Due (or P2, was a Masonic lodge operating under the jurisdiction of the Grand Orient of Italy from 1945 to 1976 (when its charter was withdrawn), and a pseudo-Masonic, "black", or "covert" lodge operating illegally (in contravention of Article 18 of the Constitution of Italy banning secret associations) from 1976 to 1981. During the years that the lodge was headed by Licio Gelli, P2 was implicated in numerous Italian crimes and mysteries, including the collapse of the Vatican-affiliated Banco Ambrosiano, the murders of journalist Mino Pecorelli and banker Roberto Calvi, and corruption cases within the nationwide bribe scandal Tangentopoli. P2 came to light through the investigations into the collapse of Michele Sindona's financial empire.P2 was sometimes referred to as a "state within a state" or a "shadow government".. The lodge had among its members prominent journalists, members of parliament, industrialists, and military leaders—including Silvio Berlusconi, who later became Prime Minister of Italy; the Savoy pretender to the Italian throne Victor Emmanuel; and the heads of all 3 Italian intelligence services (at the time SISDE, SISMI and CESIS)..When searching Licio Gelli's villa, the police found a document called the "Plan for Democratic Rebirth", which called for a consolidation of the media, suppression of trade unions, and the rewriting of the Italian Constitution...

"Propaganda" was originally founded in 1877, in Turin, as "Propaganda Massonica". This lodge was frequented by politicians and government officials from across Italy who were unable to attend their own lodges and included prominent members of the Piedmont nobility.. The name was changed to "Propaganda Due" following World War II, when the Grand Orient of Italy numbered its lodges. By the 1960s, however, the lodge was all but moribund, holding few meetings.. This original lodge, however, had little to do with the one Licio Gelli established in 1966, two years after becoming a freemason..Freemasonry in Italy had been outlawed by the fascist regime of Benito Mussolini, but it was reborn after the Second World War with American encouragement.. However, its traditions of free-thinking under the Risorgimento transformed into a fervent anti-communism. The increasing influence of the left at the end of the 1960s had the Masons of Italy deeply worried. In 1971, Grand Master Lino Salvini of the Grand Orient of Italy—one of Italy's largest Masonic lodges—assigned to Gelli the task of reorganizing the lodge..Gelli took a list of "sleeping members" members who were not invited to take part in masonic rituals anymore, as Italian freemasonry was under close scrutiny by the Christian Democrats in power. From these initial connections, Gelli was able to extend his network throughout the echelons of the Italian establishment..

The Grand Orient of Italy officially expelled Gelli and the P2 Lodge in 1976.. In 1974 it was proposed that P2 be erased from the list of lodges by the Grand Orient of Italy, and the motion carried overwhelmingly..The activities of the P2 lodge were discovered by prosecutors while investigating banker Michele Sindona, the collapse of his bank and his ties to the Mafia.. In March 1981, police found a list of alleged members in Gelli's house in Arezzo. It contained 962 names, among which were important state officials, important politicians and a number of military officers, including the heads of the three Italian secret services..Future Italian prime minister Silvio Berlusconi was on the list, although he had not yet entered politics at the time.. Another famous member was Victor Emmanuel, the son of the last Italian king...

Gelli's goal was to form a new political and economic elite to lead Italy towards a right-wing, authoritarian form of democracy, with an anti-communist pre-occupation.. P2 advocated a programme of extensive political corruption: "political parties, newspapers and trade unions can be the objects of possible solicitations which could take the form of economic-financial manoeuvres. The availability of sums not exceeding 30 to 40 billion lire would seem sufficient to allow carefully chosen men, acting in good faith, to conquer key positions necessary for overall control"..Opinions about the importance and reach of P2 differ. Some see the P2 as a reactionary, shadow government ready to take over power in case of an electoral victory of the Italian Communist Party. Others think it was nothing more than a sordid association of people eager to improve their careers by making powerful and important connections.. Nevertheless, P2 was implicated in numerous Italian scandals and mysteries..In 1977 the P2 took control of the Corriere della Sera newspaper, a leading paper in Italy..P2 members Gelli and the head of the secret service Pietro Musumeci were condemned for attempting to mislead the police investigation of the Bologna massacre on August 2, 1980, which killed 85 people and wounded more than 200...

P2 became the target of considerable attention in the wake of the collapse of Banco Ambrosiano (one of Milan's principal banks, owned in part by the Vatican Bank), and the suspicious 1982 death of its president Roberto Calvi in London, initially ruled a suicide but later prosecuted as a murder.. It was suspected by investigative journalists that some of the plundered funds went to P2 or to its members..The Parliamentary Commission of Inquiry, headed by Anselmi, concluded that the P2 lodge was a secret criminal organization. Allegations of surreptitious international relationships, mainly with Argentina (Gelli repeatedly suggested that he was a close friend of Juan PerĂ³n) and with some people suspected of affiliation with the American Central Intelligence Agency were also partly confirmed; but soon a political debate overtook the legal level of the analysis..Even though outlawed by Fascist dictator Benito Mussolini in 1925, Masonic institutions have been tolerated in Italy since the end of World War II and are quite open about their activities and membership..On March 17, 1981, a list composed by Licio Gelli was found in his country house (Villa Wanda)..

The list should be contemplated with some caution, as it is considered to be a compilation of P2 members and the contents of Gelli's Rolodex.. Many on the list were apparently never asked if they wanted to join P2, and it is not known to what extent the list includes members who were formally initiated into the lodge... know, after being here, I could have an elegant time in a cemetary reading tombstones at Midnight..Shady business do not make for sunny life..Your spirits are a long time coming, Mr. Chan..Spirits always have very long way to come..Mr's Nel Can you believe it?. We're in the middle of a drought, and the water commissioner drowns..Only in L.A..Do you accept people of the Jewish persuasion?.. Katherine! I, I'm your grandfather, my dear...

Last edited by lightgiver; 12-10-2014 at 11:04 PM.
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