**Lake Michigan - No curvature across 128 km**
Here is another clear proof that the surface of the Earth is actually flat:

Grand Haven Daily Tribune April 3, 1925

COAST GUARDS SEE MILWAUKEE LIGHTS GLEAM

Captain Wm. J. Preston and Crew See Lights of Milwaukee

and Racine Clearly From Surf Boat

ANSWER TO FLARE

Crew Runs Into Lake in Search For Flashing Torch

Grand Haven Daily Tribune April 3, 1925

Captain Wm. J. Preston and his U. S. Coast Guard crew at Grand Haven harbor witnessed a strange natural phenomenon last night, when they saw clearly the lights of both Milwaukee and Racine,

**shining across the lak**e. As far as known this is the first time that such a freak condition has prevailed here.

The phenomena was first noticed at shortly after seven o’clock last night, when the lookout called the keeper’s attention to what seemed to be a light flaring out on the lake. Captain Preston examined the light, and was of the impression that some ship out in the lake was “torching” for assistance.

Launch Power Boat

He ordered the big power boat launched and with the crew started on a cruise into the lake to locate, if possible, the cause of the light. The power boat was headed due west and after running a distance of six or seven miles the light became clearer, but seemed to be but little nearer. The crew kept on going, however, and at a distance of about ten and twelve miles out, a beautiful panorama of light unfolded before the eyes of the coast guards.

**Captain Preston decided that the flare came from the government lighthouse at Windy Point at Racine. Being familiar with the Racine lights the keeper was able to identify several of the short lights at Racine, Wis.**
Saw Milwaukee Also

A little further north another set of lights were plainly visible. Captain Preston knowing the Milwaukee lights well, easily distinguished them and identified them as the Milwaukee lights. The lights along Juneau Park water front, the illumination of the buildings near the park and the Northwestern Railway station were clearly visible from the Coast Guard boat. So clearly did the lights stand out that it seemed as though the boat was within a few miles of Milwaukee harbor.

Convinced that the phenomenon was a mirage, or a condition due to some peculiarity of the atmosphere,

**the keeper ordered the boat back to the station. The lights remained visible for the greater part of the run, and the flare of the Windy Point light house could be seen after the crew reached the station here. **
DISTANCE GRAND HAVEN TO MILWAUKEE: OVER 80 MILES (128 KM).

http://www.coastwatch.msu.edu/images/twomichigans2a.gif
Windy Point Lighthouse:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...1104_edit2.jpg
The lighthouse stands 108 feet (33 m) tall

THE CURVATURE FOR 128 KM IS 321 METERS.

Using the well known formula for the visual obstacle, let us calculate its value:

h = 3 meters BD = 1163 METERS

h = 5 meters BD = 1129 METERS

h = 10 meters BD = 1068 METERS

h = 20 meters BD = 984 METERS

h = 50 meters BD = 827.6 METERS

h = 100 meters BD = 667.6 METERS

No terrestrial refraction formula/looming formula can account for this extraordinary proof that the surface across lake Michigan is flat.

In fact:

http://ireland.iol.ie/~geniet/eng/refract.htm#
If we use h = 50 for the observer, and 140 for the distant object height, we get a negative answer: no way it could be seen over a 128 km distance; while the actual data for the account is

** h = 5 m, and d = 40 m**.

Looming/modified lapse rate:

http://mintaka.sdsu.edu/GF/explain/a...altitudes.html
The formula used here does not recognize the change in the range of temperature values, nor do we know if it takes into consideration the very basic formula I posted earlier for the visual obstacle:

http://theflatearthsociety.org/forum...4444#msg674444 - however, it is an excellent place to start and to explore the effect of looming/ducting on the visual target being observed.

Let us use several values, starting with the value of 15 C for that day (Milwaukee/Racine/Holland/Grand Haven) and increasing the value for the target by 1-3 degrees.

For a value of 15 C overall we get of course a negative altitude value of the target.

For a value of 16 C (for the target) we get, again, a negative altitude value for the target (−0.317 degrees of arc) - target is hidden by horizon

For a value of 17 C (for the target) we get: −0.207 degrees of arc, target is hidden by horizon

For a value of 18 C (for the target) we get: −0.098 degrees of arc, target is hidden by horizon

Let us decrease the value to 12 C.

Increasing the value for the target to 15 C degrees, again, we get negative values. This would also correspond to a huge k = 0.613 value.

From the textbook on atmospheric science:

"So the ray curvature for an arbitrary lapse rate γ K/m will be

k = ( 0.034 − γ ) / 0.154

where we take γ to be positive if the temperature decreases with height, and a positive curvature means a ray concave toward the Earth.

Example 1: the Standard Atmosphere:

In the Standard Atmosphere, the lapse rate is 6.5°/km or γ = 0.0065 K/m. The numerator of the formula above becomes .034 − .0065 = .0275, so the ratio k is about 1/5.6 or 0.179. In other words, the ray curvature is not quite 18% that of the Earth; the radius of curvature of the ray is about 5.6 times the Earth's radius.

Example 2: free convection:

In free convection, the (adiabatic) lapse rate is about 10.6°/km or γ = 0.0106 K/m. The numerator of the formula above becomes .034 − .0106 = .0234, so the ratio k is about 1/6.6 or 0.152. In other words, the ray curvature is about 15% that of the Earth; the radius of curvature of the ray is about 6.6 times the Earth's radius. This is close to the condition of the atmosphere near the ground in the middle of the day, when most surveying is done; the value calculated is close to the values found in practical survey work."

Moreover, as we have seen, the light from Windy Point was continuously observed, during the approach, and during the return to the station:

*The power boat was headed due west and after running a distance of six or seven miles the light became clearer, but seemed to be but little nearer. The crew kept on going, however, and at a distance of about ten and twelve miles out, a beautiful panorama of light unfolded before the eyes of the coast guards.*

The keeper ordered the boat back to the station. The lights remained visible for the greater part of the run, and the flare of the Windy Point light house could be seen after the crew reached the station here.
Now, the calculation for the most pronounced form of looming:

** ducting**.

However, ducting requires the value for the ray curvature, k, to be greater than or equal to 1.

This amounts to at least a five degree difference in temperature.

With 10C in Grand Haven (or Holland) and 15C in Racine, we get k = 1.182.

For the very same geographical/hydrographical conditions, for the same latitude in question, for cities located on the opposite shores of Lake Michigan, it is absolutely impossible to have a five degree difference, at the very same instant of time - moreover, looming/ducting do not apply to the two cases presented here:

FURTHERMORE, as we have seen, the light from the lighthouse located in Racine was seen all of the time.

For the second case exemplifed here, see below, Mr. Kanis did see the very shape of the buildings: in the case of ducting/looming a very distorted image would appear making it instantly recognizable:

http://upload.wikimedia.org/wikipedi...e_sequence.jpg
http://3sky.de/Div/Luftspieg/Summary.html
http://finland.fi/public/default.asp...&culture=en-US
'As twilight deepened, there were more and more lights.'

Bringing out a pair of binoculars,

**Kanis said he was able to make out the shape of some buildings.**
'With the binoculars we could make out three different communities,' Kanis said.

According to one Coast Guard crewman, it is possible to see city lights across the lake at very specific times.

Currently a Coast Guard crewman stationed in Holland, Todd Reed has worked on the east side of Lake Michigan for 30 years and said he's been able to see lights across the lake at least a dozen times.

The highest building in Milwaukee has a height of 183 meters, the difference from h = 5 meters in altitude being 946 meters, and those residents saw the buildings from THREE DIFFERENT COMMUNITIES, two of which have buildings whose heights measure way under 183 meters.

Therefore, the only way those buildings could be seen, given the 128 km distance, would be if the surface of Lake Michigan is completely flat.

THE TALLEST BUILDING IN RACINE IS THE COUNTY COURTHOUSE, 40 METERS; IT WOULD BE ABSOLUTELY IMPOSSIBLE TO SEE THIS COURTHOUSE FROM 128 KM DISTANCE, FROM HOLLAND.