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Old 20-09-2014, 07:13 PM   #287
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Lightbulb Hussein bin Ali, Sharif of Mecca

Hussein bin Ali, GCB (حسین بن علی Ḥusayn bin ‘Alī ; 1854 – 4 June 1931) was the Sharif and Emir of Mecca from 1908 until 1917, when he proclaimed himself and was internationally recognized as King of the Kingdom of Hejaz. He initiated the Arab Revolt in 1916 against the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman Empire during the course of the First World War. In 1924, when the Ottoman Caliphate was abolished, he further proclaimed himself Caliph of all Muslims. He ruled Hejaz until 1924, when, defeated by Abdul Aziz al Saud, he abdicated the kingdom and other secular titles to his eldest son Ali..Hussein bin Ali was born in 1854 in Istanbul as the eldest son of Sharif Ali ibn Muhammad and his wife, Salha Bani-Shahar. He was the last of the Hashemite rulers over the Hejaz to be appointed by the Ottoman Sultan.. As a Hashemite, he was highly respected in the Islamic world. His noble lineage granted him the status he maintained in the Hijaz: as a descendant of the Prophet Muhammad the British recognised this status...

Though there is no evidence to suggest that Sharif Hussein bin Ali was inclined to Arab nationalism before 1916, the rise of Turkish nationalism under the Ottoman Empire, that culminated in the 1908 Young Turk Revolution, nevertheless displeased the Hashemites and resulted in a rift between them and the Ottoman revolutionaries.. During World War I, Hussein initially remained allied with the Ottomans but began secret negotiations with the British on the advice of his son, Abdullah, who had served in the Ottoman parliament up to 1914 and was convinced that it was necessary to separate from the increasingly nationalistic Ottoman administration.. The British Secretary of State for War, Lord Kitchener, appealed to him for assistance in the conflict on the side of the Triple Entente. Starting in 1915, as indicated by an exchange of letters with British High Commissioner Henry McMahon, Hussein seized the opportunity and demanded recognition of an Arab nation that included the Hejaz and other adjacent territories as well as approval for the proclamation of an Arab Caliphate of Islam...McMahon accepted and assured him that his assistance would be rewarded by an Arab empire encompassing the entire span between Egypt and Persia, with the exception of British possessions and interests in Kuwait, Aden, and the Syrian coast. But after protracted negotiations, with neither side committing to clear terms, including on key matters such as the fate of Palestine, Hussein became impatient and commenced with what would become known as The Great Arab Revolt against Ottoman control in 1916...

Jmmy Hill with Prince Faisal signing a £25m contract to promote football in Saudi Arabia, one of the 85-year-old's many remarkable deals..In the 1962 film Lawrence of Arabia, Alec Guinness portrayed Prince Faisal, Sharif Hussein's son...

In the aftermath of the war, the Arabs found themselves freed from centuries of Ottoman Sultanate rule, but under the mandate colonial rule of France and the United Kingdom. As these mandates ended, the sons of Hussein were made the kings of Transjordan (later Jordan), Syria and Iraq. However, the monarchy in Syria was short-lived, and consequently Hussein's son (Faisal) instead presided over the newly established Iraq..When Hussein declared himself King of the Hejaz, he also declared himself King of all Arabs (malik bilad-al-Arab). This only aggravated his conflict with Ibn Saud which was already present because of their differences in religious beliefs and with whom he had fought before WWI siding with fellow anti Wahhabi Ottomans in 1910. Two days after the Turkish Caliphate was abolished by the Turkish Grand National Assembly on 3 March 1924, Hussein declared himself Caliph at his son Abdullah's winter camp in Shunah, Transjordan.. The claim to the title had a mixed reception, and he was soon ousted and driven out of Arabia by the Saudis, a rival clan that had no interest in the Caliphate. Saud defeated Hussein in 1924. Hussein continued to use the title of Caliph when living in Transjordan...

Though the British had supported Hussein from the start of the Arab Revolt and the Hussein-McMahon Correspondence, they elected not to help Hussein repel the Saudi attack, which eventually took Mecca, Medina, and Jeddah. He was then forced to flee to Cyprus. He went to live in Amman, Transjordan, where his son Abdullah was king. After his abdication, his son Ali briefly assumed the throne, but then he too had to flee the encroachment of Ibn Saud and his forces. His son Faisal was briefly King of Syria and later King of Iraq..Hussein died in Amman in 1931 and is buried in Jerusalem..

National Honours..

Founding Grand Master of the Supreme Order of the Renaissance-Founding Grand Master of the Order of Independence (Jordan)

Foreign Honours...

United Kingdom : Honorary Knight Grand Cross of the Order of the Bath..

During World War I, the occupying Ottoman forces were forced to withdraw from Aqaba after a raid, known as the Battle of Aqaba, led by T. E. Lawrence (known as Lawrence of Arabia) and the Arab forces of Sharif Hussein in 1917, making the territory part of the Kingdom of Hejaz, under the rule of Prince Faisal.. The capture of Aqaba helped open supply lines from Egypt up to Arab and British forces further north in Transjordan and Greater Palestine, and more importantly alleviated a threat of a Turkish offensive onto the strategically important Suez Canal..Aqaba was a major site for imports of Iraqi goods in the 1980s until the Persian Gulf War... killed two people.. One was... yesterday?. He was just a boy and I led him into quicksand.. The other was... well, before Aqaba.. I had to execute him with my pistol, and there was something about it that I didn't like..That's to be expected..No, something else..Well, then let it be a lesson..No..something else..What then?...

Last edited by lightgiver; 20-09-2014 at 07:28 PM.
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