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Old 02-09-2014, 09:00 PM   #46
lightgiver
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Arrow Wallace Monument


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The National Wallace Monument (generally known as the Wallace Monument) is a tower standing on the summit of Abbey Craig, a hilltop near Stirling in Scotland.. It commemorates Sir William Wallace, the 13th century Scottish hero..The tower was constructed following a fundraising campaign, which accompanied a resurgence of Scottish national identity in the 19th century. In addition to public subscription, it was partially funded by contributions from a number of foreign donors, including Italian national leader Giuseppe Garibaldi. Completed in 1869 to the designs of architect John Thomas Rochead at a cost of £18,000, the monument is a 67-metre (220 ft) sandstone tower, built in the Victorian Gothic style..

Giuseppe Garibaldi ( July 4, 1807 – June 2, 1882) was an Italian general and politician who played a large role in the history of Italy.. He is considered, with Camillo Cavour, Victor Emmanuel II and Giuseppe Mazzini, as one of Italy's "fathers of the fatherland".A challenge against the Pope's temporal domain was viewed with great distrust by Catholics around the world, and the French emperor Napoleon III had guaranteed the independence of Rome from Italy by stationing a French garrison in Rome.. Victor Emmanuel was wary of the international repercussions of attacking the Papal States, and discouraged his subjects from participating in revolutionary ventures with such intentions. Nonetheless, Garibaldi believed he had the secret support of his government..In 1864 he visited London, where his presence was received with enthusiasm by the population.. He met the British prime minister Viscount Palmerston, as well as other revolutionaries then living in exile in the city. At that time, his ambitious international project included the liberation of a range of occupied nations, such as Croatia, Greece, Hungary. He also visited Bedford and was given a tour of the Britannia Iron Works, where he planted a tree which is still growing..Despite being elected again to the Italian parliament, Garibaldi spent much of his late years in Caprera..He however supported an ambitious project of land reclamation in the marshy areas of southern Lazio..In 1879 he founded the "League of Democracy" which advocated universal suffrage, abolition of ecclesiastical property, emancipation of women, and maintenance of a standing army..Ill and confined to bed by arthritis, he made trips to Calabria and Sicily.. In 1880, he married Francesca Armosino, with whom he previously had 3 children..On his deathbed, Garibaldi asked for his bed to be moved to where he could gaze at the emerald and sapphire sea.. Upon his death on 2 June 1882 at the age of almost 75, his wishes for a simple funeral and cremation were not respected.. He was buried in his farm on the island of Caprera alongside his last wife and some of his children...

The tower stands on the Abbey Craig, a volcanic crag above Cambuskenneth Abbey, from which Wallace was said to have watched the gathering of the army of King Edward I of England, just before the Battle of Stirling Bridge.. The monument is open to the general public. Visitors climb the 246 step spiral staircase to the viewing gallery inside the monument's crown, which provides expansive views of the Ochil Hills and the Forth Valley..A number of artifacts believed to have belonged to Wallace are on display inside the monument, including the Wallace Sword, a 1.63-metre (5 ft, 4 in) long sword weighing almost 3 kilograms.. Inside is also a Hall of Heroes, a series of busts of famous Scots,
effectively a small national Hall of Fame...

Quote:
Sir William Wallace (Medieval Gaelic: Uilliam Uallas; modern Scottish Gaelic: Uilleam Uallas; Norman French: William le Waleys; c. 1270 – 23 August 1305) was a Scottish landowner who became one of the main leaders during the Wars of Scottish Independence..Along with Andrew Moray, Wallace defeated an English army at the Battle of Stirling Bridge in September 1297 (Age 27), and was appointed Guardian of Scotland, serving until his defeat at the Battle of Falkirk in July 1298.. In August 1305 Wallace was captured in Robroyston near Glasgow and handed over to King Edward I of England, who had him hanged, drawn, and quartered for high treason and crimes against English civilians..The origins of the Wallace surname and its association with southwest Scotland are also far from certain, other than the name's being derived from the Old English wylisc (pronounced "wullish") meaning "foreigner" or "Welshman".. It is possible that all the Wallaces in the Clyde area were medieval immigrants from Wales, but given that the term was also used for local Cumbric-speaking Strathclyde Welsh, it seems equally likely that the surname refers to people who were seen as being "Welsh" due to their Cumbric language..

When Wallace was growing up,King Alexander III ruled Scotland. His reign had seen a period of peace and economic stability. On 19 March 1286, however, Alexander died after falling from his horse..The heir to the throne was Alexander's granddaughter, Margaret, Maid of Norway. As she was still a child and in Norway, the Scottish lords set up a government of guardians.. Margaret fell ill on the voyage to Scotland and died in Orkney on 26 September 1290.. The lack of a clear heir led to a period known as the "Great Cause", with several families laying claim to the throne...Campaigns like Edward I of England's wars in Wales might have provided a good opportunity for a younger son of a landholder to become a mercenary soldier.. Wallace's personal seal bears the archer's insignia,so he may have fought as an archer in Edward's army..Following the trial, on 23 August 1305, Wallace was taken from the hall to the Tower of London, then stripped naked and dragged through the city at the heels of a horse to the Elms at Smithfield.. He was hanged, drawn and quartered — strangled by hanging, but released while he was still alive, emasculated, eviscerated and his bowels burnt before him, beheaded, then cut into 4 parts.. His preserved head (dipped in tar) was placed on a pike atop London Bridge.. It was later joined by the heads of the brothers, John and Simon Fraser.. His limbs were displayed, separately, in Newcastle upon Tyne,Berwick-upon-Tweed, Stirling, and Perth..
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wallace_Monument
http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=231 Did the priest give a poetic benediction?. "The Lord bless thee and keep thee..?. It was in Latin..You don't speak Latin? Well that's something we shall have to remedy, isn't it?... http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=623
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