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Old 19-08-2014, 11:10 PM   #264
lightgiver
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Lightbulb The Cave



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'Umar, also spelled Omar (Arabic: عمر بن الخطاب, translit.: `Umar ibn Al-Khattāb, Umar Son of Al-Khattab, born 579 CE – died 3 November 644 CE), was one of the most powerful and influential Muslim caliphs (guardians) in history.. He was a Sahabah or companion of the Islamic prophet Muhammad. He succeeded Abu Bakr (632–634) as the second Rashid of the Rashidun Caliphate on 23 August 634..

He was an expert Islamic jurist and is best known for his pious and just nature, which earned him the title Al-Faruq ("the one who distinguishes between right and wrong"). He is sometimes referred to as Umar I by historians of Islam, since a later Umayyad caliph, Umar II, also bore that name..Under Umar, the Rashidun Caliphate expanded at an unprecedented rate, ruling the whole Sasanian Empire and more than two thirds of the Byzantine Empire.. His attacks against the Sassanid Persian Empire resulted in the conquest of Persia in fewer than two years.. It was Umar, according to Jewish tradition, who set aside the Christian ban on Jews and allowed them into Jerusalem and to worship..

Despite literacy being uncommon in pre-Islamic Arabia, Umar learned to read and write in his youth. Though not a poet himself, he developed a love for poetry and literature..According to the tradition of Quraish, while still in his teenage years, Umar learned martial arts, horse riding and wrestling. He was tall, physically powerful and was soon to become a renowned wrestler.. Umar was also a gifted orator, and due to his intelligence and overwhelming personality, he succeeded his father as an arbitrator of conflicts among the tribes..In addition, Umar followed the traditional profession of Quraish. He became a merchant and made several journeys to Rome and Persia, where he is said to have met the various scholars and analyzed the Roman and Persian societies closely.. However, as a merchant he is believed to have never been successful.. Drinking alcohol was very common among the Quraish, and Umar was also fond of drinking in his pre-Islamic days..Umar was 27 when he accepted Islam...

On 22 August Caliph Abu Bakr died. Umar assumed the office of Caliph on the same day. He then addressed the Muslims in his Inaugural address:

"O ye faithful! Abu Bakr is no more amongst us. He has the satisfaction that he has successfully piloted the ship of the Muslim state to safety after negotiating the stormy sea. He successfully waged the apostasy wars, and thanks to him, Islam is now supreme in Arabia. After Abu Bakr, the mantle of the Caliphate has fallen on my shoulders. I swear it before God that I never coveted this office. I wished that it would have devolved on some other person more worthy than me. But now that in national interest, the responsibility for leading the Muslims has come to vest in me, I assure you that I will not run away from my post, and will make an earnest effort to discharge the onerous duties of the office to the best of my capacity in accordance with the injunctions of Islam. Allah has examined me from you and you from me, In the performance of my duties, I will seek guidance from the Holy Book, and will follow the examples set by the Holy Prophet and Abu Bakr. In this task I seek your assistance. If I follow the right path, follow me. If I deviate from the right path, correct me so that we are not led astray...

As a young man, Abu Bakr became a merchant and he travelled extensively in Arabia and neighboring lands in the Middle East, through which he gained both wealth and experience. He eventually came to be recognized as the chief of his clan.. On his return from a business trip to Yemen, he was informed that in his absence Muhammad had openly declared his prophethood.. Not long after, Abu Bakr accepted Islam and was the first person outside the family of Muhammad to openly become a Muslim. He was instrumental in the conversion of many people to the Islamic faith and early in 623, Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha was married to Muhammad, strengthening the ties between the two men...Abu Bakr's Caliphate lasted for a little over two years (or 27 months), ending with his death after an illness. Though the period of his caliphate was not long, it included successful invasions of the two most powerful empires of the time, a remarkable achievement in its own right. He set in motion a historical trajectory that in few decades would lead to one of the largest empires in history...The lineage of Abu Bakr joined that of Muhammad in the 8th degree in their common ancestor Murrah ibn Ka'b..

If ye help not (your Leader) (it is no matter): for Allah did indeed help him; when the unbelievers drove him out: he had no more than one companion: they two were in the cave, and he said to his companion "Have no Fear, for Allah is with us": then Allah sent down His peace upon him, and strengthened him with forces which ye saw not, and humbled to the depths the word of the Unbelievers. But the word of Allah is exalted to the heights: for Allah is Exalted in might, Wise...

'Aa'ishah, Abu Sa`eed al-Khudri and ibn 'Abbaas in interpreting this verse said that Abu Bakr was the companion who stayed with Muhammad in the cave..After staying at the cave for 3 days and 3 nights, Abu Bakr and Muhammad proceed to Medina, staying for some time at Quba, a suburb of Medina. While Sunni sources portray Abu bakr in an exalted light in the cave, Shia sources however generally tend to portray the incident in the cave as a Quranic condemndation of Abu Bakr for cowardice and fear..In Medina, Muhammad decided to construct a mosque. A piece of land was chosen and the price of the land was paid for by Abu Bakr. Muslims constructed a mosque named Al-Masjid al-Nabawi at the site and Abu Bakr also took part in construction. Abu Bakr was paired with Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari (who was from Medina) as a brother in faith. Abu Bakr's relationship with Khaarjah was most cordial, which was further strengthened when Abu Bakr married Habiba, a daughter of Khaarijah..

Khaarij ah bin Zaid Ansari used to live at Sunh, a suburb of Medina, and Abu Bakr also settled there. After Abu Bakr's family arrived in Medina he bought another house near Muhammad's..The climate of Mecca was dry, but the climate of Medina was damp and this adversely affected the health of the immigrants, so that on arrival most of them fell sick.. Abu Bakr also suffered from fever for several days and during this time he was attended to by Khaarijah and his family. At Mecca, Abu Bakr was a trader in cloth and he started the same business in Medina. He was a wholesaler, and had his store at Sunh, and from there cloth was supplied to the market at Medina. Soon his business flourished at Medina. Early in 623, Abu Bakr's daughter Aisha, who was already engaged to Muhammad, was handed over to Muhammad in a simple marriage ceremony, and this further strengthened the relation between Abu Bakr and Muhammad...

Umar's visit to Jerusalem is documented in several sources. A recently discovered Judeo-Arabic text has disclosed the following anecdote:

"Umar ordered Gentiles and a group of Jews to sweep the area of the Temple Mount. Umar oversaw the work. The Jews which had come sent letters to the rest of the Jews in Palestine and informed them that Umar had permitted resettlement of Jerusalem by Jews. Umar, after some consultation, permitted seventy Jewish households to return. They returned to live in the southern part of the city, i.e. the Market of the Jews. (Their aim was to be near the water of Silwan and the Temple Mount and its gates). Then the Commander Umar granted them this request. The seventy families moved to Jerusalem from Tiberias and the area around it with their wives and children."

It is also reported in the name of the Alexandrian Bishop Eutychius (932-940 CE) that the rock known as the Temple Mount had been a place of ruins as far back as the time of the Empress Helena, mother of Constantine the Great, who built churches in Jerusalem. "The Byzantines," he said, "had deliberately left the ancient site of the Temple as it was, and had even thrown rubbish on it, so that a great heap of rubble formed." It was only when Umar marched into Jerusalem with an army that he asked Kaab, a Jew, "Where do you advise me to build a place of worship?" Kaab indicated the Temple Rock, now a gigantic heap of ruins from the Temple of Jupiter.. The Jews, Kaab explained, had briefly won back their old capital a quarter of a century before (when Persians overran Syria and Palestine), but they had not had time to clear the site of the Temple, for the Rums (Byzantines) had recaptured the city. It was then that Umar ordered the rubbish on the Ṣakhra (rock) to be removed by the Nabataeans, and after 3 showers of heavy rain had cleansed the Rock, he instituted prayers there.. Until this day, the place is known as ḳub
bat es ṣakhra, the Dome of the Rock...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Umar
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Milarepa%27s_Cave
http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=377In time you will come to regard me not only with respect and awe, but with love..All commercial television and radio transmission facilities throughout the world will be tied into my communications system by 1000 hours Friday..At that time I will state my intentions for the future of mankind...http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...&postcount=708

Last edited by lightgiver; 19-08-2014 at 11:33 PM.
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