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Old 18-08-2014, 08:23 PM   #270
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Arrow Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud ben Mohammed Anoun (Arabic: عبد الواحد بن مسعود بن محمد عنون‎) was principal secretary to the Moroccan ruler Mulay Ahmad al-Mansur, and ambassador to the court of Queen Elizabeth I of England in 1600, to promote the establishment of an Anglo-Moroccan alliance..The visit of Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud followed the sailing of The Lion in 1551, and the 1585 establishment of the English Barbary Company, which had the objective of developing trade between England and Morocco.. Diplomatic relations and an alliance were established between Elizabeth and the Barbary states..

The last years of the 16th century saw major English successes against Spain, with the English victory against the Spanish Armada in 1588, and the Capture of Cadiz by the Earl of Essex in 1597. As a result, King Ahmad al-Mansur decided to send an embassy to propose a joint invasion of Spain. Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud was accompanied by al Haji Messa and al Haji Bahanet, as well as an interpreter named Abd el-Dodar, an Andalusian by birth, under cover of a trade mission to Aleppo with a stopover in London. Altogether, the embassy numbered 16 (including some prisoners being returned to England), and sailed on board The Eagle under Robert Kitchen.. He reached Dover on 8 August 1600..

Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spent 6 months at the court of Elizabeth, at the age of 42, in order to negotiate an alliance against Spain.. Abd el-Ouahed ben Messaoud spoke some Spanish, but he communicated to the Queen through his interpreter who spoke in Italian.. They met with the Queen on 19 August, and again on 10 September..The Moroccan ruler wanted the help of an English fleet to invade Spain, Elizabeth refused, but welcomed the embassy as a sign of insurance, and instead accepted to establish commercial agreements.. Queen Elizabeth and King Ahmad continued to discuss various plans for combined military operations, with Elizabeth requesting a payment of 100,000 pounds in advance to King Hamet for the supply of a fleet, and Hamet asking for a tall ship to be sent to get the money.. Discussions however remained inconclusive, and both rulers died
within 2 years of the embassy...

The Lion was commanded by brothers Sir Robert Barton and Sir Andrew Barton and captured by the English in 1511. The ship did not belong to the king but was fitted out for warfare by the Barton brothers. She was around 120 tons with a crew of forty, and probably the largest merchant ship used and hired by James IV of Scotland; small in comparison the king's Margaret and Great Michael.. Robert Barton took James IV of Scotland to the Isle of May in the Lion in September 1506.. Andrew Barton took the Lion and the small Jennet of Purwyn, (which was a captured Danish ship) close to England in June 1511. He was acting with a royal Letter of Marque, which was a license to plunder Portuguese ships. Both ships were captured by Sir Edward and Sir Thomas Howard and taken to Blackwall. Andrew Barton was killed during their capture..Othello has its source in the 1565 tale, "Un Capitano Moro" from Gli Hecatommithi by Giovanni Battista Giraldi Cinthio. While no English translation of Cinthio was available in Shakespeare's lifetime, it is probable that Shakespeare knew both the Italian original and Gabriel Chappuy's 1584 French translation. Cinthio's tale may have been based on an actual incident occurring in Venice about 1508.. It also resembles an incident described in the earlier tale of "The Three Apples", one of the stories narrated in the One Thousand and One Nights (Arabian Nights).. Desdemona is the only named character in Cinthio's tale, his other characters being identified as the Moor, the squadron leader, the ensign, and the ensign's wife... now the very witching time of night, when church yards yawn and hell itself breathes out contagion to this world.. O, from this time forth my thoughts be bloody or be nothing worth!..

Last edited by lightgiver; 18-08-2014 at 08:30 PM.
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