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Old 30-07-2014, 06:27 PM   #572
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Lightbulb Creatures Of Prometheus

Joseph II (Joseph Benedikt Anton Michael Adam; 13 March 1741 – 20 February 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790 and ruler of the Habsburg lands from 1780 to 1790. He was the eldest son of Empress Maria Theresa and her husband, Francis I, and was the brother of Marie Antoinette..Like many of the "enlightened monarchs" of his time, Joseph was a lover and patron of the arts and is remembered as such. He was known as the "Musical King" and steered Austrian high culture towards a more Germanic orientation.. He commissioned the German-language opera Die Entf├╝hrung aus dem Serail from Mozart. The young Ludwig van Beethoven was commissioned to write a funeral cantata for him, but it was not performed because of its technical difficulty..While the Czechs credited Joseph II with educational reforms, religious toleration, and the easing of censorship, they condemned his policies of centralization and Germanization that they blamed for causing a decline in Czech culture..He is buried in tomb number 42 in the Imperial Crypt in Vienna. He asked that his epitaph read: "Here lies Joseph II, who failed in all he undertook".. Joseph was succeeded by his brother, Leopold II..The first important modern scholarly study, and the first to make systematic use of archival research was the three-volume study of 1888 by the Hungarian historian Henrik Marczali. He was Jewish and a product of the bourgeois-liberal school of historiography in Hungary, portraying Joseph as a Liberal hero..Joseph's image in popular memory has been varied...

At first Mozart thought he needed to finish his opera in only two months, because tentative plans were made to perform it at the September visit of the Russian Grand Duke Paul (son of Catherine the Great and heir to the Russian throne). However, it was ultimately decided to perform operas by Gluck instead, giving Mozart more time..

It was around this time that Mozart articulated his views about the role of the composer and the librettist in the preparation of an opera. He wrote to his father (13 October 1781):

I would say that in an opera the poetry must be altogether the obedient daughter of the music. Why are Italian comic operas popular everywhere – in spite of the miserable libretti? … Because the music reigns supreme, and when one listens to it all else is forgotten.. An opera is sure of success when the plot is well worked out, the words written solely for the music and not shoved in here and there to suit some miserable rhyme ... The best thing of all is when a good composer, who understands the stage and is talented enough to make sound suggestions, meets an able poet, that true phoenix; in that case, no fears need be entertained as to the applause – even of the ignorant..

With the delays for rewriting, the composition took several more months. The premiere took place on 16 July 1782, at the Burgtheater in Vienna..The theatre opened on 14 March 1741, the creation of the Habsburg Empress Maria Theresa of Austria who wanted a theatre next to her palace..The theatre was moved to a new building at the Ringstra├če on 14 October 1888 designed by Gottfried Semper and Karl Freiherr von Hasenauer..In 1943, under Nazi rule, a notoriously extreme production of The Merchant of Venice was staged at the Burgtheater..On March 12, 1945 the Burgtheater was largely destroyed in a bombing raid, and, one month later, on April 12, 1945, it was further damaged by a fire of unknown origin.. After the war, the theatre was restored between 1953 and 1955.. The classic Burgtheater style and the Burgtheater-German language were
trend-setting for German language theatres... robin red-breast in a cage, puts all of Heaven in a rage..Think to yourself that every day is your last..The hour to which you do not look forward will come as a welcome surprise...

Last edited by lightgiver; 30-07-2014 at 07:28 PM.
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