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Old 20-07-2014, 04:35 PM   #29
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The Republic (Greek: Πολιτεία, Politeia; Latin: De Republica) is a Socratic dialogue, written by Plato around 380 BC, concerning the definition of justice (δικαιοσύνη), the order and character of the just city-state and the just man, reason by which ancient readers used the name On Justice as an alternative title (not to be confused with the spurious dialogue also titled On Justice).. The dramatic date of the dialogue has been much debated and though it must take place some time during the Peloponnesian War, "there would be jarring anachronisms if any of the candidate specific dates between 432 and 404 were assigned".. It is Plato's best-known work and has proven to be one of the most intellectually and historically influential works of philosophy and political theory.. In it, Socrates along with various Athenians and foreigners discuss the meaning of justice and examine whether or not the just man is happier than the unjust man by considering a series of different cities coming into existence "in speech", culminating in a city (Kallipolis) ruled by philosopher-kings; and by examining the nature of existing regimes. The participants also discuss the theory of forms, the immortality of the soul, and the roles of the philosopher and of poetry in society...

Book I - While visiting the Piraeus with Glaucon, Socrates is asked by Polemarchus to join him for a celebration. Cephalus, Polemarchus, and Thrasymachus are then each asked their definitions of justice by Socrates. Cephalus defines justice as giving what is owed. Polemarchus says justice is "the art which gives good to friends and evil to enemies". While Thrasymachus proclaims "justice is nothing else than the interest of the stronger". Socrates overturns their definitions and says that is your advantage to be just and disadvantage to be unjust. The first book ends in aporia concerning its essence..Aporia (Ancient Greek: ἀπορία: "impasse, difficulty of passing, lack of resources, puzzlement") denotes in philosophy a philosophical puzzle or state of puzzlement and in rhetoric a rhetorically useful expression of doubt...

Book III - Socrates and his companions Adeimantus and Glaucon conclude their discussion concerning the education. Socrates breaks the educational system into two. Socrates, Adeimantus and Glaucon came to a conclusion that Poetry (libelous) and fiction should be taken out of the guardians educational system. They rather suggested that guardians should be educated on these four virtues: wisdom, courage, justice and temperance. They also suggested that the second part of the guardians education should be on gymnastics. With the physical training they will be able to live without getting medical attention often. In other words, the physical education or training will help prevent illness and weakness. In summary, Socrates asserts that both male and female guardians be given the same education, that all wives and children be shared and that ownership of private property ought to be prohibited amongst them. The following outlines stages that guardians should grow through before they are able to lead their people: Until 18, basic intellectual study and physical training. Followed by 2 years of military training. Followed by ten years of mathematics. At 30, five years of dialectic. Followed by 15 years as leaders, trying to 'lead people from the cave' (note, this is figurative, not literal. Upon reaching 50, they are fully aware of the
form of the good and totally mature - ready to lead!..

Bertrand Russell - In his A History of Western Philosophy (1945), Bertrand Russell identifies 3 parts to the Republic..

Books I–V: the eutopia portraying the ideal community and the education of the Guardians, parting from attempting to define justice;

Books VI–VII: define “philosopher”, since philosophers are the ideal rulers of such a community;

Books VIII–X: discuss the pros and cons of various practical forms of government.

The core of the second part is discussed in the Allegory of the Cave, and articles related to the Theory of (ideal) forms. The third part concerns the Five regimes and is strongly related to The Laws dialogue; and the Myth of Er is a legend that concludes Plato's Republic (10.614-10.621).. The story includes an account of the cosmos and the afterlife that greatly influenced religious, philosophical, and scientific thought for many centuries..Although called the Myth of Er, the word "myth" means "word, speech, account", rather than the modern meaning. The word is used at the end when Socrates explains that because Er did not drink the waters of Lethe, the account (mythos in Greek) was preserved for us..Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS (18 May 1872 Ravenscroft – 2 February 1970 Plas Penrhyn) was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, historian, social critic and political activist.. At various points in his life he considered himself a liberal, a socialist, and a pacifist, but he also admitted that he had never been any of these in any profound sense.. He was born in Monmouthshire, into
one of the most prominent Aristocratic families in Britain..."Gradually, by selective breeding, the congenital differences between rulers and ruled will increase until they become almost different species..A revolt of the plebs would become as unthinkable as an organized insurrection of sheep against the practice of eating mutton"..The Impact of Science on Society...

Last edited by lightgiver; 20-07-2014 at 04:55 PM.
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