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Old 04-07-2014, 01:48 PM   #13
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Lightbulb Burn

A burn is a type of injury to flesh or skin caused by heat, electricity, chemicals, friction, or radiation.. Burns that affect only the superficial skin are known as superficial or first-degree burns. When damage penetrates into some of the underlying layers, it is a partial-thickness or second-degree burn. In a full-thickness or third-degree burn, the injury extends to all layers of the skin. A fourth-degree burn additionally involves injury to deeper tissues, such as muscle or bone..While large burns can be fatal, modern treatments developed since 1960 have significantly improved the outcomes, especially in children and young adults.. Globally, about 11 million people seek medical treatment, and 300,000 die from burns each year.. In the United States, approximately 4% of those admitted to a burn center die from their injuries.. The long-term outcome is primarily related to the size of burn and the age of the person affected..Burns are caused by a variety of external sources classified as thermal (heat-related), chemical, electrical, and radiation.. In the United States, the most common causes of burns are: fire or flame (44%), scalds (33%), hot objects (9%), electricity (4%), and chemicals (3%).. Most (69%) burn injuries occur at home or at work (9%), and most are accidental, with 2% due to assault by another, and 1-2% resulting from a suicide attempt.. These sources can cause inhalation injury to the airway and/or lungs, occurring in about 6%..Burn injuries occur more commonly in the poor.. Smoking is a risk factor, although alcohol use is not.. Fire-related burns are generally more common in colder climates.. Specific risk factors in the developing world include cooking with open fires or on the floor as well as developmental disabilities in children and chronic diseases in adults..n the United States, fire and hot liquids are the most common causes of burns.. Of house fires that result in death, smoking causes 25% and heating devices cause 22%.. Almost half of injuries are due to efforts to fight a fire.. Scalding is caused by hot liquids or gases and most commonly occurs from exposure to hot drinks, high temperature tap water in baths or showers, hot cooking oil, or steam.. Scald injuries are most common in children under the age of five[10] and, in the United States and Australia, this population makes up about two-thirds of all burns.. Contact with hot objects is the cause of about 20-30% of burns in children.. Generally, scalds are first- or second-degree burns, but third-degree burns may also result, especially with prolonged contact.. Fireworks are a common cause of burns during holiday seasons in many countries.. This is a particular risk for adolescent males..Most chemical burn deaths are secondary to ingestion.. Common agents include: sulfuric acid as found in toilet cleaners, sodium hypochlorite as found in bleach, and halogenated hydrocarbons as found in paint remover, among others..A well-known sign/countersign used by the Allied forces on D-Day during World War II: the challenge/sign was "flash", the password "thunder", and the countersign (to challenge the person giving the first code word) "Welcome"..The signs are often worked into a sentence in some way, nominally to obfuscate which words are key in case there are spies nearby. An example would be the sign "blue" and the countersign "moon"...

Electrical burns or injuries are classified as high voltage (greater than or equal to 1000 volts), low voltage (less than 1000 volts), or as flash burns secondary to an electric arc.. The most common causes of electrical burns in children are electrical cords (60%) followed by electrical outlets (14%).. Lightning may also result in electrical burns.. Risk factors for being struck include involvement in outdoor activities such as mountain climbing, golf and field sports, and working outside.. Mortality from a lightning strike is about 10%..While electrical injuries primarily result in burns, they may also cause fractures or dislocations secondary to blunt force trauma or muscle contractions.. In high voltage injuries, most damage may occur internally and thus the extent of the injury cannot be judged by examination of the skin alone.. Contact with either low voltage or high voltage may produce cardiac arrhythmias or cardiac arrest..Radiation burns may be caused by protracted exposure to ultraviolet light (such as from the sun, tanning booths or arc welding) or from ionizing radiation (such as from radiation therapy, X-rays or radioactive fallout).. Sun exposure is the most common cause of radiation burns and the most common cause of superficial burns overall..Microwave burns occur via thermal heating caused by the microwaves.. While exposures as short as two seconds may cause injury, overall this is an uncommon occurrence..In those hospitalized from scalds or fire burns, 3–10% are from assault.. Reasons include: child abuse, personal disputes, spousal abuse, elder abuse, and business disputes.. An immersion injury or immersion scald may indicate child abuse...At temperatures greater than 44 °C (111 °F), proteins begin losing their 3-dimensional shape and start breaking down.. This results in cell and tissue damage.. Many of the direct health effects of a burn are secondary to disruption in the normal functioning of the skin.. In those who have a headache or are dizzy and have a fire-related burn, carbon monoxide poisoning should be considered.. Cyanide poisoning should also be considered..Historically, about half of all burns were deemed to be preventable.. Burn prevention programs have significantly decreased rates of serious burns..Honey has been used since ancient times to aid wound healing and may be beneficial in first- and second-degree burns.. The evidence for aloe vera is of poor quality.. While it might be beneficial in reducing pain, and a review from 2007 found tentative evidence of improved healing times a subsequent review from 2012 did not find improved healing over silver sulfadiazine..In Afghanistan, people with more than 60% TBSA burns rarely survive..As of 2004, 11 million burns required medical care worldwide and resulted in 300,000 deaths.. This makes it the 4th leading cause of injuries after motor vehicle collisions, falls, and violence..Overall, nearly 60% of fatal burns occur in Southeast Asia with a rate of 11.6 per 100,000.. The number of fatal burns has increased from 280,000 in 1990 to 338,000 in 2010..Cave paintings from more than 3,500 years ago document burns and their management.. The earliest Egyptian records on treating burns describes dressings prepared with milk from mothers of baby boys, and the 1500 BCE Edwin Smith Papyrus describes treatments using honey and the salve of resin.. Many other treatments have been used over the ages, including the use of tea leaves by the Chinese documented to 600 BCE, pig fat and vinegar by
Hippocrates documented to 400 BCE, and wine and myrrh by Celsus documented to 100 CE...

The Hippocratic Oath is an oath historically taken by physicians and other healthcare professionals swearing to practice medicine honestly.. It is widely believed to have been written by Hippocrates, often regarded as the father of western medicine, or by one of his students.. The oath is written in Ionic Greek (late 5th century BC), and is usually included in the Hippocratic Corpus. Classical scholar Ludwig Edelstein proposed that the oath was written by Pythagoreans, a theory that has been questioned because of the lack of evidence for a school of Pythagorean medicine.. Of historic and traditional value, the oath is considered a rite of passage for practitioners of medicine in many countries, although nowadays the modernized version of the text varies among them..The Hippocratic Oath (horkos) is one of the most widely known of Greek medical texts. It requires a new physician to swear upon a number of healing gods that he will uphold a number of professional ethical standards..

I swear by Apollo, the healer, Asclepius, Hygieia, and Panacea, and I take to witness all the gods, all the goddesses, to keep according to my ability and my judgment, the following Oath and agreement:

To consider dear to me, as my parents, him who taught me this art; to live in common with him and, if necessary, to share my goods with him; To look upon his children as my own brothers, to teach them this art; and that by my teaching, I will impart a knowledge of this art to my own sons, and to my teacher's sons, and to disciples bound by an indenture and oath according to the medical laws, and no others..

I will prescribe regimens for the good of my patients according to my ability and my judgment and never do harm to anyone..

I will give no deadly medicine to any one if asked, nor suggest any such counsel; and similarly I will not give a woman a pessary to cause an abortion..

But I will preserve the purity of my life and my arts..

I will not cut for stone, even for patients in whom the disease is manifest; I will leave this operation to be performed by practitioners, specialists in this art..

In every house where I come I will enter only for the good of my patients, keeping myself far from all intentional ill-doing and all seduction and especially from the pleasures of love with women or men, be they free or slaves..

All that may come to my knowledge in the exercise of my profession or in daily commerce with men, which ought not to be spread abroad, I will keep secret and will never reveal..

If I keep this oath faithfully, may I enjoy my life and practice my art, respected by all humanity and in all times; but if I swerve from it or violate it, may the reverse be my life...'s a living thing, Brian.. It breathes, it eats, and it hates.. The only way to beat it is to think like it.. To know that this flame will spread this way across the door and up across the ceiling, not because of the physics of flammable liquids, but because it wants to. Some guys on this job, the fire owns them, makes 'em fight it on it's level, but the only way to truly kill it is to love it a little..I sent away for the copy of Life magazine..The one with your picture on the front.. It's a collectible...
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