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Old 19-06-2014, 05:32 PM   #183
lightgiver
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Vatican City State (Stato della Città del Vaticano; , is a sovereign city-state whose territory consists of a walled enclave within the city of Rome. It has an area of approximately 44 hectares (110 acres), and a population of around 840..This makes Vatican City the smallest internationally recognized independent state in the world by both area and population..Vatican City is an ecclesiastical or sacerdotal-monarchical state, ruled by the Bishop of Rome—the Pope. The highest state functionaries are all Catholic clergymen of various national origins. It is the sovereign territory of the Holy See (Sancta Sedes) and the location of the Pope's official residence, referred to as the Apostolic Palace.. The Popes have generally resided in the area that in 1929 became Vatican City since the return from Avignon in 1377, but have also at times resided in the Quirinal Palace in Rome and elsewhere..The territory includes St. Peter's Square, distinguished from the territory of Italy only by a white line along the limit of the square, where it touches Piazza Pio XII. St. Peter's Square is reached through the Via della Conciliazione which runs from close to the Tiber River to St. Peter's. This grand approach was constructed by Benito Mussolini after the conclusion of the Lateran Treaty..Castel Gandolfo and the named basilicas are patrolled internally by police agents of Vatican City State and not by Italian police. According to the Lateran Treaty (Art. 3) St. Peter's Square, up to but not including the steps leading to the basilica, is normally patrolled by the Italian police..There are no passport controls for visitors entering Vatican City from the surrounding Italian territory. There is free public access to Saint Peter's Square and Basilica and, on the occasion of papal general audiences, to the hall in which they are held. For these audiences and for major ceremonies in Saint Peter's Basilica and Square, tickets free of charge must be obtained beforehand. The Vatican Museums, incorporating the Sistine Chapel, usually charge an entrance fee. There is no general public access to the gardens, but guided tours for small groups can be arranged to the gardens and excavations under the basilica..The gardens date back to medieval times when orchards and vineyards extended to the north of the Papal Apostolic Palace. In 1279 Pope Nicholas III (Giovanni Gaetano Orsini, 1277–1280) moved his residence back to the Vatican from the Lateran Palace and enclosed this area with walls..He planted an orchard (pomerium), a lawn (pratellum) and a garden (viridarium)..The gardens cover approximately 23 hectares (57 acres) which is most of the Vatican Hill. The highest point is 60 metres (200 ft) above mean sea level. Stone walls bound the area in the North, South and West..The name "Vatican" was already in use in the time of the Roman Republic for a marshy area on the west bank of the Tiber across from the city of Rome. Under the Roman Empire, many villas were constructed there, after Agrippina the Elder (14 BC – 18 October AD 33) drained the area and laid out her gardens in the early 1st century AD. In AD 40, her son, Emperor Caligula (31 August AD 12–24 January AD 41; r. 37–41) built in her gardens a circus for charioteers (AD 40) that was later completed by Nero, the Circus Gaii et Neronis, usually called, simply, the Circus of Nero..Olympus Mons is partially surrounded by a region of distinctive grooved or corrugated terrain known as the Olympus Mons aureole...


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In the taxonomical structure "Genus → species", a species is described as sui generis if its genus was created to classify it (i.e., its uniqueness at the time of classification merited the creation of a new genus, the sole member of which was initially the sui generis species). A species that is the sole extant member of its genus (e.g. the Homo genus) is not necessarily sui generis: extinction may have eliminated other species of that genus..The motto "Sui Generis" has been adopted by the Akitsiraq Law School because it is a sui generis (aboriginal) title in all of Canadian aboriginal law institutes by dint of its title being Inuktitut, the Aboriginal language of the Inuit in the far north of Canada. More importantly, in aboriginal professional legal education, the work of Aboriginal people to define and create contemporary aboriginal education is a thing of its own kind having sui generis admissions and sui generis curriculum..In local government, a sui generis entity is one which does not fit with the general scheme of local governance of a country. For example in England, the City of London and the Isles of Scilly are the 2 sui generis localities, as their forms of local government are both (for historical or geographical reasons) very different from those of elsewhere in the country. Therefore the The City of London and the Isles of Scilly are said to be sui generis authorities, pre-dating recent reforms of local government. The Joint Council of Municipalities of Croatia is a sui generis council of municipalities to Croatians because it formed after international agreement and therefore has no similar example in the rest of the country. The legal status of the Holy See has been described as a sui generis entity possessing an international personality..In military, ad hoc units are created during unpredictable situations, when the cooperation between different units is needed for fast action..The name "Vatican" predates Christianity and comes from the Latin Mons Vaticanus, meaning Vatican Mount..Olympus Mons (Latin for Mount Olympus) is a large shield volcano on the planet Mars. By one measure, it has a height of nearly 22 km (14 mi).. This makes it the second tallest mountain in the Solar System, behind the central peak of Rheasilvia, an impact crater on the proto-planet Vesta, which stands slightly taller.. Olympus Mons stands almost three times as tall as Mount Everest's height above sea level.. Olympus Mons is the youngest of the large Volcanoes on Mars, having formed during Mars's Amazonian Period...
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Vatican_City
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Last edited by lightgiver; 19-06-2014 at 05:33 PM.
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