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Old 14-06-2014, 05:02 AM   #31
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Arrow Breisach

Breisach (formerly Altbreisach) is a town with approximately 16,500 inhabitants, situated along the Rhine in the Rhine Valley, in the district Breisgau-Hochschwarzwald, Baden-Württemberg, Germany, about halfway between Freiburg and Colmar — 20 kilometres away from each — and about 60 kilometres north of Basel near the Kaiserstuhl. A bridge leads over the Rhine to Neuf-Brisach, Alsace..Its name is Celtic and means breakwater. The root Breis can also be found in the French word briser meaning to break. The hill, on which Breisach came into existence was — at least when there was a flood — in the middle of the Rhine until the Rhine was straightened by the engineer Johann Gottfried Tulla in the 19th century, thus breaking its surge..The seat of a Celtic prince was at the hill on which Breisach is built. The Romans maintained an auxiliary castle on Mons Brisiacus (which came from the Celtic word Brisger which means waterbreak) The Staufer founded Breisach as a city in today's sense. But there had already been a settlement with a church at the time. An 11th-century coin from Breisach was found in the Sandur hoard..The first documentation of Jews in town dates to 1301.. During the Black Death in 1349, the community was annihilated after a false blood libel, accusing the town Jews of poisoning the town wells.. After the pogrom, Jews got back to the town until 1424, when they were expelled once again.. In 1550, the community reopened with a cemetery. In 1750, a Jew owned a textile factory in town, employing about 330 weavers.. The Synagogue, built in 1758, was destroyed in November 1938, on Kristallnacht.. In 1825, 14% of the town population was Jewish, (438 individuals), though in 1933 it declined to 231. On October 22, 1940, the town last 34 Jews who did not flee to nearby France or other places, were deported to nearby Gurs internment camp, a concentration camp.. In 1967, the town sole Jewish survivor was a woman who attended the two Jewish cemeteries..A website, dedicated to the town Jewish history, commemorates the names of Jewish victims during the World War II who used to live in town,as also personal stories of survivors and their children.. A Jewish survivor who lived in town named Luois Dreyfuss, gave a report on his biography on Somme cases..

"'Vitulus' and 'Vitula', the calf and the heifer, are named from their greenness (a viriditate) i.e. from their greenhorn age, like a virgin's, for a Vitula is a very little maid and not vigorous, though her mother the 'Juventa', i.e. the 'Vacca', is vigorous." [The Book of Beasts: Being a Translation from a Latin Bestiary of the 12th Century, p.78]..Klein says that the Middle-Latin word vitula is possibly a back formation from Latin vitulari, 'to exult, be joyful', which probably stands for vi-tulari and originally meant 'to lift up one's voice in joy', from *vi, exclamation of joy (compare Greek euoi) + tulo, a secondary form of tollo, 'I raise'. Vitula comes from the Indo-European root *wet-² 'Year'. The originally meaning of these words was 'yearling'. Derivatives: wether (a castrated ram), bellwether, veteran, inveterate (from Latin vetus, old < 'having many years'), veterinary (from Latin veternus, of beasts of burden, of cattle, - perhaps chiefly old cattle), etesian (occurring annually, used of the prevailing northerly summer winds of the Mediterranean, from Greek etos, year), veal (the meat of a calf, from Latin vitellus, a diminutive of vitulus, ‘calf’), vellum (parchment made from calfskin), vitellus (the yolk of an egg), from Latin vitulus, calf, yearling. [Pokorny wet- 1175. Watkins]. ..A Latin title for Virgo was Erigone, — "perhaps from the Homeric Erigeneia, the Early Born, for the constellation is very old" [Allen, Star Names]. Erigone from Greek eri, early, + -gone, from Greek gonos, 'child, procreation, seed'. Greek eri is cognate with our word early from the Indo-European root *ayer- 'Day, morning'. Derivatives: early, ere, erst (as in erstwhile, from Old English aerest, earliest, from Germanic superlative *airista-). [Pokorny aier- 12. Watkins] Klein supplies more cognates: "Compare also the first element in Erigenia, Erigeron (the fleabane, from 'early' + geron, 'an old man'), aristology (Greek ariston 'breakfast')"...And in Vendee the farmer's wife, as the corn-mother, is tossed in a blanket with the last sheaf to bring good luck in the subsequent threshing. Perhaps Caesius had some of this in view when he associated our sky figure with Ruth, the Moabitess gleaning in the fields of Boaz...

Thus she is the oldest purely allegorical representation of innocence and virtue. This legend seems to be first found with Hesiod, and was given in full by Aratos, his longest constellational history in the Phainomena, Other authors mentioned her as Eirene, Irene, the sister of Astraea, and the Pax of the Romans, with the olive branch; as Concordia; as Parthenos Dios, the Virgin Goddess; as Sibulla, the Singing Sibyl, carrying a branch into Hades; and as Tukhe, the Roman Fortuna, because she is a headless constellation, the stars marking the head being very faint..Classical Latin writers occasionally called her Ano, Atargatis, and Derceto, the Syrorum Dea transferred here from Pisces; Cybele drawn by lions, for our Leo immediately precedes her; Diana; Minerva; Panda and Pantica; and even Medusa. Posidippus, 289 B.C., gave Thesbia or Thespia, daughter of Thespius, or of the Theban Asopus; and some said that one of the Muses, even Urania herself, was placed here in the sky by Apollo.In India Virgo was Kanya, the Tamil Kauni, or Maiden, — in Hyde's transcription, Kannae, — mother of the great Krishna, figured as a Goddess sitting before a fire, or as a Gul; and in the Cingalese zodiac as a Woman in a Ship, with a stalk of wheat in her hand. Al Biruni thought this ship marked by the line of stars beta (Zavijava), eta (Zaniah), gamma (Porrima), delta (Auva), and epsilon (Vindemiatrix), like a ship's keel. Varaha Mihira borrowed the Greek name, turning it into Parthena, Partina, or Pathona..The Turcomans knew the constellation as Dufhiza Pakhiza, the Pure Virgin; and the Chinese, as She Sang Neu, the Frigid Maiden; but before their Jesuit days it was Shun Wei, which Miss Clerke translates the Serpent, but Williams, the Quail's Tail, a part of the early stellar figure otherwise known as the Red Bird, Pheasant, or Phoenix...

In Persia it was K hosha, or Khusak, the Ear of Wheat, and Secdeidos de Darzama, this last often translated the "Virgin in Maiden Neatness"; but Ideler, doubting this, cited Beigel's conjecture that it was a Persian rendering of Stachys, one of the Greek titles of Virgo's star Spica. Bayer had it Seclenidos de Darzama..The early Arabs made from some members of the constellation the {Page 464** enormous Lion of their sky; and of others the Kennel Corner, with dogs barking at the Lion.. Their later astronomers, however, adopted the Greek figure, and called it Al 'Adhra' al Nathifah, the Innocent Maiden, remains of which are found in the mediaeval titles Eladari, Eleadari, Adrendesa, and in the Adrenedesa of Albumasar. But as they would not draw the human form, they showed the stars as a sheaf of wheat, Al Sunbulah, or as some stalks with the ripened ears of the same, from the Roman Spica, its brightest star. Kazwini gave both of these Arabian names, the last degenerating into Sunbala, found in Bayer, and Sumbela, still occasionally seen. The Almagest of 1515 says Virgo est Spica..A coin of Sardis, the capital of the kingdom of Lydia, bears her figure with the wheat ear in her left hand and a staff in her right; and the stateres of Macedonia have much the same. The Alfonsine Tables showed her as a very young girl with wings; the Leyden Manuscript and the Hyginus of 1488 as a young woman with branch and caduceus, and the Albumasar of 1489, as a woman with a fillet of wheat ears. The old German illustration also gave her wings, but dressed her in a high-necked, trailing gown; and Durer drew her as a lovely winged angel..Julius Schiller used her stars to represent
Saint James the Less, and Weigel, as the Se7en Portuguese Towers..Kennel Corner Of the Barking Dogs..

Leo, the Lion, is Lion in France, Lowe in Germany, and Leone in Italy.. In Anglo-Norman times it was Leun. It lies between Cancer and Virgo, the bright Denebola 5° north of the faint stars that mark the head of the latter constellation; but Ptolemy extended it to include among its … the group now Coma Berenices.The Persians called it Ser or Shir; the Turks, Artan; the Syrians, Aryo; the Jews, Arye; and the Babylonians, Aru, — all meaning a Lion; the last title frequently being contracted to their letter equivalent to our A...It was the tribal sign of Judah, allotted to him by his father Jacob as recorded in Genesis xlix, 9, and confirmed by Saint John in The Revelation v, 5; Landseer suggesting that this association was from the fact that Leo was the natal sign of Judah and so borne on his signet-ring given to TAMar..One of the sultans of Koniyeh, ancient Iconium, put the stellar figure on his coins..On Ninevite cylinders Leo is depicted as in fatal conflict with a bull, typifying the victory of light over darkness; and in Euphratean astronomy it was additionally known as Gisbar-namru-sa-pan, variously translated, but by Bertin as the Shining Disc which precedes Bel;the latter being our Ursa Major, or in some way intimately connected therewith. Hewitt says that it was the Akkadian Pa-pil-sak, the Sceptre, or the Great Fire; and Sayce identifies it with the Assyrian month Abu, our July-August, the Fiery Hot; Minsheu assigning as the reason for this universal fiery character of the constellation, "because the sunne being in that signe is most raging and hot like a lion."In Leo and Virgo lay the now long forgotten asterism Fahne, of which Ideler wrote:The Flag is a constellation of the heavens, one part in Leo and one part in Virgo. Has many stars. On the iron [the arrowhead of the staff] in front one, on the flag 2, on every fold of the flag one..This is illustrated in the 47th volume of Archaeologia, and it appeared as a distinct constellation in a 15th-century German manuscript, perhaps the original of the work of 1564 from which Ideler quoted. Brown repeats a Euphratean inscription, "The constellation of the Yoke like a flag floated," although he claims no connection here, and associates the Yoke with Capricorn... Can you do anything at allah..There's always a way to blow up X=plosives..The trick is not to be around when they go off.. But aren't you forgetting something - The lady.. As I see it we have 3 choices.. One we can leave her here but there's no guarantee she won't be found, and in her case they won't need a truth drug..2, we can take her with us, but that would make things worse than they are already + And 3... well, that's Andrea's choice, Ramember...

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