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Old 11-05-2014, 12:00 PM   #190
lightgiver
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Lightbulb Spaceburgh



T he Scots language word burgh is derived from the Old English Burh.. In Scotland it refers to corporate entities whose legality is peculiar to Scotland.. (Scottish law was protected and preserved as distinct from laws of England under the Acts of Union of 1707.) Pronunciation is the same as the English word borough, which is a near cognate of the Scots word. The identical English word Burgh (in place names such as Bamburgh, Carrawburgh and Dunstanburgh) sounds exactly like the Scots Burgh, with the emphasis on the 'r',. Another variant is heard in several Cumbrian place names, e.g. Burgh by Sands, Longburgh, Drumburgh..The English language borough, like the Scots Burgh, is derived from the same Old English language word burh (whose dative singular and nominative/accusative plural form byrig sometimes underlies modern place-names, and which had dialectal variants including "burg"; it was also sometimes confused with beorh, beorg, 'mound, hill', on which see Hall 2001, 69-70). The Old English word was originally used for a fortified town or proto-castle (e.g. at Dover Castle or Burgh Castle) and was related to the verb beorgan (cf. Dutch and German bergen), meaning "to keep, save, make secure". In German Burg means castle or fortress, though so many towns grew up around castles that it almost came to mean city, and is incorporated into many placenames, such as Hamburg, Flensburg and Strasburg..

The word has cognates, or near cognates, in other Germanic languages. For example, burg in German, and borg in both Danish and Swedish. The equivalent word is also to be found in Frisian, Dutch, Norwegian, and Icelandic. In southern England, the word took the form bury, as in Canterbury..A number of other European languages have cognate words which were borrowed from the Germanic languages during the Middle Ages, including brog in Irish, bwr or bwrc, meaning "wall, rampart" in Welsh, bourg in French, borgo in Italian, and burgo in Spanish (hence the place-name Burgos)..The most obviously derivative words are burgher in English, Bürger in German or burger in Dutch (literally citizen, with connotations of middle-class in English and other Germanic languages).. Also related are the words bourgeois and belfry (both from the French), and burglar.. More distantly, it is related to words meaning hill or mountain in a number of languages (cf. the second element of iceberg)...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Ma8P4bDtJH8


Quote:
The volume of the Atlantic with its adjacent seas is 354,700,000 cubic kilometers (85,100,000 cu mi) and without them 323,600,000 cubic kilometres (77,640,000 cu mi)...The average depth of the Atlantic, with its adjacent seas, is 3,339 metres (1,826 fathoms; 10,950 ft); without them it is 3,926 metres (2,147 fathoms; 12,880 ft). The greatest depth, Milwaukee Deep with 8,380 metres (4,580 fathoms; 27,500 ft), is in the Puerto Rico Trench. The Atlantic's width varies from 1,538 nautical miles (2,848 km; 1,770 mi) between Brazil and Sierra Leone to over 3,450 nautical miles (6,400 km; 4,000 mi) in the south..Iceberg B-15 is the world's largest recorded iceberg. It measured around 295 km long and 37 km wide (183-23 mi), with a surface area of 11,000 km² (6,835 mi²)—larger than the island of Jamaica. large storm in the Gulf of Alaska generated a trans-Pacific ocean swell that may have contributed to breaking B15-A into many pieces on October 27, 2005. The ice-clogged waters of Antarctica's McMurdo Sound extend about 55 km (35 mi) long and wide...The row over allegations of spying by British diplomats in Moscow escalated as Russian officials accused MI6 of reneging on a "deal" over espionage at the end of the Cold War...Russian state TV had shown footage of a fake "rock" left in a Moscow street and allegedly used by British agents to plant a transmitter. Data from the rock was then supposedly downloaded on to a palm-top computer.. The method is similar to one used in a D.Attenborough's wildlife programme to hide a tiny camera inside artificial elephant dung...http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=b8ri14rw32c
http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Burgh
http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...2&postcount=65The G-eneral who advances without coveting fame and retreats without fearing disgrace, whose only thought is to protect his country and do good service for his sovereign, is the jewel of the kingdom...http://www.davidicke.com/forum/showp...postcount=1713
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