View Single Post
Old 30-04-2014, 08:32 PM   #208
Senior Member
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: Temporary Property
Posts: 36,399
Likes: 231 (185 Posts)
Arrow Dinard

Raynald of Châtillon (French: Renaud de Châtillon, old French: Reynaud de Chastillon) (c. 1125 – July 4, 1187) was a knight who served in the 2nd Crusade and remained in the Holy Land after its defeat.. Raynald was an enormously controversial character in his own lifetime and beyond; Muslim writers often took him to be the chief enemy of Islam..Through his 2nd marriage he became Lord of Oultrejordain in 1177.. In the same year, he led the Crusader army that defeated Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard.. Later he broke a truce with Saladin, attacking several Muslim caravans and sending pirate ships into the Red Sea towards Mekka and Medina..In 1156 Raynald claimed that the Byzantine emperor Manuel I Comnenus had reneged on his promise to pay Raynald a sum of money, and vowed to attack the island of Cyprus in revenge.. When Patriarch Aimery of Limoges refused to finance this expedition, Raynald had the Patriarch seized, stripped naked, beaten, covered in honey, and left in the burning sun on top of the citadel.. When the Patriarch was released, he collapsed in exhaustion and agreed to finance Raynald's expedition against Cyprus. Raynald's forces attacked Cyprus, ravaging the island and pillaging its Christian inhabitants..

1174, the 13-year-old leper Baldwin IV had become King of Jerusalem. Raynald rose to a powerful position in the kingdom..He served as the king's envoy to Emperor Manuel and was rewarded with marriage to Stephanie, the wealthy widow of both Humphrey III of Toron and Miles of Plancy and the heiress of the lordship of Oultrejordain, including the castles Kerak and Montreal to the southeast of the Dead Sea.. These fortresses controlled the trade routes between Egypt and Damascus and gave Raynald access to the Red Sea. He became notorious for his wanton cruelty at Kerak, often having his enemies and hostages flung from its castle walls to be dashed to pieces on the rocks below.In November 1177, heading the army of the Kingdom of Jerusalem, he helped King Baldwin defeat Saladin at the Battle of Montgisard; Saladin narrowly escaped. In spite of a truce between Saladin and the king negotiated in 1180, Raynald plundered a Muslim pilgrim caravan in 1182...
In 1185 the Crusaders and Saladin signed another truce for 4 years. In 1186 Raynald attacked a large Muslim caravan travelling between Cairo and Damascus. He took all the merchants and their families prisoner, made a large amount of booty and refused to receive envoys from Saladin demanding compensation. This led directly to the end of the truce..Saladin sent troops to protect a later caravan (in March 1187) in which his sister was returning from a pilgrimage to Mecca. Later writers (such as the 13th century Old French Continuation of William of Tyre and the Latin Continuation of William of Tyre) conflated these two incidents, claiming erroneously that Saladin's sister, aunt, or even mother, had been taken prisoner, but this is contradicted by Arabic sources, such as Abu Shrama and Ibn al-Athir. King Guy chastised Raynald in an attempt to appease Saladin, but Raynald replied that he was lord of his own lands and that he had made no peace with Saladin. Saladin swore that Raynald would be executed if he was ever taken prisoner..Captured at the Battle of Hattin, where the Crusaders were decisively defeated, he was executed by Saladin himself..The history of the dinar dates to the gold dinar, an early Islamic coin corresponding to the Byzantine denarius auri.,The modern gold dinar is a modern bullion gold coin..The word "dinar" in English is the transliteration of the Arabic دينار (dīnār), which in turn was borrowed from the Greek δηνάριον (dénarion), itself from the Latin dēnārius (q.v.)..Lavardin (Persian: لاوردين‎, also Romanized as Lāvardīn; also known as Dīn) is a village in Kukherd Rural District, Kukherd District, Bastak County, Hormozgan Province, Iran.. At the 2006 census, its population was 109, in 23 families... whole world is in chess.. Any move can be the death of you.. Do anything except remain where you started, and you can't be sure of your end.. Were you sure of your end once...
__________________ + Aga Khan IV receiving a gift of Trinitite - Get set for Ecky thump..I still shudder when I think about the warrior who came up behind me, and the thwacking he gave me with his pork sword...
lightgiver is offline   Reply With Quote