Thread: Royal Marines
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Old 29-04-2014, 05:26 AM   #122
lightgiver
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Lightbulb 13 Men 6 Canoes



Date 7–12 December 1942..'Cockle' Mark 2..Operation Frankton was a commando raid on shipping in the German occupied French port of Bordeaux in the Bay of Biscay during the Second World War. The raid was carried out by a small unit of Royal Marines known as the Royal Marines Boom Patrol Detachment (RMBPD), part of Combined Operations.. The British Prime Minister Winston Churchill believed the mission shortened World War II by 6 Mths and Admiral Louis Mountbatten, the commander of Combined Operations, deemed the raid "the most courageous and imaginative of all the raids ever carried out by the men of Combined Operations"...http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eVBPGZEVRH0
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December 1 – Gasoline rationing begins in the US/2 – Manhattan Project: Below the bleachers of Stagg Field at the University of Chicago, a team led by Enrico Fermi initiates the first self-sustaining nuclear chain reaction (a coded message, "The Italian navigator has landed in the new world" is then sent to U.S. President Franklin D. Roosevelt)/4 - 2 Women, Zofia Kossak and Wanda Filipowicz, risk their lives by setting up the Council for the Assistance of the Jews - USAAF bombers make their first raid on Italy- Works Progress Administration liquidated\5 - CFL Grey Cup: Tor beats Win RCAF, 8 -5 at Toronto\12 - A fire in a hostel in St. John's, Newfoundland, kills 100 people \16- Trade Union Congress backs the Beveridge Report- Hitler orders combat against partisans in Russia & Balkan\17 – The Allies issue the Joint Declaration by Members of the United Nations, the first time they publicly acknowledge the Holocaust/20 - 1st Japanese bombing of Calcutta\22 -Avalanche in Aliquippa, Pennsylvania kills 26, including Vulcan Crucible Steel Co heir-apparent Samuel A. Stafford Sr., when 2 100 ton boulders fall on a bus filled with wartime steel workers on their way home - Airplane carrying prominent Ustashe general Jure Francetić crashes,he dies as result of the injuries on Dec-ember 27 -The Union of Pioneers of Yugoslavia is founded/23- Allies air attack on Den Helder\24 - 1st powered flight of V-1 'buzz bomb', Peenemunde, Germany - Red army occupies German airports at Tasjinskaja & Morozowsk/27- 1st Japanese women camp (Ambarawa) goes into use\28- Oberkommando Wehrmacht orders strategist flight out of Kaukasus/30 - British insurance companies attack the Beveridge Report was an influential document in the founding of the welfare state in the United Kingdom..Highly popular with the public, the report formed the basis for the post-war reforms known as the Welfare State, which include the expansion of NI and the creation of the NHS\31- 60 U boats sunk this month (330,000 ton)- Potatoes Ra-tioned in Holland- Battle in Barents Sea..http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=qrCKDRFj-A8


Mark II canoes, which were given the codename of Cockle, were selected for the raid..The Mark II was a semi rigid 2-man canoe, with the sides made of canvas, a flat bottom, and 15 feet (4.6 m) in length. When collapsed it had to be capable of getting in and out of the 24 inches (610 mm) wide submarine hatch.[9] During the raid each canoe's load would be 2 men, 8 limpet mines,3 sets of paddles, a compass, a depth sounding reel, repair bag, torch, camouflage net, waterproof watch, fishing line,2 hand grenades, rations and water for 6 days, a spanner to activate the mines and a magnet to hold the canoe against the side of cargo ships.. The men also carried a .45 ACP pistol and a Fairbairn-Sykes Fighting Knife..On 10 December the Germans announced that a sabotage squad had been caught on 8 December near the mouth of the Gironde and "finished off in combat". It was not until January 1943 in the absence of other information all 10 men on the raid were posted missing, until news arrived of 2 of them.. Later it was confirmed that 5 ships had been damaged in Bordeaux by mysterious X-plosions.. This information remained until new research of 2010 revealed that a 6th ship had been damaged even more extensively than any of the other 5 reported. This research also revealed that the other 5 ships holed were back in service very shortly afterwards...http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Qvvbn7IObZ4



For their part in the raid Major Hasler was awarded the Distinguished Service Order and Marine Sparks the Distinguished Service Medal (DSM)..Corporal Laver and Marine Mills were also recommended for the DSM which at the time could not be awarded posthumously, so instead they were mentioned in dispatches..Of men who never returned Sergeant Wallace and Marine Ewart were captured on 8 December at the Pointe de Grave (near Le Verdon) and revealed only certain information during their interrogation, and were executed under the Commando Order, on the night 11 December in a sandpit in a wood north of Bordeaux and not at Chateau Magnol, Blanquefort.. A plaque has been erected on the bullet marked wall at the Chateau, but the authenticity of the details on the plaque has been questioned.. A small memorial can also be seen at the Pointe de Grave, where they were captured. In March 2011 a major c. 100,000 euro memorial was to be unveiled at this same spot..After the Royal Marines were executed by a naval firing squad, the Commander of the Navy Admiral Erich Raeder wrote in the Seekriegsleitung war diary that the executions of the captured Royal Marines were something "new in international law, since the soldiers were wearing uniforms"..After having been set ashore, Lieutenant MacKinnon and Marine Conway managed to evade capture for four days, but they were betrayed and arrested by the Gendarmerie and handed over to the Germans at La Reole hospital 30 miles (48 km) south east of Bordeaux, attempting to make their way to the Spanish border. Mackinnon had been admitted to the hospital for treatment for an infected knee..The X-act date of their X-ecution is not known.. New evidence shows that Lieutenant Mackinnon, Corporal Laver, Marine Mills and Marine Conway were not executed in Paris in 1942 but in the same location as Wallace and Ewart under the Commando Order..Corporal Sheard and Marine Moffatt were not drowned on the first night but died of the cold..The body of Marine Moffatt was found on the Île de Ré on 14 December but Corporal Sheard’s body is believed to have been recovered and buried elsewhere further up the coastline.. Corporal Sheard is remembered on the Hero's Stone at his place of birth, North Corner, Devonport...http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6UNEtgQO8Wg
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The 1942 Niksar-Erbaa EQ Occurred at 16:03 local time on 20 December.. It had an estimated magnitude of 7.0 and a maximum felt intensity of IX (violent) on the Mercalli intensity scale, causing 3,000 casualties..In 1902 the 10-degree Mercalli scale was expanded to 12 degrees by Italian physicist Adolfo Cancani.. It was later completely re-written by the German geophysicist August Heinrich Sieberg and became known as the Mercalli-Cancani-Sieberg (MCS) scale...
http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9RRdRGkmszI
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Last edited by lightgiver; 29-04-2014 at 05:35 AM.
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