View Single Post
Old 15-12-2012, 03:23 AM   #53
Senior Member
Join Date: Apr 2008
Location: Inactive
Posts: 36,483
Likes: 237 (190 Posts)
Lightbulb Polo nium

Polonium is a chemical element with the symbol Po and atomic number 84/8+4 = 12, discovered in 1898 by Marie and Pierre Curie. A rare and highly radioactive element with no stable isotopes, polonium is chemically similar to bismuth and tellurium, and it occurs in uranium ores. Applications of polonium are few, and include heaters in space probes, antistatic devices, and sources of neutrons and alpha particles.The actual polonium is a layer of plating which in turn is plated with a material such as gold. This allows the alpha radiation (used in experiments such as cloud chambers) while preventing the polonium from being released and presenting a toxic hazard. According to United Nuclear, they typically sell between four and eight sources per year..

Polonium-210 is widespread in the biosphere, including in human tissues, because of its position in the uranium-238 decay chain. Natural uranium-238 in the Earth's crust decays through a series of solid radioactive intermediates including radium-226 to the radioactive gas radon-222, some of which, during its 3.6-day half-life, diffuses into the atmosphere. There it decays through several more steps to polonium-210, much of which, during its 138-day half-life, is washed back down to the Earth's surface, thus entering the biosphere, before finally decaying to stable lead-206..

Polonium has 33 known isotopes, all of which are radioactive. Po is an alpha emitter that has a half-life of 138.4 days; it decays directly to its stable daughter isotope, 206Pb. A milligram of 210Po emits about as many alpha particles per second as 5 grams of 226Ra...Rad F This element was the first one discovered by the Curies while they were investigating the cause of pitchblende radioactivity. In the United States, Polonium was produced as part of the Manhattan Project during World War II. It was a critical part of the implosion-type nuclear weapon design used in the Fat Man bomb on Nagasaki in 1945. Polonium and Beryllium were the key ingredients of the 'Urchin' detonator at the center of the bomb's spherical Plutonium pit...The Atomic Energy Commission and the Manhattan Project funded human experiments using polonium on 5 people at the University of Rochester between 1943 and 1947. The people were administered between 9 and 22 microcuries of Polonium to study its excretion...

8+1+4= 13/C=3...

KWC Desert Eagle .44 Magnum Spring Pistol/The Israel Military Industries Desert Eagle is a large-framed gas-operated semi-automatic pistol designed by Magnum Research in the US. Over the past 25 years MRI has been responsible for the design and development of the Desert Eagle pistol...Magnum Research has marketed various versions of the short recoil Jericho 941 pistol under the Baby Eagle and Desert Eagle Pistol names; these have no functional relationship to the Desert Eagle and bear only a moderate cosmetic resemblance...Micro Desert Eagle/The original design is licensed from a Czech company, ZVI, and its Kevin pistol..
The alpha particles emitted by polonium can be converted to neutrons using beryllium oxide, at a rate of 93 neutrons per million alpha particles. Thus Po-BeO mixtures or alloys are used as a neutron source, for example in a neutron trigger or initiator for nuclear weapons and for inspections of oil wells...Notably, the murder of Alexander Litvinenko, a Russian dissident, in 2006 was announced as due to 210Po poisoning . According to Prof. Nick Priest of Middlesex University, an environmental toxicologist and radiation expert, speaking on Sky News on 2/12, Litvinenko was probably the first person ever to die of the acute α-radiation effects of 210Po. However, according to William Dunkerley, a senior fellow at the American University in Moscow, the London coroner has yet to rule that polonium was actually the cause of Litvinenko's death, or that he was even a victim of homicide...
lightgiver is offline   Reply With Quote