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I'm looking for a copy of Kardashev, Nikolai (1985). "On the Inevitability and the Possible Structures of Supercivilizations" 

 

The only e copy I can find is £42 . I'm rubbish at bypassing and getting these free download books but if one of guys and girls could help I would be enormously grateful.

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On the inevitability and the possible structures of supercivilizations

Kardashev, N. S.

 

Abstract

Since civilizations face always problems that require continuously greater activity, it is likely that supercivilizations will undertake activities and construct structures of a very large scale. Properties and means of detections of such superstructures and activities are discussed. The author also examines six possible scenarios on the evolution of civilizations.

 

Publication:

IN: The search for extraterrestrial life: Recent developments; Proceedings of the Symposium, Boston, MA, June 18-21, 1984 (A86-38126 17-88). Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1985, p. 497-504.

Pub Date:

1985

 

Link to full article if that is what you wanted?

http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1985IAUS..112..497K

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42 minutes ago, lake said:

On the inevitability and the possible structures of supercivilizations

Kardashev, N. S.

 

Abstract

Since civilizations face always problems that require continuously greater activity, it is likely that supercivilizations will undertake activities and construct structures of a very large scale. Properties and means of detections of such superstructures and activities are discussed. The author also examines six possible scenarios on the evolution of civilizations.

 

Publication:

IN: The search for extraterrestrial life: Recent developments; Proceedings of the Symposium, Boston, MA, June 18-21, 1984 (A86-38126 17-88). Dordrecht, D. Reidel Publishing Co., 1985, p. 497-504.

Pub Date:

1985

 

Link to full article if that is what you wanted?

http://articles.adsabs.harvard.edu/pdf/1985IAUS..112..497K

Thanks @lake I did search but could only find paywall versions. Fantastic.

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