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Gut Microbes Can Also Help You Heal Faster And Avoid Fatty Liver Disease

By Shyla Cadogan

The human gut is integral to just about every part of the body, but especially our immune system when you consider that roughly 70 percent of it lies within the gut. In a surprising discovery, Harvard Medical researchers are demonstrating how gut microbes fuel our immune systems to heal muscle injuries.

T cells are a type of white blood cell that help protect the body from invasive germs and infection. Researchers found that gut bacteria powers specific cells called regulatory T cells (Tregs). The main function of these cells is to go around the body and respond to stressors found at injury sites in order to heal them.

“Our observations indicate that gut microbes drive the production of a class of regulatory T cells that are constantly exiting the gut and act as sentries that sense damage at distant sites in the body and then act as emissaries to repair that damage,” says study senior author Diane Mathis, professor of immunology in the Blavatnik Institute at Harvard Medical School, in a university release.
 

Study authors say Tregs are highly specialized cells that have unique roles to play in the body. In the gut, they play an active role in gut health maintenance. They help protect against food allergens, autoimmune diseases like colitis, and even colorectal cancer. It’s also well-understood that gut microbes are heavily implicated in gut immunity through Treg production, but there is minimal evidence about what Tregs do to tissues outside of the gut.

So, when the team found similarly-structured cells in the muscles, they were pretty surprised.

“I stumbled upon some cells that looked very similar, and had all the same features of Tregs that derive from the gut,” says study first author Bola Hanna, a research fellow in immunology at Harvard Medical School. “This caught our attention because we know these cells are produced in the gut and are shaped by the microbita.”

Fewer microbes leads to more scars after an injury

This prompted the team to answer the question of why these cells would be here, using animal models. To do this, researchers first had to make sure that the Tregs found within the muscle tissue were actually from the gut. The scientists analyzed the molecular structure and confirmed their identity. They then tagged the Tregs with light and followed them as they moved around the bodies of mice. They found that the cells left the gut lining and moved to other parts of the body. Finally, they examined the surface receptors of the Tregs for antigens, which is a barcode unique to the cells.

“The immune cells we had found in the muscle shared the same barcodes with the equivalent Treg cells in the gut,” Hanna reports.

 

While monitoring the healing process, the team found that genetically modified mice lacking these Tregs had slower muscle recovery than those who had them. They examined this more closely and found that these mice had more inflammation at the injury site. Even once they did heal, they had scarring or fibrosis. This indicates that the muscle didn’t heal well. To see if gut bacteria played a role in this, the team fed mice antibiotics to kill their beneficial gut bacteria. They found that these mice also had a difficult time with muscle repair. Once their gut flora was back to normal, they were able to heal better.

“It is well known that antibiotics can eradicate beneficial gut microbes as collateral damage of their main function, which is to kill harmful bacteria,” Mathis says. “Our results further underscore the importance of judicious antibiotic use, which is important for many reasons that go well beyond muscle recovery.”

 

These microbes also protect against organ damage

Finally, the team wanted to see if this relationship could be seen more generally as well. They looked for traces of gut Tregs in various organs such as the liver, kidneys, and spleen — all of which contain intestinal Tregs, but in smaller amounts. To conduct this experiment, the team induced fatty liver disease in a group of mice because the disease can result in liver scarring, cell death, and organ damage. The researchers discovered that mice with fatty livers have higher levels of colonic Tregs than those with healthy livers, implying that these cells can regulate inflammation in places besides the gut.

The researchers think that this area of research is worth exploring much more in-depth, as it could help pave the way for new treatments with different mechanisms that promote using healthy gut microbes — not just for protecting the gut itself, but for healing external injuries and fatty livers.

The findings are published in the journal Immunity.

 

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Kimchi Recipe

 

INGREDIENTS
        1 medium head napa cabbage (about 2 pounds)
        1/4 cup iodine-free sea salt or kosher salt (see Recipe Notes)
        Water, preferably distilled or filtered
        1 tablespoon grated garlic (5 to 6 cloves)
        1 teaspoon grated peeled fresh ginger
        1 teaspoon granulated sugar
        2 tablepoons fish sauce or salted shrimp paste, or 3 tablespoons water
        1 to 5 tablespoons Korean red pepper flakes (gochugaru)
        8 ounces Korean radish or daikon radish, peeled and cut into matchsticks
        4 medium scallions, trimmed and cut into 1-inch pieces

SHOP RECIPE

EQUIPMENT
        Cutting board and knife
        Large bowl
        Gloves (optional but highly recommended)
        Plate and something to weigh the kimchi down, like a jar or can of beans
        Colander
        Clean 1-quart jar with canning lid or plastic lid
        Bowl or plate to place under jar during fermentation
INSTRUCTIONS
        Cut the cabbage. Cut the cabbage lengthwise through the stem into quarters. Cut the cores from each piece. Cut each quarter crosswise into 2-inch-wide strips.
        Salt the cabbage. Place the cabbage in a large bowl and sprinkle with the salt. Using your hands, massage the salt into the cabbage until it starts to soften a bit. Add enough water to cover the cabbage. Put a plate on top of the cabbage and weigh it down with something heavy, like a jar or can of beans. Let stand for 1 to 2 hours.
        Rinse and drain the cabbage. Rinse the cabbage under cold water 3 times. Set aside to drain in a colander for 15 to 20 minutes. Meanwhile, make the spice paste.
        Make the spice paste. Rinse and dry the bowl you used for salting. Add the garlic, ginger, sugar, and fish sauce, shrimp paste, or water and stir into a smooth paste. Stir in the gochugaru, using 1 tablespoon for mild and up to 5 tablespoons for spicy (I like about 3 1/2 tablespoons); set aside until the cabbage is ready.
        Combine the vegetables and spice paste. Gently squeeze any remaining water from the cabbage and add it to the spice paste. Add the radish and scallions.
        Mix thoroughly. Using your hands, gently work the paste into the vegetables until they are thoroughly coated. The gloves are optional here but highly recommended to protect your hands from stings, stains, and smells!
        Pack the kimchi into the jar. Pack the kimchi into a 1-quart jar. Press down on the kimchi until the brine (the liquid that comes out) rises to cover the vegetables, leaving at least 1 inch of space at the top. Seal the jar.
        Let it ferment for 1 to 5 days. Place a bowl or plate under the jar to help catch any overflow. Let the jar stand at cool room temperature, out of direct sunlight, for 1 to 5 days. You may see bubbles inside the jar and brine may seep out of the lid.
        Check it daily and refrigerate when ready. Check the kimchi once a day, opening the jar and pressing down on the vegetables with a clean finger or spoon to keep them submerged under the brine. (This also releases gases produced during fermentation.) Taste a little at this point, too! When the kimchi tastes ripe enough for your liking, transfer the jar to the refrigerator. You may eat it right away, but it's best after another week or two.
RECIPE NOTES
Salt: Use salt that is free of iodine and anti-caking agents, which can inhibit fermentation.
Water: Chlorinated water can inhibit fermentation, so use spring, distilled, or filtered water if you can.
Seafood flavor and vegetarian alternatives: Seafood gives kimchi an umami flavor. Different regions and families may use fish sauce, salted shrimp paste, oysters, and other seafood. Use about 2 tablespoons of fish sauce, salted shrimp paste, or a combination of the two. For vegetarian kimchi, I like using 3/4 teaspoon kelp powder mixed with 3 tablespoons water, or simply 3 tablespoons of water.
Storage: Kimchi can be refrigerated for up to a few months. Use clean utensils each time to extract the kimchi from the jar.

 

Sauerkraut Recipe 

 

INGREDIENTS
        1 medium head green cabbage (about 3 pounds)
        1 1/2 tablespoons kosher salt
        1 tablespoon caraway seeds (optional, for flavor)

SHOP RECIPE
Powered by Chicory

EQUIPMENT
        Cutting board
        Chef's knife
        Mixing bowl
        2-quart wide-mouth canning jar (or 2 quart mason jars)
        Canning funnel (optional)
        Smaller jelly jar that fits inside the larger mason jar
        Clean stones, marbles, or other weights for weighing the jelly jar down
        Cloth for covering the jar, such as cheesecloth
        Rubber band or twine for securing the cloth
INSTRUCTIONS
        Clean everything. When fermenting anything, it's best to give the good, beneficial bacteria every chance of succeeding by starting off with as clean an environment as possible. Make sure your mason jar and jelly jar are washed and rinsed of all soap residue. You'll be using your hands to massage the salt into the cabbage, so give those a good wash, too.
        Slice the cabbage. Discard the wilted, limp outer leaves of the cabbage. Cut the cabbage into quarters and trim out the core. Slice each quarter down its length, making 8 wedges. Slice each wedge crosswise into very thin ribbons.
        Combine the cabbage and salt. Transfer the cabbage to a big bowl and sprinkle the salt over top. Begin working the salt into the cabbage by massaging and squeezing the cabbage with your hands. At first it might not seem like enough salt, but gradually the cabbage will become watery and limp — more like coleslaw than raw cabbage. This will take 5 to 10 minutes. If you'd like to flavor your sauerkraut with caraway seeds, mix them in now.
        Pack the cabbage into the jar. Grab handfuls of the cabbage and pack them into the canning jar. If you have a canning funnel, this will make the job easier. Every so often, tamp down the cabbage in the jar with your fist. Pour any liquid released by the cabbage while you were massaging it into the jar. Optional: Place one of the larger outer leaves of the cabbage over the surface of the sliced cabbage. This will help keep the cabbage submerged in its liquid.
        Weigh the cabbage down. Once all the cabbage is packed into the mason jar, slip the smaller jelly jar into the mouth of the jar and weigh it down with clean stones or marbles. This will help keep the cabbage weighed down, and eventually, submerged beneath its liquid. 
        Cover the jar. Cover the mouth of the mason jar with a cloth and secure it with a rubber band or twine. This allows air to flow in and out of the jar, but prevents dust or insects from getting into the jar.
        Press the cabbage every few hours. Over the next 24 hours, press down on the cabbage every so often with the jelly jar. As the cabbage releases its liquid, it will become more limp and compact and the liquid will rise over the top of the cabbage.
        Add extra liquid, if needed. If after 24 hours, the liquid has not risen above the cabbage, dissolve 1 teaspoon of salt in 1 cup of water and add enough to submerge the cabbage.
        Ferment the cabbage for 3 to 10 days. As it's fermenting, keep the sauerkraut away from direct sunlight and at a cool room temperature — ideally 65°F to 75°F. Check it daily and press it down if the cabbage is floating above the liquid.Because this is a small batch of sauerkraut, it will ferment more quickly than larger batches. Start tasting it after 3 days — when the sauerkraut tastes good to you, remove the weight, screw on the cap, and refrigerate. You can also allow the sauerkraut to continue fermenting for 10 days or even longer. There's no hard-and-fast rule for when the sauerkraut is "done" — go by how it tastes.While it's fermenting, you may see bubbles coming through the cabbage, foam on the top, or white scum. These are all signs of a healthy, happy fermentation process. The scum can be skimmed off the top either during fermentation or before refrigerating. If you see any mold, skim it off immediately and make sure your cabbage is fully submerged; don't eat moldy parts close to the surface, but the rest of the sauerkraut is fine.
        Store sauerkraut for several months. This sauerkraut is a fermented product so it will keep for at least two months and often longer if kept refrigerated. As long as it still tastes and smells good to eat, it will be. If you like, you can transfer the sauerkraut to a smaller container for longer storage.
RECIPE NOTES
Sauerkraut with other cabbages: Red cabbage, napa cabbage, and other cabbages all make great sauerkraut. Make individual batches or mix them up for a multi-colored sauerkraut!
Canning sauerkraut: You can process sauerkraut for longer storage outside of refrigeration, but the canning process will kill the good bacterias produced by the fermentation process. See this tutorial from the National Center for Home Food Preservation for canning instructions.
Larger or smaller batches: To make larger or smaller batches of sauerkraut, keep the same ratio of cabbage to salt and adjust the size of the container. Smaller batches will ferment more quickly and larger batches will take longer.
Hot and cold temperatures: Do everything you can to store sauerkraut at a cool room temperature. At high temperatures, the sauerkraut can sometimes become unappetizingly mushy or go bad. Low temperatures (above freezing) are fine, but fermentation will proceed more slowly.
 

Pickled Fermented Carrot Recipe 

 

INGREDIENTS
        1 pound carrots, peeled and sliced 1/4-inch thick
        1 tablespoon peeled and thinly sliced galangal or fresh ginger
        1 tablespoon grated lime zest (absolutely no white pith)
        2 teaspoons pickling salt

SHOP RECIPE
Powered by Chicory

INSTRUCTIONS
        Pack the carrots, galangal, and lime zest in a 1-quart mason jar (or 2 pint jars), leaving 1 inch of headspace at the top, and set aside.
        Combine the pickling salt and 2 cups of water in a nonreactive saucepan and heat to dissolve. Cool to room temperature.
        Ladle the liquid into the jar, leaving 1/2 inch of headspace and completely covering the carrots. Cover the top of the jar with a square of cheesecloth and secure it with the jar’s band. Place the jar in a dark spot that hovers between 65°F and 75°F, and leave it for 5 days, checking daily to remove any white mold that accumulates on top.
        Remove the cheesecloth, cap the jar with the regular lid, and place in the fridge. Use it within a week.
RECIPE NOTES
→ Check out Hugh's book! The Broad Fork by Hugh Acheson
Reprinted with permission from The Broad Fork by Hugh Acheson, copyright © 2015. Published by Clarkson Potter.

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15 hours ago, LastOneLeftInTheCounty said:

Indeed, I think I’ve said this on another thread, but butter, olive oils, some veg oils, nut oils and animal fats are high in saturated fats which as you’ve said are extremely good for you. Fake fats such as margarine, flora and the like are quite harmful, allegedly they are one molecule away from being plastic.

Fake oils such as Crisp n’ Dry are also quite harmful. They are something called Polysiloxane which is the main substance found in breast implants. Very nice eh?

 

Yes I’ve heard the same as you, although I read somewhere that flaxseed oil mixed with cottage cheese is an effective cancer treatment. 
 

Mediterranean diets are very good, it’s the fish and olive oil and greens, all synergistic pushing optimal oxygen filled cell and blood production. 

 

I've seen a few people online saying one should eat butter rather than margarine, but if one cannot eat butter due to intolerances due to the milk proteins and lactose, then margarine it has to be. Not all margarines are bad. I buy Tescos vegan olive margarine. But to cook with I use olive oil or sunflower. 

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8 hours ago, itsnotallrightjack said:

 

I've seen a few people online saying one should eat butter rather than margarine, but if one cannot eat butter due to intolerances due to the milk proteins and lactose, then margarine it has to be. Not all margarines are bad. I buy Tescos vegan olive margarine. But to cook with I use olive oil or sunflower. 

 

I've started using olive oil instead of butter or marge on my sandwiches. Took a bit of getting used to, but I'm fine with it now. Doesn't need to be an expensive type either. 

As an aside, I'm also trying a small amount of olive oil as moisturiser, after I looked at all the crazy ingredients in a regular moisturiser. 

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4 hours ago, Campion said:

 

I've started using olive oil instead of butter or marge on my sandwiches. Took a bit of getting used to, but I'm fine with it now. Doesn't need to be an expensive type either. 

As an aside, I'm also trying a small amount of olive oil as moisturiser, after I looked at all the crazy ingredients in a regular moisturiser. 

Me too, another nice bit of synchronicity! I found some old honey comb from a deserted bee hive the other day, boiled it down in water in an old t shirt to strain out the crap, got a lovely yellow round of beeswax after it cooled, melted that down with olive oil, coconut oil and a couple of drops of essential oils and hey presto! Organic beeswax moisturiser/ hair gel/ deodorant. 
The mistake I made was adding essential oils, got a red skin reaction from it so can’t use it on my skin, so will make do as hair wax. Oh well, you gotta experiment with these things so you learn from your mistakes 

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15 hours ago, Campion said:

 

I've started using olive oil instead of butter or marge on my sandwiches. Took a bit of getting used to, but I'm fine with it now. Doesn't need to be an expensive type either. 

As an aside, I'm also trying a small amount of olive oil as moisturiser, after I looked at all the crazy ingredients in a regular moisturiser. 

 

If you have baguettes, Italian style bread, crusty sort of breads, especially when warm, olive oil drizzled onto those can work well. In the Med they dip those sorts of breads into olive oil. 

 

Olive oil is a bit thick for a moisturiser. I recommend argan oil. I use that to moisturise my face and it is very gentle and a little goes a long way.

Edited by itsnotallrightjack
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11 hours ago, LastOneLeftInTheCounty said:

Me too, another nice bit of synchronicity! I found some old honey comb from a deserted bee hive the other day, boiled it down in water in an old t shirt to strain out the crap, got a lovely yellow round of beeswax after it cooled, melted that down with olive oil, coconut oil and a couple of drops of essential oils and hey presto! Organic beeswax moisturiser/ hair gel/ deodorant. 
The mistake I made was adding essential oils, got a red skin reaction from it so can’t use it on my skin, so will make do as hair wax. Oh well, you gotta experiment with these things so you learn from your mistakes 

 

If you want to use an essential oil in a home made deodorant lavender is the best- it is gentle and a couple of drops would work. Best to follow a recipe online- there's loads of women making home made natural products these days. I buy one off a small business on ebay. 

 

 

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On 3/5/2023 at 4:30 PM, LastOneLeftInTheCounty said:

Just made my first ever batch of pate. Made over 1kg for £6 ingredients. 
A little bit of cognac, onions, sage, lemon thyme, cloves, cinnamon, garlic, whole pack of unsalted butter, chicken livers. 
Instantly felt stronger after eating. Delicious 

True - it's easy to make a pate. Unfortunately livers in UK are surprisingly expensive... In Poland it was rather waste or food for animals and really cheap... 😁

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5 hours ago, alexa said:

 

I used to fry chips in olive oil until I read, when you over heat olive oil it becomes toxic :classic_ohmy:

 

I fry my chips in a good old-fashioned chip pan using lard or beef dripping. Have done all my life with no ill effects and better than any other chips I've tasted.

 

 

I never use olive oil. If I make an omelette I fry it in a small amount of butter.

 

 

 

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1 hour ago, Human10 said:

True - it's easy to make a pate. Unfortunately livers in UK are surprisingly expensive... In Poland it was rather waste or food for animals and really cheap... 😁

chicken livers were £1.75 a pack, used two packs.

Was slightly concerned about all the antibiotics and gm feed that got filtered through those livers throughout the chickens lifespan, but threw caution to the wind as I needed the iron and minerals liver provides 

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On 3/5/2023 at 4:30 PM, LastOneLeftInTheCounty said:

Just made my first ever batch of pate. Made over 1kg for £6 ingredients. 
A little bit of cognac, onions, sage, lemon thyme, cloves, cinnamon, garlic, whole pack of unsalted butter, chicken livers. 
Instantly felt stronger after eating. Delicious 

When I was camping in the Alpujarra's in Spain I had many strange types of Tapas, even fried chicken feet, they tasted  bit like scratchings, as in pork scratchings! The British, as a  race used to be well known until fairly recent times to have the attitude 'Urrgg I couldn't eat that foreign muck' but with the advent of 'Takeaways' springing up al over the place and access to all manner of different cultural foods, things have gotten better! I knew a bus driver who worked at my garage who was about forty five before he tried his first Indian curry, it was his first, and last time, he went back to his fish and chips from the chippie opposite the bus garage here on my estate! I told him we used to eat sheep's heads from the butcher when I was a kid, and granddad always insisted they left the eyes in, 'just to see us through the week'!👍 But we did eat 'pig's trotters'

{called Cruibin in Ireland} chitterlings' 'pigs tails' 'brawn' and other concoctions with no ill effects whatsoever! There was a local saying in my area of the Midlands 'you can eat everything on a pig except the squeal'!

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9 minutes ago, Mr Crabtree said:

When I was camping in the Alpujarra's in Spain I had many strange types of Tapas, even fried chicken feet, they tasted  bit like scratchings, as in pork scratchings! The British, as a  race used to be well known until fairly recent times to have the attitude 'Urrgg I couldn't eat that foreign muck' but with the advent of 'Takeaways' springing up al over the place and access to all manner of different cultural foods, things have gotten better! I knew a bus driver who worked at my garage who was about forty five before he tried his first Indian curry, it was his first, and last time, he went back to his fish and chips from the chippie opposite the bus garage here on my estate! I told him we used to eat sheep's heads from the butcher when I was a kid, and granddad always insisted they left the eyes in, 'just to see us through the week'!👍 But we did eat 'pig's trotters'

{called Cruibin in Ireland} chitterlings' 'pigs tails' 'brawn' and other concoctions with no ill effects whatsoever! There was a local saying in my area of the Midlands 'you can eat everything on a pig except the squeal'!

trotters2.jpg.0047f1aebe919bc07da8da9b1d35467c.jpgtrotter4.jpg.92d3e95dd36d24ea255341f2de15114d.jpgtrotter5.jpg.d83a4b97378349dc49c73d6e95d89907.jpgtrotter3.jpg.b2b1363975e5bf998f0a5b0876bbd733.jpg

Headcheese brawn tastes gooood although I’ve stopped eating pork for the past couple of years, something I heard about a pigs vascular system harbours all sorts of parasites and bacteria, probably why js and mus won’t eat them! I agree people are too fussy nowadays, they’ll soon come to realise that this way of eating will be commonplace in the future as they’ll literally have no choice.

I won’t try intestines ‘chitlins’, heard the same from a lot of people- even when properly washed they still taste a bit shitty. Traditional sausage cases are the same material but there’s better meat inside a sausage to hide the flavour! Mmmmmm yummy

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On 3/6/2023 at 4:20 AM, itsnotallrightjack said:

 

I've seen a few people online saying one should eat butter rather than margarine, but if one cannot eat butter due to intolerances due to the milk proteins and lactose, then margarine it has to be. Not all margarines are bad. I buy Tescos vegan olive margarine. But to cook with I use olive oil or sunflower. 

 

Have you tried a Goat's butter?

Magarines are so bad, transfat and all that. Some are recycled. 🤮

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On 3/5/2023 at 4:30 PM, LastOneLeftInTheCounty said:

Just made my first ever batch of pate. Made over 1kg for £6 ingredients. 
A little bit of cognac, onions, sage, lemon thyme, cloves, cinnamon, garlic, whole pack of unsalted butter, chicken livers. 
Instantly felt stronger after eating. Delicious 

 

Did you make a smooth or corse type?

 

At the moment, I am having to make a lot of stuff due to change of my dietary requuirement.

Whole lot of new learning to do as I need to find recipes for gluten free stuff. 😫

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4 minutes ago, alexa said:

 

Yep, it's delicious, but expensive.

 

It's like gluten free bread will set you back for like nearly £4 a loaf. 😵

I bought some rice flour, organic psyillium husks and xanthum gum...... 😔 I'm gonna try a pizza base later.

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3 minutes ago, DaleP said:

 

Did you make a smooth or corse type?

 

At the moment, I am having to make a lot of stuff due to change of my dietary requuirement.

Whole lot of new learning to do as I need to find recipes for gluten free stuff. 😫

Smooooth maan. 
After sautéing the liver has to cool in a sieve then refrigerated. Then whizz it up in a blender adding a whole pack of melted unsalted butter, adjust seasoning then whack it in a container, pour more melted butter on top as a seal, refrigerate overnight, divide into 250g blocks, keep one out to eat, freeze the other 3. Jobs a good un. Considering the price of pate it’s well worth the effort and tastes better than m and s or waitroses stuff. 

I imagine going gluten free is extremely difficult, there’s lots of gluten free products on the market but they’re quite expensive. Looks like it’s meat and five veg for you then…

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8 minutes ago, DaleP said:

 

It's like gluten free bread will set you back for like nearly £4 a loaf. 😵

I bought some rice flour, organic psyillium husks and xanthum gum...... 😔 I'm gonna try a pizza base later.

If your using traditional yeast as a levening agent then make the dough as wet as possible without it being too gloopy. Wet dough gets fluffy and light as the water molecules expand and steam out. 
Sounds nice, try some Mediterranean flavours with chorizo, red onions, red peppers, smoked paprika, oregano and rosemary 👍

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17 minutes ago, DaleP said:

I bought some rice flour, organic psyillium husks and xanthum gum...... 😔 I'm gonna try a pizza base later.

 

Have you tried making Keto bread ? You can make it with either rice, coconut or almond flour.

 

 

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I think olive oil and good honey have pretty magical properties. There was an experiment on cholesterol where half of a group of people were told to have 1 dessertspoon of uncooked olive oil per day - any olive oil not just cold pressed virgin! The other half had the same of rapeseed oil, which is molecularly identical to olive. After a few months the olive oilers did far better and lowered their cholesterol significantly. Hence, I have since chucked dow a spoonful of the stuff each day and have good cholesterol levels.

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11 hours ago, LastOneLeftInTheCounty said:

chicken livers were £1.75 a pack, used two packs.

Was slightly concerned about all the antibiotics and gm feed that got filtered through those livers throughout the chickens lifespan, but threw caution to the wind as I needed the iron and minerals liver provides 

Might be better off with lamb's liver as sheep are more likely to be "free range"

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19 hours ago, LastOneLeftInTheCounty said:

Smooooth maan. 
After sautéing the liver has to cool in a sieve then refrigerated. Then whizz it up in a blender adding a whole pack of melted unsalted butter, adjust seasoning then whack it in a container, pour more melted butter on top as a seal, refrigerate overnight, divide into 250g blocks, keep one out to eat, freeze the other 3. Jobs a good un. Considering the price of pate it’s well worth the effort and tastes better than m and s or waitroses stuff. 

I imagine going gluten free is extremely difficult, there’s lots of gluten free products on the market but they’re quite expensive. Looks like it’s meat and five veg for you then…

 

I was thinking 1kg of pate is a lot but if you can freeze then that makes sense. Less hassle.

Never been very fond of liver since young but I had had some pate every now and then. Lucky for me, I love making stuff so I might try an organic version one day.

Sounds easy enough

 

Flour in a lot of stuff like sauces, coating, soup etc.... I think coming off of ciggy, drinks and drugs was easier because gluten is virtually in everything except...yes meat and veg.

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