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    Earth's Moon

    Sept. 2, 2020

    The Moon Is Rusting, and Researchers Want to Know Why

    The Moon as viewed by NASA's Mariner 10 in 1973, well before research would find signs of rust on the airless surface.

    Credits: NASA/JPL/Northwestern University

    Full image and caption

    While our Moon is airless, research indicates the presence of hematite, a form of rust that normally requires oxygen and water. That has scientists puzzled.

    Mars has long been known for its rust. Iron on its surface, combined with water and oxygen from the ancient past, give the Red Planet its hue. But scientists were recently surprised to find evidence that our airless Moon has rust on it as well.

    A new paper in Science Advances reviews data from the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 orbiter, which discovered water ice and mapped out a variety of minerals while surveying the Moon's surface in 2008. Lead author Shuai Li of the University of Hawaii has studied that water extensively in data from Chandrayaan-1's Moon Mineralogy Mapper instrument, or M3, which was built by NASA's Jet Propulsion Laboratory in Southern California. Water interacts with rock to produce a diversity of minerals, and M3 detected spectra – or light reflected off surfaces – that revealed the Moon's poles had a very different composition than the rest of it.

    The blue areas in this composite image from the Moon Mineralogy Mapper (M3) aboard the Indian Space Research Organization's Chandrayaan-1 orbiter show water concentrated at the Moon's poles. Homing in on the spectra of rocks there, researcher found signs of hematite, a form of rust.

    Credits: ISRO/NASA/JPL-Caltech/Brown University/USGS

    Full image and caption

    Intrigued, Li homed in on these polar spectra. While the Moon's surface is littered with iron-rich rocks, he nevertheless was surprised to find a close match with the spectral signature of hematite. The mineral is a form of iron oxide, or rust, produced when iron is exposed to oxygen and water. But the Moon isn't supposed to have oxygen or liquid water, so how can it be rusting?

    Metal Mystery

    The mystery starts with the solar wind, a stream of charged particles that flows out from the Sun, bombarding Earth and the Moon with hydrogen. Hydrogen makes it harder for hematite to form. It's what is known as a reducer, meaning it adds electrons to the materials it interacts with. That's the opposite of what is needed to make hematite: For iron to rust, it requires an oxidizer, which removes electrons. And while the Earth has a magnetic field shielding it from this hydrogen, the Moon does not.

    "It's very puzzling," Li said. "The Moon is a terrible environment for hematite to form in." So he turned to JPL scientists Abigail Fraeman and Vivian Sun to help poke at M3's data and confirm his discovery of hematite.

    "At first, I totally didn't believe it. It shouldn't exist based on the conditions present on the Moon," Fraeman said. "But since we discovered water on the Moon, people have been speculating that there could be a greater variety of minerals than we realize if that water had reacted with rocks."

    After taking a close look, Fraeman and Sun became convinced M3's data does indeed indicate the presence of hematite at the lunar poles. "In the end, the spectra were convincingly hematite-bearing, and there needed to be an explanation for why it's on the Moon," Sun said.

    Three Key Ingredients

    Their paper offers a three-pronged model to explain how rust might form in such an environment. For starters, while the Moon lacks an atmosphere, it is in fact home to trace amounts of oxygen. The source of that oxygen: our planet. Earth's magnetic field trails behind the planet like a windsock. In 2007, Japan's Kaguya orbiter discovered that oxygen from Earth's upper atmosphere can hitch a ride on this trailing magnetotail, as it's officially known, traveling the 239,000 miles (385,00 kilometers) to the Moon.

    That discovery fits with data from M3, which found more hematite on the Moon's Earth-facing near side than on its far side. "This suggested that Earth's oxygen could be driving the formation of hematite," Li said. The Moon has been inching away from Earth for billions of years, so it's also possible that more oxygen hopped across this rift when the two were closer in the ancient past.

    Then there's the matter of all that hydrogen being delivered by the solar wind. As a reducer, hydrogen should prevent oxidation from occurring. But Earth's magnetotail has a mediating effect. Besides ferrying oxygen to the Moon from our home planet, it also blocks over 99% of the solar wind during certain periods of the Moon's orbit (specifically, whenever it's in the full Moon phase). That opens occasional windows during the lunar cycle when rust can form.

    The third piece of the puzzle is water. While most of the Moon is bone dry, water ice can be found in shadowed lunar craters on the Moon's far side. But the hematite was detected far from that ice. The paper instead focuses on water molecules found in the lunar surface. Li proposes that fast-moving dust particles that regularly pelt the Moon could release these surface-borne water molecules, mixing them with iron in the lunar soil. Heat from these impacts could increase the oxidation rate; the dust particles themselves may also be carrying water molecules, implanting them into the surface so that they mix with iron. During just the right moments – namely, when the Moon is shielded from the solar wind and oxygen is present – a rust-inducing chemical reaction could occur.

    More data is needed to determine exactly how the water is interacting with rock. That data could also help explain another mystery: why smaller quantities of hematite are also forming on the far side of the Moon, where the Earth's oxygen shouldn't be able to reach it.

    More Science to Come

    Fraeman said this model may also explain hematite found on other airless bodies like asteroids. "It could be that little bits of water and the impact of dust particles are allowing iron in these bodies to rust," she said.

    Li noted that it's an exciting time for lunar science. Almost 50 years since the last Apollo landing, the Moon is a major destination again. NASA plans to send dozens of new instruments and technology experiments to study the Moon beginning next year, followed by human missions beginning in 2024 all as part of the Artemis program.

    JPL is also building a new version of M3 for an orbiter called Lunar Trailblazer. One of its instruments, the High-resolution Volatiles and Minerals Moon Mapper (HVM3), will be mapping water ice in permanently shadowed craters on the Moon, and may be able to reveal new details about hematite as well.

    "I think these results indicate that there are more complex chemical processes happening in our solar system than have been previously recognized," Sun said. "We can understand them better by sending future missions to the Moon to test these hypotheses."

    Andrew Good
    Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Pasadena, Calif.
    [email protected]

    Alana Johnson / Grey Hautaluoma
    NASA Headquarters, Washington
    202-672-4780 / 202-358-0668
    [email protected] / [email protected]


    Last Updated: Sept. 4, 2020

    Editor: Tony Greicius

    Tags:  Earth's Moon, Solar System

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    • Like 1
  2. Why on earth have they bought 350 million doses of the vaccine for at best 140 million vaccinations 🤔????? 70 million people x 2 does not 350 million vaccines make. It's scrolling along under that tony Blair piers Morgan interview uncommented on.

    • Like 1
  3. 1 hour ago, Bombadil said:

    Just showed my misses this article. She can remember having a similar type vaccination in Italy as a child. She thinks she was probably six or seven years old. So about 33 years ago. 
    said a pen looking injector with multiple points pressed onto body then covered with wired type plaster. Not remotely like standard. Left a circular imprint/mark on body to show vaccination had been done.

    I think that was probably the Tuberculosis antibody test

    • Like 1
  4. 12 hours ago, Bombadil said:

    I was thinking about this for a while now. Originally they said there would be a three week gap between first and second vaccinations. All of a sudden it was said now twelve weeks was necessary and would not affect the overall vaccination process of an individual. 
    Now if there is something nefarious that will be activated by the second vaccine. I have no doubt somethings in it. A three week gap would potentially mean visible effects appearing before enough have been vaccinated at least once. Obviously in twelve weeks a massively larger proportion of people would be on their way, so to speak. This would mean more are irreversibly compromised by the second vaccination. This benefits the agenda in every way. Once you’ve had it there’s no going back.

    Would not be surprised if they suggest an even longer period between both vaccinations.

    Mother in law's just had her second jab today. I'll let you know what happens, if anything.


    • Like 1
  5. On 12/27/2020 at 7:29 PM, JohnB said:

    In reference to Basket Case's post, for Bill Gates to go to jail it would still have to be shown beyond reasonable doubt that he knowingly or recklessly killed, maimed and crippled thousands of Indian and African children. But if we're talking about balance of probabilities in a civil case it's a different matter.

    Wonder where that stands with the corporate homicide and manslaughter laws. Genuine pondering question 

  6. 9 hours ago, peter said:

    I just got hold of the book Ingo Swan recommended by Fred Steckling ( we discovered Alien bases on the moon),I managed to pick it up for half  what people were asking , still expensive though so I hope it's worth it

    I think so. I really rate Ingo. One of the few who actually tried to teach others and not 'Lord it over ' them 

  7. 1 hour ago, Noctua said:

    The problem with all their superlatives (Tier 5, super mutant strain, long-covid) in the media is that people eventually become immune to it.  There is only so much fear a human psyche can take before it starts to shut down and compartmentalize.


    This sensationalist reporting is getting further and further into the downright bizarre.  When a newspaper resorts to having to put part of it's headline in capitals to accentuate importance, you know it's struggling for news.


    A real pandemic would result in muted headlines this far down the line.  We'd be so petrified of the mounting body count that they'd be no need for sensationalism.  Quite the opposite, in fact.  The government, media and health professionals would be attempting to keep up our spirits and find optimism in the face of adversity.

    No more likes but 👏👏👏👏👏

    • Like 1
  8. As many of us here know this has just been the test run before what Bill Gates calls 'pandemic 2' starts. For the first time I'm now seeing pandemic 2 flagged in the MSM.


    Guardian today.


    The Guardian


    WHO warns Covid-19 pandemic is 'not necessarily the big one'

    Experts tell end of year media briefing that virus is likely to become endemic 


    Tue 29 Dec 2020 06.19 GMT


    World Health Organization experts have warned that even though the coronavirus pandemic has been very severe, it is “not necessarily the big one”, and that the world will have to learn to live with Covid-19.

    The “destiny” of the virus is to become endemic, even as vaccines begin to be rolled out in the US and UK, says Professor David Heymann, the chair of the WHO’s strategic and technical advisory group for infectious hazards.

    “The world has hoped for herd immunity, that somehow transmission would be decreased if enough persons were immune,” he told the WHO’s final media briefing for 2020.

    Australia insists WHO inquiry into Covid origin must be robust, despite China tensions

    Read more

    But Heymann, who is also an epidemiologist with the London School of Hygiene and Tropical Medicine, said the concept of herd immunity was misunderstood.

    “It appears the destiny of SARS-CoV-2 [Covid-19] is to become endemic, as have four other human coronaviruses, and that it will continue to mutate as it reproduces in human cells, especially in areas of more intense admission.

    “Fortunately, we have tools to save lives, and these in combination with good public health will permit us to learn to live with Covid-19.”

    The head of the WHO emergencies program, Dr Mark Ryan, said: “The likely scenario is the virus will become another endemic virus that will remain somewhat of a threat, but a very low-level threat in the context of an effective global vaccination program.

    “It remains to be seen how well the vaccines are taken up, how close we get to a coverage level that might allow us the opportunity to go for elimination,” he said. “The existence of a vaccine, even at high efficacy, is no guarantee of eliminating or eradicating an infectious disease. That is a very high bar for us to be able to get over.”

    That was why the first goal of the vaccine was to save lives and protect the vulnerable, Ryan said. “And then we will deal with the moonshot of potentially being able to eliminate or eradicate this virus.”

    Ryan warned that the next pandemic may be more severe. “This pandemic has been very severe … it has affected every corner of this planet. But this is not necessarily the big one,” he said.

    “This is a wake-up call. We are learning, now, how to do things better: science, logistics, training and governance, how to communicate better. But the planet is fragile.

    “We live in an increasingly complex global society. These threats will continue. If there is one thing we need to take from this pandemic, with all of the tragedy and loss, is we need to get our act together. We need to honour those we’ve lost by getting better at what we do every day.”

    WHO chief scientist Dr Soumya Swaminathan told the briefing that being vaccinated against the virus did not mean public health measures such as social distancing would be able to be stopped in future.

    The first role of the vaccine would be to prevent symptomatic disease, severe disease and deaths, she said. But whether the vaccines would also reduce the number of infections or prevent people from passing on the virus remains to be seen.

    Scheme to get Covid vaccine to poorer countries at 'high risk' of failure

    Read more

    “I don’t believe we have the evidence on any of the vaccines to be confident that it’s going to prevent people from actually getting the infection and therefore being able to pass it on,” Swaminathan said. “So I think we need to assume that people who have been vaccinated also need to take the same precautions.”

    The WHO director general, Tedros Adhanom Ghebreyesus, said the end of the year was a time to reflect on the toll the pandemic had taken, but also the progress made. He said the year ahead would see new setbacks and new challenges.

    “For example, new variants of Covid-19, and helping people who are tired of the pandemic continue to combat it,” he said.

    “New ground has been broken, not least with the extraordinary cooperation between the private and public sector in this pandemic. And in recent weeks, safe and effective vaccine rollout has started in a number countries, which is an incredible scientific achievement.

    “This is fantastic, but WHO will not rest until those in need everywhere have access to the new vaccines and are protected.”



    • Like 1
  9. 3 hours ago, Nemuri Kyoshiro said:

    I honestly don't know. I was told it's taking an age to get a new passport processed and that the passport office is discouraging applications 'because of Covid'.

    I've found the best response in almost all situations is completely ignore the hype and carry on as I would have previously.  Just apply. It'll come.

    • Like 1
  10. 1 hour ago, Nemuri Kyoshiro said:

    My sister lives in Menorca. She tells me that life is going on pretty much as normal there. It's a lovely place to go but I'll have to get my passport renewed. I'm told that it is not an easy thing to do these days.

    I don't think there's any difference to passports? What's changed?

  11. 3 hours ago, Martin1234 said:

    What's the likelihood of going on holiday next year? UK or abroad?


    I know people don't know for sure but thoughts?

    I've been this year. Three times to Spain. A lot of the restrictions were fear based not legal.  I intend to go back probably March time if not sooner. You might be better looking at an airbnb, rather than a hotel

  12. 11 hours ago, rideforever said:


    This is hard evidence for the shrinking of brains for species that become demesticated.

    This is what has happened to human beings for thousands of years, and in the future this will accelerate.  Humans will have smaller and smaller brains.  They are becoming much more sheeplike.  The onslaught of huge expanding populations becomes a deafening herd of sheep that it is harder to escape from.  There are sheep everywhere, there is little space to be yourself or privacy.

    Any shoots of real life are instantly mown down by the sheeple.

    It is happening already hence the movie Idiocracy - the only problem with that movie is that it is the leftwing rather than the right that is most sheeplelike.

    But ... as the world becomes more controlled the brain size will decrease, already there is no need for genitals or gender or the family or the recognition of their race history or people.

    This will continue.

    Thanks ride

    • Like 1
  13. I do like the idea of this . At several points during my working life I did employ this tactic. Specifically once when my line manager decided I was 'fair game ' and sexually harassed me then imposed work restriction after restriction and tried to dick over a promotion, tried to make me lie so he'd have something on me  etc as I wouldn't play ball (!). I could have put a harassment claim in and under that regime ruined my career or do what I did moved to another branch on a sideways move (the boss had scuppered the promotion telling lies about my work). I moved sideways ended up being promoted far far higher than I ever thought I would be and watched as this bloke got the sack 18 months later after doing the same to my friend and another woman. The difference now was everyone was wise to what he'd tried with me, my integrity proved my story, and no one believed him anymore  I am a great believer in if you cannot win the fight move yourself away from the firing line and wait until you can make sure you can actually win.

  14. 4 minutes ago, BridgeBuilder said:

    It's interesting that they are going to introduce this 'conspiracy' tech to the masses with this year's Christmas message broadcast. We wil never know if she is ill, gone or for real. I bet she will now live to be 333.  Bring on avatar and hologram. Tupac, Elvis, they are all alive. 😆


    Deepfake queen to deliver Channel 4 Christmas message


    That's really good actually on channel 4s behalf. People need to wise up. FAST.

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